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younger boys are concerned, are also included | Christ's Hospital is varied according to circumstances. English grammar, reading, and spelling. Every In the writing school are taught pénmanship, arithThursday and Saturday the boys are instructed and metic, book-keeping, the drawing of invoices, and examined in the duties of religion, through the other matters of a mercantile nature: in the grammar medium of the Church Catechism, Crossman's In- schools, upper and lower, are taught the English, troduction, and similar works; and the Holy Scrip- Latio, and Greek languages, in a strictly grammatical tures are read at stated periods in all the wards. form, together with Hebrew and mathematics to those

These regulations relate principally to the lower occupying the Grecian and Deputy Grecian forms; forms. The upper school, which is under the im- while in the mathematical school are taught all those mediate superintendence of the first, or head-classical | branches of knowledge which are connected with the master, consists of seventy boys. As vacancies occur naval profession, in this number, they are filled up from the lower The regulations as to hours are, we believe, as follow: schools, of which there are three, all nearly equal in from the 12th of February to the 15th of October, number and proficiency, and merely divided into the boys rise at six o'clock, and breakfast before three (each under a junior master) for convenience. seven: they then attend school from seven till eight, The head-master examines the first forms of the lower from pine till twelve, and from two till five, dine at school every half-year, and recommends to the com- half-past twelve, and go to bed at ten. From the moittee such of them as he deems most competent to fifteenth of October till the twelfth of February, they enter the upper school. Each of the lower schools rise at seven, finish breakfast by eight, and attend consists of five forms or classes, in different stages of school from eight till nine, ten till twelve, and halfadvancement; and the pupils proceed gradually from past one till four. the Latin and Greek rudiments, to Phædrus, Cæsar, The Great Hall of the Hospital is the scene of Ovid, Virgil, Cicero, Sallust, Xenophon, &c., accord. many interesting ceremonies, illustrative of the pecuing to their proficiency.

liar privileges and customs of the Hospital. From a As the lower schools are divided into five classes, very early time there had been sermons preached at so is the upper divided into four, viz., Grecians, Deputy St. Mary Spital, on the Monday, Tuesday, and Wed. Grecians, Great Erasmus, and Little Erasmus: these nesday, in Easter-week, on subjects connected with oddly sounding names appear to have been thus ap-Christ's resurrection; and from the first establishment plied on account of Greek being the principal study of the Hospital, the Blue-coat children were permitted of the first two, and of the larger and smaller Col. to attend these sermons. Some years afterwards, loquics of Erasmus having been reading books in the when the Rebellion overturned most of the existing

The system of education pursued at the institutions, the Spital sermons, as they were called, two last-mentioned forms or classes, which are the were discontinued, but revived subsequently at St. lowest in the upper school, differs but slightly from Bride's church. About forty years ago, another that of the upper forms of the lower schools. The change was made ; the sermons were reduced to two, Grecians and Deputy Grecians, however, go through were delivered in the hall at Christ's Hospital, and a far more severe course of study, intended to qualify were to be illustrative of the nature and object of the them for the much-desired honour of an “exhibition" Hospital. The days on which these discourses are at Cambridge: this honour we must briefly notice. delivered,-Easter Monday and Tuesday, -are days Benevolent persons have, at different times, left be- of jubilee for the Blues : they proceed in procession quests to the Hospital, the proceeds of which were through the city, and are joined at the Mansion to be applied to the support of the most deserving House by the Lord Mayor and corporation officers, “Blues" for a given number of years, at the Univer with their ladies. All the boys receive a little gratuity sity of Oxford or Cambridge: iwo scholars proceed and some refreshment at the mansion; and when they every year to Cambridge, and one to Oxford, each and the civic procession have reached the Hospital, scholar remaining in the University four years, and the discourse is delivered, and an anthem performed. being supported during that time by a small annual The hall is also the scene of the public supper, a suin of money. These removals to the Universities ceremony of a remarkable character, which seems to are called "exhibitions," and the scholars chosen for have been observed from an early period in the histhem are the most advanced Grecians.

