Catwater, which may be deemed the mouth of the the gulph where the shippes of Plymouth lyith is river Plym. The entrance to the Catwater is de waullid on eche side, and chained over in tyme of fended by Mount Batten, on the south-east, and by necessitie; on the south-west side of the mouth is a Plymouth Citadel, on the north-west. Having crossed block-house, and on a rocky hill hard-by it is a strong the Catwater, we enter a sort of creek or basin called castle quadrate, having on each corner a great round Sutton Pool. Round this pool the town of Plymouth tower. It seemeth to be no very old peace of worke.” is built, and the pool may be deemed the trading port Before this period Plymouth had become of note, for Plymouth. We are now at the north part of Ply- | both as a town and as a port. It returned members mouth Sound; and, proceeding westward from Sutton to Parliament in the reign of Edward the First. Pool, a distance of a mile brings us to Mill Bay, another Hawkins, Drake, and Gilbert, three celebrated navi. indentation of the Sound; and the whole shore from gators, were at different times among the members Sutton Pool to Mill Bay is occupied by a fine open returned for Plymouth. The town received an act of parade called the Hoe. Mill Bay is separated from incorporation in 1439; and even sixty years before another arm of the sea, called Stonehouse Creek, by a this, the population is supposed to have amounted to long narrow neck of land, ending in a point of land 10,000. called Devil's Point. A narrow strait, called Crimble Considered as a port, Plymouth was often a startingor Cremil Passage, separates Devil's Point from Mount point for many naval expeditions. Edward the Black Edgecumbe, which brings us to the western side of Prince sailed from thence, in 1355, on the successful Plymouth Sound. Mount Edgecumbe is a hill, with expedition which terminated in the victory of Poictiers; a private mansion on its brow, and is deemed one of and on his return, he landed at Plymouth, with the the most lovely spots in England. At about an equal French king and the Dauphin as his prisoners. The distance from the Hoe, Devil's Point, and Mount Earls of Warwick, Clarence, Pembroke, and Oxford Edgecumbe, is a little island in the midst of the Sound, landed here with a force, during the troubles of the called Drake's Island. Passing from Mount Edge - York and Lancaster factions. Catherine of Arragon cumbe towards the south-west, we arrive at Cawsand landed here, on her arrival in England. The various Bay; and having crossed this, we gain Penlee Point at exploratory and naval expeditions of Frobisher, Drake, the western extremity of Plymouth Sound. We have Gilbert, Cumberland, Hawkins, Carlisle, Grenville, thus skirted Plymouth Sound from the Mewstone and Cavendish, sailed from Plymouth. to Penlee Point, a distance of about ten or twelve In the reign of Henry the Eighth the inhabitants miles, without reckoning the indentations, creeks, &c. complained of the injury done to the harbour by the

We have said that at the north-west corner of the rubbish brought from the Cornish tin-mines and Sound a strait, called Crimble Passage, separates works. It was stated that at one time ships of 800 Devil's Point from Mount Edgecumbe. This strait tons could enter the harbour at low water'; but that is the entrance to the Hamoaze, one of the finest at the time the inhabitants made the complaint, ships royal harbours in England. On entering the Hamoaze of 100 tons could scarcely enter. In consequence the towns of Stonehouse, Devonport, and Stoke of these representations, an act was passed in 1531, Damerel are seen on the right. Stonehouse occupies imposing heavy penalties on the proprietors of tinthe neck of land which separates Mill Bay from Stone works who neglected to comply with certain orders house Creek. Devonport is to the north-west of issued. It appears that this act was not productive Stonehouse Creek, and occupies the most conspicu- of the desired effect; for another act was subsequently ous part of the Hamoaze; and Stoke Damerel is passed, to clear the harbour by other means. situated to the north-east of Devonport.

From a

The Spanish Armada appeared off Plymouth in little village, forming a northern suburb of Devonport, 1588, when Don Medina, the Spanish Admiral, in the and called Morice Town, is a ferry across a narrow confidence of conquest, is said to have selected Mount part of the Hamoaze to Torpoint, on the Cornish side; Edgecombe for his future residence. The port of Plyand a succession of creeks lead round, in a tortuous mouth equipped seven ships and one fly-boat against line, from Torpoint to Mount Edgecumbe, the point this formidable fleet, being a greater number than was from whence we started. We have now skirted Ply furnished by any port except London. mouth Sound and the Hamoaze, and noticed the During the whole of the civil war Plymouth was in relative positions of Plymouth and Devonport, both the hands of the Parliament, who retained it even at with regard to each other and to the surrounding the time when all the rest of the west of England objects. This will prepare us for a slight sketch of was in the possession of the royal forces. The town the rise and history of the two towns.

