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freemen, socmen, villains, bordars, freedmen, cot- order that he might be apprized of the particular tagers, serfs, tradesmen, labourers, Englishmen, sum which each town, village, and hamlet was Normans, &c:—the number of hogs, goats, sheep, bound to pay, and to exact it accordingly. horses, asses, oxen, cows, calves, colts, stocks of bees, Domesday Book was merely in MS. until the last &c.; together with the number of mills, fish-ponds, century, when, in 1767, in consequence of an address fisheries, marshes, vineyards, &c., on each manor : from the House of Lords, George the Third ordered an account of the rents, tributes, census, services, it to be printed. The work was intrusted to Mr. tolls, customs, homage, and what works were to be Abraham Farley, a literary gentleman who was well done for the lords of the manors. In several coun- acquainted with the nature and contents of the work, ties also was noted down an account of what goods, and under whose care it at length appeared, after chattels, and treasure each person possessed, what having been more than ten years in passing through were his debts, and how much was owing to him. the press. It was printed as nearly as possible to

A work of such extraordinary extent and minute- resemble the original, in a kind of Norman Latin ness must have required a well arranged system to language. Since that time an elaborate introduction, put it into execution. The plan which William indexes, &c., have been prepared by Sir Henry Ellis, adopted was this. Men of the greatest discretion, under the authority of the Royal Record Commision; whose talents were familiar to him, and in whom he | but the work does not exist in a complete form in the could confide, were sent into every county throughout English language. A translation was commenced England with authority to summon and impanel about thirty years ago, by the Rev. William Bawdjuries in every hundred, lath, and wapentake; the wen, of Hooton Pagnell, Yorkshire : it proceeded in jury to be composed of all orders of freemen, from as far as Yorkshire, Derby, Nottingham, Rutland, the great barons downwards. These juries were Lincoln, Middlesex, Hertford, Buckingham, Oxford, bound by oath to communicate to the commissioners, and Gloucester, and was then stopped. Portions of by verdict or presentment, every particular relative the Domesday Book have however been translated to the estates, manors, &c., contained in that hun- and introduced into many of our best country hisdred, lath, or wapentake. The commissioners having tories, such as Nichols's Leicestershire, Dugdale's received the inquisitions, they were transmitted to the Warwickshire, Hutchin's Dorsetshire, Warner's king, and shortly afterwards arranged in systematic Hampshire, Bray and Manning's Surrey, Clutterbuck's order, the lands of each tenant being entered sepa- Hertfordshire, &c. In these several works that rately from those of others, and classed under their portion of Domesday has been translated which respective heads: the whole detail was then written treated of the country to which the history related. in Domesday Book and deposited in the king's Domesday was not by any means the only name treasury. Every return and statement had to be given to this important record. It is called by made on the oath of the sheriffs of each county, the different authors, and at different times, Rotulus lords of each manor, the presbyters of every church, Wintonia, Scriptura Thesauri Regis, Liber de Wintonia, the reeves of every hundred, and the bailiff and six Liber Regis, Liber Judiciarius, Censualis Anglia, Angliæ villains of every village. In some cases the jurors Notitia et Lustratio, and Rotulus Regis. It is rewere required to state not only the value of a manor marked in the introduction published by the comat the time of Edward the Confessor, at the time of missioners, that the names of the hundreds in the the assumption of the crown by William, and at the respective counties have undergone a great change time of the survey, but also whether any advance since the survey was made. Lincolnshire is divided could be made in its then present value. This survey into thirty wapentakes, or hundreds, yet there are was made about the year 1080.

only about nineteen which bear anything like the Although it is probable that the juries did not names in Domesday which they do at present; and always honestly give the true value of the manors in Warwickshire there is not now one remaining out and property on which they reported, yet Domesday of the ten there set down. In Leicestershire, indeed, Book became an authority of the very first order. they have remained nearly the same, also in CamFor a considerable time subsequent to its preparation, bridgeshire. In Bedfordshire the names of the Domesday Book was considered as the only fountain hundreds have been altered comparatively in few of titles to estates, and no one was allowed to make instances, but in many cases the manors have been a claim beyond it.