tory of the Institution. These public suppers occur The appointed age for the pupils to leave the esta on Sundays, and are a means of allowing visitors blishment is fifteen years; but those few who are selected to see the children: they were originally confined to to fill the Grecian form, remain there till the age of the Sundays in Lent; then they were extended tu the nineteen, by which time they have received a classical period from the first Sunday after Christmas till education of no mean extent. But by far the greater Easter-day; a third alteration fixed them for the number leave the Hospital at fifteen, and become en. months of March, April, and May; and at present gaged in some employment connected with trade or they occur from the 1st of February till Easter. On commerce; and it was to fit them for these occupa. the Sunday evenings during this period, visitors (of tions that the changes in the system of education whom three may be introduced by each governor) are were made.

permitted to enter the great hail, where, at seven The mathematical boys are those who have been ad. o'cluck, service is performed by the reading of the mitted on King Charles' and the Travers' foundations, ! New iustament lesson, followed by a hyinn, sung by and who receive an education which will fit them for all tue children. Grace is then said, and the children the Naval Service. Besides the general items of sit down to supper, the visitors walking round them education, they are expected, when presented at the during its continuance. Grace after meat is ther Trinity House for examination at the end of their said, and an anthem is sung, after which the children studies, to be familiar with equations, Euclid, trigono- walk out of the hall in procession, each ward being metry, use of the globes,-plane, Mercator's, and other headed by its uurse kinds of sailing, the conducting of all the processes

On St. Matthew's day, a ceremony of more im. requisite for finding latitude and longitude, projec- portance is performed, connected with the external tion, perspective, and other matters, more or less re government of the Hospital. The Lord Mayor and lating to nautical astronomy and navigation.

aldermen proceed in state to the new hall, where the It will thus be seen, that the education received at governors are summoned to meet them. The whole

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body, together with the boys, then proceed to Christ GEMS AND PRECIOUS STONES. VII. church, where a sermon is preached by a “ Blue"

ON SEAL-ENGRAVING. who has been a Grecian, an Exhibitioner at the Uni. versity, and has taken orders. On their return to the The art of seal-engraving is of very great antiquity, hall, two orations, one in Latin, and one in English, and one of those few in which the ancients greatly are made by the senior Grecians, which are followed excelled the moderns. It has occasionally been by a collection in aid of the fund to support them at called the glyptic* art, and is thought by some to the University. The Lord Mayor then inquires into have been originally invented in India, and brought the state and management of the Institution; and after thence into Egypt, whence, like most other ancient partaking of some refreshment, the company retire. arts, it spread into Greece. It had certainly attained

More than one writer has had occasion to remark a considerable degree of perfection in the time of the friendly and attached feeling which exists among Moses; for we read that the names of the twelve the “ Blues,” even long after they have ceased to be tribes were engraved on the gems of the high-priest's in the s«hool. An “Amicable Society of Blues" has breastplate, according to the Divine command, as we been long established for the maintenance of this find it in the 28th chapter of the book of Exodus: kindly feeling: and a still more important manifesta- “And thou shalt take two onyx stones, and grave on tion of it has been shown in the establishment of a them the names of the children of Israel; six of

Benevolent Society of Blues.” When the boys leave their names on one stone, and the other six names of the school, and launch into the busy scenes of public the rest on the other stone, according to their birth. life, they are liable to the same diversity of fortune as With the work of an engraver in stone, like the enother persons; and to relieve such of them as should gravings of a signet, shalt thou engrave the two fall into difficulties, the more fortunate of their old

stones with the names of the children of Israel." school-fellows formed the above-named society, the Ver. 9, 10, 11. objects of which were to grant annual pensions, or The Egyptians engraved on various hard stones at weekly ailowances, tu aged and infirm Blues; to afford

a very early period, as appears by various relics, temporary pecuniary relief in times of difficulty; to seals,' &c. Their engravings, however, like their grant small loans, to be repaid by fixed instalments; sculptured figures, are stiff and formal; so as to be and to relieve the distressed widows and orphans of easily distinguished from the Grecian wor

In Blues, as far as the funds of the Society might allow. Greece this art had attained its highest degree or A great number of persons, falling under one or other 'excellence in the age of Alexander the Great; and the of the above descriptions, have been relieved ; and so names of numerous distinguished engravers of that promptly have the more prosperous Blues come for. time have come down to us; especially that of Pyr. ward to aid in the benevolent object, that a consider- goteles, who is said to have been the only engraver able fund has been accumulated, from which payments permitted by Alexander to engrave his portrait: as are from time to time made.