and the surrounding fortifications were commanded Plymouth was anciently called Sutton (i.e. south by the Earls of Ruthven and Stamford and Sir Alextown), but it appears to have been known by the ander Carew. In September, 1643, Colonel Digby and name of Plymouth as long back as 1383. It is de- the Royalists commenced a blockade at Plymouth; scribed by Leland as having been, in the reign of and a few weeks afterwards Prince Maurice advanced Henry the Second, a mere thing as an inhabitation with his whole army, and laid formal siege to the for fischars;" but by the year 1254, it had become of town, taking up his positions at Plympton, Plymstock, so much importance that a market was established Cawsand, and other places in the neighbourhood. here. The important position of Plymouth occasioned Colonel James Wardlaw, the Governor of Plymouth, it to be often attacked by the French; and we read took possession of Drake's Island and the fort upon that it was assaulted five several times during the four- it, with the castle and magazine, then under the charge teenth century. The inhabitants, therefore, in the early of the mayor, and entrusted them to approved parpart of the following century, petitioned for the means liamentary officers. All the inhabitants of the town of defending their town from danger; they described were then required to take a vow and protestation to Plymouth as a great port for the harbour of vessels. defend the towns of Plymouth and Stonehouse, the After waiting thirty years they obtained certain privi- | fort and the island, to the uttermost, and this protestleges, among which was the grant of a toll on all mer ation was sent up, and registered in parliament. After chandize, to enable them to build walls and towers and several attempts to gain the town, the Royalists were other defences for the town.

forced to raise the siege and to retire. Leland visited Plymouth in the reign of Henry the On the following April hostilities recommenced, and Eighth, and from him we learn that "the mouth of a constant but unsuccessful series of attempts were

made on the town by the Royalists. It was attacked Gerard spells it parsele, parsely, and parsley, and by Sir Richard Grenville in April; again by the same says it is “delightful to the taste, and agreeable to officer a few days afterwards; a third time by him in the stomacke.” His description of the two species July; by Prince Maurice soon after this; and by the common in our gardens is so good that we adopt it: king in person, September the 9th, 1644. The town

" The leaves of garden parsely are of a beautiful greene refused to surrender to the king; and he therefore colour, consisting of many little ones, fastened together, left it, and commanded Sir Richard Grenville to main- divided most commonly in three parts, and also snipt round tain a strict blockade. From September, 1644, till about the edges; the stalke is above one cubit high, slender, January, 1646, this blockade was continued, repeated something chamfered, (channelled,) on the top whereof attempts being made in the interim to gain possession and afterwards small seeds, somewhat of a fiery taste: the

stand spoked rundles, bringing forth very fine little flowers, of the town. But nothing could induce the townsmen root is long and white, and good to be eaten. There is to yield, and on the 10th of January they saw them- another garden parsley, in taste and vertue like unto the selves relieved from the blockading army.

precedent: the only difference is, that this plant bringeth During all these contests Drake's or St. Nicholas' forth leaves very admirably crisped or curled like fans of Island, was always deemed an important part of the curled feathers, whence it is called Apium crispum sine fortification of Plymouth. A chapel was early built it groweth both in hot and cold places, so that the ground

multi fidum, curl'd parsely. It is sown in beds in gardens; on it: this was afterwards ordered to be fortified, for be either by nature moist, or be often-times watered: for we meet, in the proceedings of the Privy Council, it prospereth in moist places, and is delighted with water, 1548, with a letter, the purport of which was to and therefore it naturally cometh up near to fountains and Marvelle of their (i.e.the inhabitants of Plymouth) unwilling- springs. Fuchsins writeth that it is found growing of itself ness to procede in the fortifyinge of St. Michaelle's chappelle in many fenny places in Germany. The leaves are very to be made a bulwarke, and when they allege the pluekynge

pleasant in sauces and broths." down of that chappelle to the foundacion, they were answered, Parsley has a fusiform root, like that of the radish the same beinge made upp againe with a wall of turfe, or carrot, and there is a variety of it, extensively culshould neither be of less efecte or strength, nor yet of such

tivated in Holland, which has large roots, similar to great coste as they intended, and therefore estsones the lords desired them like good subjectes to goe in hande with that

those of the carrot, and which is brought to market worke accordinglie, as they might thereby be esteemed that in bundles for sale in the same manner as that vegethey tender the kinges Maties. pleasure, and their owne

table. This species is largely used by the Dutch in sureties and defence chiefteste.

their favourite dish, “water souche," being boiled From the time of the Restoration there were no

with what are called Dutch plaice, or founders. It historical events of any importance which need detain is likewise considered to be of great service in dropus, with respect to Plymouth. We shall therefore sies, and many other complaints, and is therefore here quit this part of the subject; and in our next highly esteemed by the Dutch. paper speak of the rise of the dock-yard on the east

The small smooth-leaved parsley, described by

It is ern bank of the Hamoaze, and the consequent growth Gerard, was the first known in this country. of the now important town of Devonport: we shall

now little cultivated; for the better flavour, as well then be in a proper condition to understand the

as the more handsome appearance of the curled sort, numerous Government establishments situated at

has caused that species to be generally preferred. Plymouth and Devonport.

There is also another reason for banishing smoothleaved parsley from our gardens, which is its near resemblance to a poisonous weed, called fool's parsley,

or lesser hemlock, Æthusa cynapium,) frequently inGARDEN HERBS. No. VI.

festing our gardens and fields. So much do these PARSLEY, (Apium).

plants resemble each other, that, were they growing Tais useful and well-known herb has a peculiarity together, they might be made use of indiscriminately, which distinguishes it from all other vegetables, and and produce much mischief. There is certainly a that is, the length of time which its seed requires to slight difference both in the form and colour of the remain in the ground before it shows any sign of leaf, but not sufficient to attract the notice of an unvegetation. It is observed that old seed comes up observant person, neither would the peculiar odour earlier than new; but it generally remains six weeks of the fool's parsley, which differs very much from in the ground before the young plants appear. The that of the true, be discovered when mixed with the seed does not begin to vegetate under forty or some latter herb. There is no danger of the plants being times even fifty days.

confounded when they are in blossom ; for any one This plant is biennial, or of two years' continuance, who has noticed the flowers of both will be readily and is very hardy, easily resisting cold and heat. It struck with the singular appendage to the blossom of is said to be a native of Sardinia, and to have been the fool's parsley, as being altogether different to that introduced from thence about the middle of the six- of the cultivated sort. Under every partial umbel teenth century; but this account seems to be disproved of blossoms in the fool's parsley hang three long, by Pliny's description of Sardinia parsley, which he narrow, sharp-pointed leaflets, commonly termed the states to be of venomous quality. However this may beard, which have a very curious appearance, and be, parsley is now so completely naturalized in present a great contrast to the delicate involucrum of various parts of England and Scotland as to excite a the trve parsley, which consists of a few short leaflets, doubt whether it may not be indigenous to our soil. as fine as hairs. This plant was not unknown to the Greeks, but is Ancient authors tell us, that when fish became said to have received its distinctive name (petroselinum) | sickly in ponds or stews, it was a common practice from Dioscorides, on account of its supposed medi- to throw parsley into the water, which greatly revived cinal qualities. The Romans esteemed it highly for them. This herb is also prescribed as an excellent culinary purposes; for Pliny tells us that it was in remedy for the rot in sheep, provided they are fed great request with all classes of people, who took it in with it twice a week, for two or three hours each large bunches in their pottage; and that there was time. This specific has been tried in Hampshire and not a salad or sauce sent to table without it; and that in Buckinghamshire, with some success, and large all persons were pleased to have their meat forced quantities of the herb have been raised for the purwith this herb.

pose at different times, Its culture was recommended

and encouraged some years ago by the society for the

AURORA. encouragement of arts. The fondness of hares and

O'er yon beetling cliffs afar rabbits for parsley, however, and the invitation which

Wheels the Sun his golden car; is held out to them to visit and overrun the farms

Bashful Twilight flits away where this herb is extensively grown, seems to be an

From the radiant orb of day; obstacle to its general cultivation.

In addition to

Lo! Aurora starts from sleep, the virtues which this herb is said to possess in curing

Blushing yet her rest to keep;

And fair Naturo, Earth to bless, several of the diseases with which sheep are visited,

Smiles in all her loveliness! it also adds to their value, by improving the flavour

'Tis the mild and soothing hour of the mutton.