A pelles and Lysippus had the exclusive privilege of The boys attending the Royal Mathematical School making pictures and statues of him. Next to him, have the privilege of being annually presented at Apollonides and Chronius are mentioned by Pliny Court, on the first Drawing-roum of the year; such, as the most celebrated Greek engravers. Dioscorides, at least, was the custom in former times; but during who lived in the time of Augustus, is remarkable for the long illness of King George the Third, and the the great number of beautiful seals and gem-engrawhole reign of George the Fourth, this custom was dis- vings which still remain under his name. The pensed with: it has however been, we believe, again glyptic art began to decline after Hadrian's time, and revived : the boys carry with them their maps and was lost at the fall of the Roman empire. Like charts, and other productions, indicative of their pro- the kindred arts of sculpture, painting, &c., it regress in their mathematical studies. This privilege, mained buried during the dark ages, and began to be and the circumstance of the King's Boys (as they are revived in Italy in the fifteenth century; and the termed) having been formerly lodged in apartments modern art of seal-engraving attained its highest distinct from the other boys, occasioned an exclusive degree of perfection in the sixteenth century, which and haughty spirit to be engendered among them : produced the celebrated Italian engravers, Pietro, they cared but little for their masters, and assumed a Maria di Peschia, Castel Bolognesse, Nassaro, and superiority over the other Blues, which, by the year Trezzo, who was the first that ever engraved on the 1775, reached a dangerous height. Firm and judicious diamond. The eighteenth century also produced the measures were then gradually adopted, which have celebrated Şirletti, and many other great Italian enultimately had the effect of subduing all improper gravers; as also the celebrated Germans, Lorenz feeling among the different ranks of scholars, and of Natter and John Pichler, who are commonly acestablishing harmony between scholars and masters. counted the chief modern artists of this kind.

We here terminate our notice of this extensive and The works of the moderns, however, are very seluseful Institution, in which about twelve hundred dom comparable with those of antiquity; which are children are wholly maintained, clothed, and educated, generally distinguished at once by their superior until they have attained an age at which it is prudent polish. Nevertheless, it is often very difficult to to select a future occupation for them. We cannot decide with certainty on the genuineness of many conclude, however, without expressing the great supposed antique gems; for good modern engravings obligations we are under to the excellent work* of on gems are often inscribed with the names of Dios. the Rev. Mr. Trollope, which, for general comprehen- corides, Pyrgoteles, and other great gem-engravers; siveness and minuteness of detail, is worthy of the and ignorant persons are often deceived by them. subject to which it is devoted :—it is, indeed, not only There is generally however some inconsistency either a good, but the only, authentic history of the charity in the grammar, orthography, or form of the letters, in all its relations. Using his own words with respect or some disagreement with the known habits of the to Christ's Hospital, we will say—“May those prosper ancient artist, that betrays this kind of fraud to the who love it! and may God increase their number !" skilful eye. It was practised as early as the time of Rev. William Trollope, M. A. of Pembroke College, Cambridge, greatest modern engravers, including Natter and

* History of the Royal Foundation of Christ's Hospital; by the Phædrus, who complains of it in his fables; and the and late one of the Classical Masters of Christ's Hospital. London, 1834.

* From the Greek word gausa, to engrare.

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Pichler, are said to be the authors of many works, la ei bog,bedaidw 1003 91 commonly supposed to be ancient.

ai leib, 1099 3999X9 The stones most used by ancient and modern gem.

SOLO ssh 21 bas, engravers, are the various kinds of quartz, especially 1535auon

dud loot limie cornelian, calcedony, rock-crystal, amethyst, onyx and sard-onyx, which have been already described. The hardness of the diamond renders it a very difficult gem to engrave on. Of course, the ancients could

9DB11 Bto so | HI 12 5 10 21 not engrave on this gem; as they did not even pos

Oyd gan 101 347922 sess the art of cutting and grinding it.