When, their downy slumber breaking, The medicinal uses of parsley are not many. Like

(Ere the world resumes its power,) most other herbs, its qualities were either exaggerated

Health and Innocence are waking: by ancient writers, or the more simple way of living

Buoyant trip their nimble feet in former times rendered these humble remedies more

From the green embowered retreat; efficacious than we find them to be at present. A

Up the mountain's steepy side

Swift the beauteous maidens glide; decoction of the leaves is said to be a good sudorific;

Clcarer lustre, from the skies, the seeds are commended as carminative and diuretic;

Quickens in their gladdened eyes, the root, as aperient. Tragus states that the seeds,

And a purer bloom they wear steeped in white-wine, with anise and carraway seeds,

From the kiss of mountain air; and boiled with an equal weight of the roots, are good

Where they tread, the flowrets


Scatter dew-drops in their way, for the dropsy, the jaundice, and other complaints.

Dearer each than burnished The distilled water of parsley partakes of the virtues


On a regal diadem. of the plant, and contains a small portion of essential

Yes, when lovely flowrets bending, oil.

Weep the lucid tears of morn, Parsley is sown early in the spring, and generally

Monarchs, all their jewels blending, in drills round the borders of the kitchen garden. By

Cannot thus their crowns adorni taking care that only a third part of the crop shall be

Hark! the happy skylarks sing, cut at one time, a succession may be kept up, and

Light of heart, and light of wing;

Theirs the brisk and blithesome measure the parsley will be the stronger and better for every

That attunes the sonl to pleasure cutting, and more capable of resisting severe weather,

As they dance along the sky, than if allowed to remain from a summer's growth.

In their spirit's ecstacy; The better way, however, to get a supply all the year

See, yon lingering warbler floats round is to prepare a bed in good clean ground, and

O er her couch of purple heather, sow the parsley in drills, in the usual manner, keep

Trilling short some sweet fond notes; ing it cut in succession as it is required, and when

Now, she links them all together:

For her kindled eyes are turning severe frost sets in, covering the bed with straw or

Where the sun's new lamp is burning; peas-haulm till after the thaw takes place. By taking

Louder now her song, and sweeter, this precaution, we may obtain fresh growing parsley

And her fight is braver, fleeter, at any period of the year, and have our soups fla

High in heaven's supreme dominion voured, and our cold meats garnished as usual with

Čarolling the clouds among, this much-admired herb. When the crop of parsley

While her light and trembling pinion

Beats the measure of her song. has failed, either from the severity of the weather, or some other cause, it will be convenient to have a

Where are Guilt, and Pride, and Power, resource in the dried form. This herb cannot be

At this mild and soothing hour? dried in the same way as others; but it may be made

Interest, too, whose selfish mood

Chains the heart, and chills the blood ? brittle by being placed in a tinned roasting-screen

Where is Folly's giddy throng, close to a large fire, when it should be rubbed fine,

Who the festive rites prolong, and put in glass bottles for use. Parsley should be

Or the mazy dance entwine largely used where onions are employed in seasoning,

Round the foot of Fashion's shrine ? as it helps to qualify both the smell and taste of that

-Guilt has slunk to sleepless bed;

Pride has bowed his fevered head; strong root.

Sealed is yet the Tyrant's sight
From the scathing glance of light;

And the Miser's sordid brain

Dreams his treasure o'er again :
I may note a remarkable fact, to show how much we and

They that quaff wine's maddening bowl the Afghans are mutually interested in making the Indus a

Forge the fetters of the soul; cheap channel of trade. Syud Keramut Ali, in 1834, got from

They that dance the hours away, merchants with whom he was intimate, musters of all the

Night of all her balm beguiling, manufactured “Russian goods” imported via Bokhara, and

List not to the lark's sweet lay, were then selling at the usual good profit in the Cabhul,

When the rosy Morn is smiling. bazaar. I lately gave a set of these to a gentleman

Rev. T. A. HOLLAND. interested in our trade with the East, when he ascertained from an experienced merchant, to whom they were forwarded, that more than two-thirds of them were of Glas- The pith of conversation does not consist in exhibiting gow and Manchester make.-CONOLLY's Journey to the your own superior knowledge on matters of small importance, North of India.

but in enlarging, improving, and correcting the information

you possess, by the authority of others.—Scott. If you do good with pain, says Saint Chrysostom, the pain He mourns the dead who lives as they desire. flies off and the good remains.

The voluptuary confesses that, were it not for the fear of being laughed at, it were worth while, even on the score of pleasure, to be virtuous.


Sold by all Booksellers and Newsvenders in the Kingdom,

Ir it is dangerous to be convinced, it is dangerous to listen.