750 7500 They probably used fragments of it, however, for engraving on other stones. Even in modern times, engraving on the diamond has been a task, which has been executed only by the most eminent artists. The first who accomplished it is generally supposed to have been an Italian named Trezzo; but some state that

ย) H1N1) ib Ambrose Charadossa engraved a portrait on a dia.

Nod mond in 1500, long before the time of Trezzo. Engraved diamonds, however, are merely a kind of

2015 EVAS T curiosity; for the great transparency and brilliancy of the stone render it more ornamental when simply

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The different kinds of sapphire, oriental ruby, &c., It consists of a table, naving beneath it a large verare also too hard to be fit stones for the exercise of tical wheel A fixed on an axle, which has a crank B, the glyptic art. They have very seldom been en which is driven by a rod, connected with a treadle graved upon; and, indeed, the ancients never could use moved by the artist's foot at e, as in a turning-lathe. them, being, like the diamond, too hard for their tools. On the middle of the table is fixed the mill c,

The modern topaz, or ancient chrysolite, has been which is simply a small steel cylinder, driven round frequently resorted to by modern engravers; but there with great rapidity, by means of a cord passing under remains no well-authenticated specimen of an antique the large wheel. Into one end of this steel cylinder, engraved topaz. The real emerald, now found only the engraver fixes a tool d, of which he has several; in Peru, is on account of its softness, an easy stone of different forms and sizes, adapted for different kinds to engrave on, and is much used for that purpose. of work, or for parts of the same work. The ancients, however, if they possessed this stone at

Before proceeding to excavate the stone for the enall, (which is now never found in the old world,) must graving by these tools, the artist draws the outline of have held it in such high estimation that, as Pliny his subject on the stone, by means of a fine brass states, they never engraved on it. The beryl, or aqua- needle or a fragment of diamond. He also forms a marine, which is only a bluish variety of emerald, is also model of the design in wax or clay, unless he be a very fit stone for seal-engraving, and has sometimes copying from another engraving, which then serves been found to have been engraved by an ancient artist. instead of a model.

The garnet, whose hardness is between that of The stone (with the outline scratched on it) is then emerald and quartz, is nevertheless an unfavourable cemented with mastich to the end of a piece of wood stone for the engraver, on account of its peculiar to serve as a handle; and, having fixed the proper grain or texture. The opal has seldom been employed, tool to the mill, the artist works the treadle up and on account of its softness; but the ancients held it in down, and applies the surface of the stone to the edge such very high estimation, as a gem, that they never of the rapidly-revolving tool, which quickly cuts or engraved on it. The stones, therefore, which have bores into the stone, the cutting edge having been been principally employed in the glyptic art are the supplied with diamond-dust, moistened with olive-oil. numerous varieties of quartz as stated above. Jasper The engraver has generally a large assortment of tools, turquois, granite, porphyry, and natural magnet, were which he fixes alternately to the mill. The principal also employed much by the ancient Egyptians. The different forms of the tools, however, are represented first of these has been often used by modern engrav- | in this figure. ers, especially the green kind with red spots, which is called blood-stone, and is much used for seals. The red spots have often been taken advantage of by the engraver, as in a bust of Christ under flagellation, in which the spots were made to represent the drops of blood. We think, however, that subjects less awful, and equally well calculated to display the artists' ingenuity, might have been chosen without desecrating the holy character of the Redeemer by any such heathenish devices. These devices were, how. ever, fashionable in former days, when the Romish faith was dominant; as they still are now, wherever it exerts an uninterrupted sway.

The methods pursued by ancient and modern en. gravers of gems, are supposed to be nearly alike. The stone is first ground to its proper form by the lapidary. A convex surface is generally preferred to a plane one, as giving more room for the introduction of the engraving tools into the cavity of the stone.

The lathe used by seal-engravers is represented A is a tool ending in a small round disk of steel, in the following figure,

to the edge of which the stone is applied.

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B

E

B is the tool which is called a saw, and is similar

THE SYRIAN COAST. VIII. to the last, except that the edge of the disk is made The tract of country lying between the Nahr-elvery sharp, and cuts deeper into the stone.

Gebir and the branch of the chain of Taurus called c is a similar tool, but has the edge rounded, and Jawur Dagh (Amanus) and Akma Dagh (Rhosus) is very useful.

bore anciently the name of Antiochene or SeleuD is called by the French the bouterolle, and termi; cis, a comprehensive appellation including the minor nates in a small knob or ball. "It is a very useful districts of Pieria and Casiotis. It was also often tool

. By means of a small one, dots are made; and termed Tetrapolis, from its four great cities founded the larger ones serve for finishing, by rounding off all

or rebuilt by Seleucus Nicator, the first Greek king the angles that may have been left.

of Syria, and named Antiochia, Seleucis, Lavdicea, and E is a small hollow tube, with a cutting edge, and Apamea, in honour, respectively, of his father, himself, serves for boring circular holes, and marking small his mother, and his wife. Apamea, now a village circles, as the pupils of eyes.

called Kalaat-el-Medyk, lies far inland, behind the These are nearly all the forms employed for tools; Ansary Mountains, and it is therefore foreign to our but the sizes are much more numerous. Those represented in the cut are of the real size of about the present purpose to notice it further; but the other

cities are situated upon or near the coast, and will be largest: but some are so small, as to be scarcely visible

described as we reach them. to the naked eye.

At the distance of twenty-five miles from Jebilee, The seal-engraver generally prepares his own tools;

a small plain projects from the foot of the mountains, the working parts of which consist of soft steel: it and runs about a league into the sea, terminating in a ' requires a great deal of time and patient attention to point called Cape Ziaret, nearly opposite to the northmake the tools run true : the test is to apply the

east extremity of the Island of Cyprus. In the thumb-nail to the working part of the tool; it it do

centre of this plain is situated Ladikiyah, a place of nọt run true, there is a sort of vibration which is considerable trade, with a population of 6000 per. readily detected, and which is altogether absent

sons, a large number of whom are Christians. It when the tool is properly prepared for work. The stands amid groves of orange trees, and occupies diamond-dust is prepared by pounding fragments of a portion of the site of Laodicea, styled Ad Mare, diamonds, or coarse diamonds, in a hard steel mortar,

to distinguish it from numerous cities of like name* the dust is mixed with oil and applied constantly to the in other quarters. The present port is two miles tool: it is this dust which is the efficient agent in seal. north of the town, but fragments of walls, cisengraving: the soft steel tool acts merely as a sort of terns in the rock, broken columns, and other remains, mould or case, whereon the diamond-dust is spread. prove that the old city extended to the sea on the one Tools of hardened steel have been found quite in hand, and spread far beyond the present in every efficient in seal-engraving, either with or without other direction. Some of the ruins appear to have diamond-dust; so that it is supposed that this dust been Christian churches, but most of them are of penetrates into the pores of the soft steel tools, or Roman origin, and, notwithstanding the frequent earthforms a sort of compact outer crust upon the surfaces quakes that have happened in this quarter, a tri. of their working parts,

umphal arch in honour of Septimius Severus still When the artist is satisfied with his work, the ex

remains in a tolerably perfect state: as does also a cavated part of the stone is of course rough and dead : large castle of Saracenic origin, built on an isolated it is, therefore, polished by the friction of tools of rock near the port. copper, pewter, or hard box-wood, which are so

There was formerly a spacious artificial harbour, and chosen as to fit the various parts of the engraving, and the present port

, though small, is reckoned one of so to polish it without any tendency to alter its form. the safest on this coast. The ancient city was celeThe powder used for this purpose is Tripoli or rotten- brated for its export of wines, but this has long stone, moistened with water ; and, lastly, in order to ceased, and it is only of late years that the town has remove all the superfluous powder, &c., a small brush acquired any commercial importance; it now exports is used, which, like all the other instruments, is fixed large quantities of tobacco, silk, and cotton, raised in into the mill, and stone applied to it.

the neighbourhood, and is considered as the port of It must be remembered that all this applies chiefly Aleppo. to inlaglios, or that kind of engraved gems most