[ocr errors]
[blocks in formation]
[ocr errors]
[blocks in formation]
[graphic][subsumed][ocr errors][merged small]

'Twas a fair scene wherein they stood,

downy, and about the size and colour of a middleA green and sunny glade, amid the wood; And in the midst an aged Banian grew.

sized red cherry. The wood of the tree is white, It was a goodly sight to see

light, porous, and of but little value.
That venerable tree,
For o'er the lawn, irregularly spread,

But one of the chief characteristics of the banian-
Fifty straight columns prop its lofty head;

tree, and one which draws towards it the attention And many a long depending shoot,

and admiration of most travellers in the East, is the Seeking to strike its root, Straight, like a plummet, grew towards the ground,

stupendous size which it attains. Roxburgh tells us Some on the lower boughs, which crost their way,

that he has seen a banian-tree full five hundred yards Fixing their bearded fibres, round and round; Some to the passing wind, at times, with sway

round the circumference of the branches, and a hunOf gentle motion swung;

dred feet high, the principal trunk being more than Others, of younger growth, unmov'd were hung

twenty-five feet high beneath the branches, and Like stone-drops from the cavern's fretted height. Beneath was smooth and fair to sighi,

eight or nine feet in diameter. Mr. Hodges, in his Nor weeds nor briers deform'd the natural floor;

Travels in India, says:
And through the leafy cope which bower'd it o'er
Came gleams of chequer'd light.

At the entrance to the town of Banglepoor, I made a
So like a temple did it seem, that there

drawing of a banian-Iree. This is one of those curious proA pious heart's first impulse would be prayer.-SOUTHEY. ductions in nature which cannot fail to excite the attention

of the traveller. The branches of this tree, having shoots The Banian-tree, one of the most beautiful produce become the parents of others. These trees in many instances

depending from them, and taking root again, produce, and tions of the vegetable kingdom, is known botanically cover such an extent of ground, that hundreds of people by the name of Ficus Indica, or the Indian fig-tree. It may take shelter under one of them from the scorching ravs is a native of most parts of India, both on the main of the sun. land and also on the islands; but it appears to exist The boughs of the banian-tree grow horizontally in the greatest perfection about the villages in the Cir- from the stem, and extend so far that, in the ordinary car mountains. The botanical features of the tree are process of nature, they would be unable to support chiefly these :-The leaves are ovate, heart-shaped, themselves. To supply this support, small fibrous three-ribbed, and entire; when young, downy on both shoots fall perpendicularly from them, and take root sides, but much smoother when aged: they are from five as soon as they reach the ground, thus propping the to six inches long, and from three to four broad; and parent bough; while the lateral branches continue at the top of the leaf-stalk, on the under side, is a broad to throw out new sprouts, from which other fibres smooth gland. The fruit of the tree (figs), when ripe, drop, until, in the course of years, one tree forms by grow in pairs from the axils of the leaves; they are itself a sort of little forest. The perpendicular stems Vol. XVII.


put forth no shoots, and vary in circumference from visited this tree, and were entertained by the Armenian proa few inches to eight or ten feet. Before they reach | prietor at an elegant breakfast under its boughs. the ground they are very flexible, and seem to dangle Milton, in his Paradise Lost, alludes to the banianfrom the parent boughs like short thick thougs. tree, when he speaks of

The Author of the Oriental Annual speaks of a The fig-tree, not that kind for fruit renowned, banian-tree which he saw under very remarkable cir.

But such as at this day to Indian known,

In Malabar or Deccan, spreads her arms, cumstances. A piece of sculpture had been originally fixed under the shadow of this tree. Around this

Branching so broad and long, that in the ground

The bended twigs take root, and daughters grow the tree had twisted its strong and sinewy arms, lifted About the mother-tree, a pillar'd shade, it completely from the pedestal, and carried it up in High over-arched, and echoing walks between. its growth, throwing round it a frame formed by its There oft the Indian herdsman, shunning heat, own picturesque and convoluted branches; thus ren Shelters in cool, and tends his pasturing herds dering it a natural curiosity well worth beholding.