There are few events connected with the history of commonly used for seals, where the figure cut in the Laodicea requiring particular notice. Like many of stone is sunk or concave, and, consequently, the im- the Syrian cities, it was, for a while, nominally inpression is raised or convex.,

dependent, but it afterwards became a Roman colony; There is a more beautiful and difficult kind of

was captured, first by Chosroes, then by the Saracens, gem-engraving, however, where the figures on the retaken by the Greeks, but again lost; fell into the stone are raised, as in the impression of a common

hands of Tancred by stratagem, and long remained seal. They are called cameos ; but they are seldom

a bishop's see, and a strong fortress of the princiused as seals, because, of course, they give concave or pality of Antioch. With the expulsion of the Franks sunk impressions. The most valued of these are exe

from Antioch (A.D. 1268) it fell into decay, but has cuted in sardonyx, or some other party-coloured gem ;

since somewhat revived. From its vicinity to the in which the colours are so contrived, as to add to the northern frontier it was lately garrisoned by two effect, as has been mentioned in the third article. The regiments of the Egyptian army, but it was abanmost remarkable ancient cameos, for size and beauty, doned by them upon the appearance of the Allies. are the sardonyx of Tiberius, the apotheosis of Germa

The coast from Ladikiyah to the mouth of the river nicus, and that of Augustus, which last is oval, eleven Aazsy (Orontes) is bold and rocky, with numerous inches by nine, and composed of two brown and two bays and headlands; the range of Casius, however, white layers. Many beautiful cups and vases also fanks the shore, rising to the height of more than 5000 belong to this class ; especially the Brunswick and feet. The population is very scanty; and of the few the Portland or Barberini vase, an account of the small places on the beach, scarce one has attained celela ter of which will be found in the Saturday Magazine,

* The Laodicea of the New Testament (Colossians iv. 10; Reve. vol, viii., p. 31, together with a view of some ancient

Jation iii. 14,) is situated in Asia Minor, about one hundred and cameo-vases on the succeeding page.

filty miles to the east of Ephesus,

Lrity in former days, or requires particular notice at fire, famine, and earthquake; indeed, such events conpresent. Heraclea and Posidium, the most remarkable, stitute almost its whole history. In B.c. 146 it was are represented by the villages of Ebn Hamy and captured by Ptolemy, king of Egypt; in 145 it was Bosseda, the latter having a small castle; the other burnt by the Jewish partisans of Demetrius, (1 Macc. villages have not been satisfactorily identified. At the xi.,) and in the following year it was seized by Trymouth of the river, on the southern side, is the isle of phon. After various other changes, it was captured Melibe, anciently called Melibæa, and celebrated for by Pompey, (B.C. 65,) and became the capital of its purple dye; while to the north is a small sandy the Roman possessions in the East. In A.D. 115 it plain on which stands the village of Swediyah, which was overthrown by an earthquake, and in 155 was serves as the port of Antioch. The ancient port, now desolated by fire. In 260 it was captured by Sapor, quite useless, lies about a mile higher up the river, and its population massacred; and in the reigns of and between the two is the Harbour of St. Simeon, Constantine the Great, Julian, and Theodosius, it famous as a maritime station in the time of the Cru- suffered most severely from pestilence and famine. sades, but at the present day almost choked up with In 458, 524, and 526, it was overturned by earth. sand brought down by the impetuous stream. quakes; in 540, and again in 574, it was sacked by