At loop-holes cut through thickest shade. Another banian-tree which the same writer, in com

The banian-tree has been sometimes confounded pany with Mr. Daniell

, met with, had two stems of with another species of the fig-tree, the Ficus religiosa. nearly equal circumference, forming a junction at the The latter bas obtained its name from the religious root with two large arms branching laterally from veneration in which it is held by the Hindoos, on the them. From these arms numerous strong fibres

ground that their God, Vishnu, is fabled to have been depended; and there are also horizontal shoots

born under its branches. The Ficus religiosa, (called thrown out in all directions, and covering a very large by the Hindoos the pippul-tree,) is much cultivated space with thick and verdant foliage. This tree near dwellings, for the sake of the agreeable shade afforded daily shelter to men and cattle, to pilgrims which its wide-spreading branches afford. The leaves and travellers, who at times congregated in great

are used by the Arabs for tanning leather; and they are numbers beneath its branches. It appeared to be in preferred by the silk-worm before all other kinds of the full vigour of its maturity, as no part of it had food, except the mulberry-leaf. begun to decay. Mr. Cordiner has also borne witness to the beauty

DOMESDAY BOOK. of the banian-tree, and has, in his account of Ceylon, given many interesting details concerning it. He DOMESDAY Book is perhaps the most remarkable says that a full-grown leaf of the tree is five inches literary work existing in England, whether we regard long, three and a half broad, and has a foot-stalk the date at which it was written, or the nature of its upwards of one inch in length: they grow alter contents. Domesday Book consists of two volumes, nately on each side of the branches, but not opposite which are deposited, among some other records of to one another. The substance of the figs which form the Excheqưer in the Chapter House at Westminster, the fruit consists of a great number of seeds of dimi and preserved with great care and circumspection. nutive size. These figs grow without any stalks, ad

The volumes are of unequal size. The larger one is hering closely, in alternate positions, all around the a folio, containing 382 double pages of vellum, on smaller branches. They afford food for monkeys, and each of which are two columns fairly written in a for a variety of the feathered race; but they are not small character, but very neat and distinct. The sweet to the taste, and are scarcely ever eaten by smaller volume is in quarto, and consists of 450 the natives.

double pages of vellum, with only one column on The perpendicular stems, which we have before said

The hand writing in this volume is drop from the broad horizontal arms, are covered larger and stronger than in the other, the descriptions with bark having a silvery appearance. They put forth more minute, and the erasures not so numerous: it no shoots; and when they first leave the tree they are

is likewise in better preservation, and less soiled, of a brownish hue, as flexible as hemp, and wave in probably owing to its having been less the object of the air like ropes. After entering the earth they be curiosity or consultation. Both the volumes are come stationary, and are to be found of various ages

bound in thick wooden covers, secured with plates about the same tree. As they at first draw their

of brass. So much for the volumes themselves : now nourishment from the tree, it is probable that they

for their contents, afterwards help to supply sap to the old parent stem. Domesday Book was a register, ordered to be

The following description of a tree which Mr. prepared by William the Conqueror, of all the posCordiner saw shows it to have been fully equal to

sessions in England, -their extent, value, owners' those of which we have before spoken:

names, &c.

The first volume contains a sort of

topographical description of thirty-one counties; Round the tree is a circle of low brickwork, ninety feet the other volume contains three more; the northern in diameter. The parent trunk measures twenty-eight feet

counties of Northumberland, Cumberland, Westin circumference, and is of a light-brown colour. The tree has no appearance of decay, but seems flourishing, in the moreland, and Durham, being only partially described. prime of life, in full vigour. Thirty-seven descended stems This description or survey was, for the time when it are firmly rooted in the ground, and a considerable number was made, exceedingly minute and exact. It contains of small fibres appear like loose ropes waving in the wind. an account of the subdivisions of the counties, under the Of the former, some measure only two inches and a half, old names of wapentakes, rapes, laths, hundreds, &c. : others eleven feet in circumference; and they have descended from the height of from thirty to fifty feet. Imme- castles, &c., with the quantity of ground belonging to

an account of cities, towns, villas, boroughs, manors, the . surrounds them with a hillock of earth, which at once gives

each manor, designated by the now almost obsolete them firmness, and assists their growth. The only thing

names of measure, hides, carucates, virgates, half-hides, to be regretted in the situation of this tree is that other trees bovates, ox-gangs, leucæ, quarantene, &c :—the value surround it so closely, that it cannot be seen perfectly at of each manor, 1st, in the time of Edward the one view. Four avenues lead to it in the form of a cross, and there is plenty of room to walk round it in all directions; 3rd, at the time of making the Domesday survey:

Confessor, 2nd, when William gained the throne, but when the whole of the tree can be seen, the spectator is too near to make a full drawing of it, or to enjoy completely

what and how much arable land, pasture, meadow the magnificence which it exhibits. Lord and Lady and wood land there was; how many men occupied William Bentinck, soon after their arrival at Madras in 1803, I each estate, and of what condition they were, whether

each page.


« 前へ次へ »