Although not immediately upon the coast, Antioch, Chosroes; and in 587 it was again almost levelled with now called Antakia, is too memorable a city to be the ground by a convulsion of nature. In 611 it passed unnoticed. Though shattered by war and by was captured by Chosroes II., and in 638 by the earthquakes, and as miserable when entered as most Saracens, and by them was reduced to the rank of a of the other Syrian towns, the city, viewed from the provincial town, as it had been more than once neighbouring hills, has a most majestic appearance, before by the Roman emperors on account of the still seeming to justify the proud appellation of Queen turbulence of its inhabitants. In 966 it was recovered of the East, by which it was so long known. It stands by the Greeks under John Zimisces, and held by upon the eastern bank of the Orontes, about twenty them until the year 1083, when it was captured by miles from the sea, upon two rocky eminences, occu Soliman, general of Malek Shah, the third prince of pying also a portion of the space between them, the the Seljukian dynasty. Upon the death of Malek, rest being a deep ravine, the bed of a mountain (A.D. 1092,) a civil war broke out among his sons, torrent that traverses the town. The western hill, and Antioch was held as an independent state by one which is much the most rugged, is crowned by a castle of his family, Baghi Seyan, when, in October, 1097, connected with the town by double walls, once sixty the host of the first Crusade approached its walls. feet high, and built of hewn stone, but now broken After a siege of seven months, the town was and disjoiuted, patched with brick, and strength-betrayed (June 3, 1098) into the hands of Bohemond, ened with rude blocks of granite. Much of the prince of Tarento, who ultimately obtained its soveancient walls, which are said to have been twelve reignty. The citadel, however, still held out; the Crumiles in extent, also remain, but in a ruinous saders were in turn besieged in the town by Kerboga, condition, and enclosing only vineyards and mulberry prince of Mosul, with an innumerable force, and replantations. The present population is less than duced to the extremity of famine, when on the 28th 12,000, and is decreasing; the trade once carried on of June, 1098, their courage having been excited by having been transferred to Aleppo, from a Moham. the pretended discovery of the Holy Lance, they medan prejudice against a city which had been for sallied forth and defeated Kerboga, and the citadel two centuries in the hands of the Franks. Its houses immediately surrendered. The Crusaders passed the are mean structures, but, unlike any others in the winter in Antioch, the time being chiefly occupied in country, they have tiled roofs, a custom introduced discussions as to what was to be done with their conby the Crusaders,

quest. At length it was decided that it should be Antioch, as already mentioned, was founded by granted to Bohemond, with so much of the country Seleucus, and continued the capital of the Syrian between the Nahr-el-Gebir and Mount Taurus as he monarchy until the civil wars of his successors threw might be able to subdue. Thus was founded the the whole country into the hands of the Romans, second principality of the Latins, the first having (B.c. 64.) Through the favour of the Seleucidæ, the been already erected at Edessa, beyond the Euphrates, Jews enjoyed many privileges in Antioch, and were by Baldwin, brother of Godfrey of Bouillon, and Very numerous; many converts to the truth of the afterwards king of Jerusalem. Gospel were early made among them, and indeed "the Bohemood, the most able as well as the most undisciples were called Christians first in Antioch:" serupulous of the chiefs of the Crusade, maintained (Acts xi. 26.) Several of the apostles resided heit his principality, which he pushed to its full extent, for a time, and at length the city became the seat of against all the efforts of the Greek emperor, to whom a prelate who bore the title of Patriarch of the East. he had sworn fealty, and at his death, in 1108, transPaganism, however, long prevailed among its ready mitted it to his son, Bohemond II., who married the witted and luxurious population, and even late in the daughter of King Baldwin, but was killed in Cilicia fourth century idolatrous sacrifices were offered on by the Turks, in 1130. His daughter, Constantia, Mount Casius, in honour of Seleucus, and the temple married two Western nobles, who reigned in her right: and groves of Daphne * were crowded with worship. first, Raymond of Poitou, who was obliged to acknow

When Christianity finally prevailed, the intel- ledge himself a vassal of the Emperor Manuel, and was lectual character of its population remained much the in 1148 slain in battle against Noureddin ; and aftersame, and many of the all but unintelligible disputes wards Raynold of Chatillon, who in 1161 was captured which distracted the Church in the time of the Greek by the prince of Aleppo*. The principality was next empire had their origin in the perverse ingenuity of possessed by Bohemond III., son of Raymond of the citizens of Antioch.

Poitou, whose quarrels with his wife and with the Few cities have suffered more than this, from war, patriarch of Antioch procured his excommunication • Various are the sites assigned to this celebrated place, but the * Raynold remained a prisoner until 1178, when he was ransomed; most probable seems to be Beit-al-Moie, a spot about five miles dis- and he soon after obtained possession of Carac, (the ancient Petra,) tant, among the hills to the south, where is still to be seea a very a strong fortress on the verge of the Arabian desert. From hence beautiful fountain gushing forth from the rock; but the groves and he sent out parties to plunder the pilgrim caravans from Meeca, the temple are only represented by a few myrtle bushes intermingled which so irritated Saladin, that having taken him prisoner at the with brambles, and three or four clay-built watermills.

battle of Tiberias, he put him to death with his own hand.

ers.

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