transformed from one hundred to another. The Different opinions have been expressed as to the same may be said of Berkshire, and probably of a real object which William had in view in ordering very large portion of the counties in general. and carrying such a vast undertaking. Ingulphus, Buckinghamshire, when the survey of Domesday a contemporary of the Conqueror, says that William, was taken, was divided into eighteen hundreds, and on his return to England, after having subdued there are now only eight which compose separate Seotland, obliged every individual of the realm to do districts. homage and swear fealty to him in London, and that he immediately afterwards began the survey, in order to ascertain the number and the condition of his When all the blandishments of life are gone, subjects. A Saxon chronicle tells us that the survey The coward sneaks to death; the brave live on. was made in order that the king might obtain exact knowledge of his demesne lands, and what the amount BOTANY has one advantage over many other useful and of that branch of the revenue which arose from hidage and profitable, though pursued to ever so small an extent:

necessary studies, that even its first beginnings are pleasing (a sort of land-tax) ought to be. Matthew of West

the objects with which it is conversant are in themselves minster states that the object of the king was to charming, and they become doubly so to those who contemdiscover, by means of the survey, the numerical plate them with the additional sense, as it were, which strength of the kingdom, the number of men in each science gives: the pursuit of these objects is an exercise no county, and what forces he had to depend upon in less healthful to the body, than the observation of their laws that William, finding the land-tax called Danegeld to In particular arts, beware of that affectation of speaking cases of emergency. Agard gives it as his opinion and characters is to the mind.—SIR J. E. Smith. be assessed and paid in an uncertain and unequal technically, by which ignorance is often disguised and manner, made a general survey of the kingdom, in knowledge disgraced.

517-2

SUICI DE.

[merged small][graphic][subsumed][merged small]

II. CORFU.

as an English chapel and school,) barrack, artillery HAVING in a preceding paper endeavoured to convey stores, an hospital, several houses, (formerly private to the reader some general idea of the Ionian Islands property, but now occupied by officers connected with taken collectively, we shall on the present occasion the government or the army,) and one or two churches direct our notice to the principal one of the

of the Greek religion.

group, viz., Corfu.

The esplanade is a piece of ground about 450 yards Corfu is about thirty-five miles in length, and its in length and 180 in width. It has no buildings on greatest breadth about twelve. It is within a hundred the south side; but the new palace and the old hosmiles of the south-east coast of Italy, near Otranto, pital are situated on the northern side. This esplaand is at one point within two miles of the Turkish nade forms the parade for the troops, (of whom there province of Albania, from which it is separated by a

are generally 3000 in the island, half of whom are at strait or channel. The island is rather mountainous: Corfu,) and its situation is beautiful : looking from a chain of mountains runs throughout from north to the town the citadel is in front, the mountains of south, which in one spot reaches an elevation of Albania in the distance, and the sea to the right and 2000 feet; and there is a cross chain running from left. A carriage drive has been formed round it, and east to west, which reaches a height of 3500 feet, it has become a place of common resort for the infrom the summit of which a magnificent panoramic habitants and the garrison. view is obtained, embracing Macedonia, the Adriatic,

The town, exclusive of the esplanade, is about a the Mediterranean, and sometimes even Italy.

mile and three quarters in circumference: it is sepaThe city or town of Corfu built on an irregular

rated from the rest of the island by a strong double promontory, sloping to the N.W., which juts out wall, which bounds it on the west: the northern and nearly from the central part of the island on its east-southern boundaries consist of a single wall, along ern shore. The town is walled, and has been rendered the margin of the sea. a place of great strength, from the number and The town is, in proportion to its size (says Mr. Goodison), position of the outworks. The citadel, or old fort, one of the meanest in construction of any in the Mediterwas built at the extremity of the promontory: this which, upon the occupation of the place by the British, were

The streets are miserably dirty, narrow lanes, promontory was by nature peninsular, but it has been nearly impassable from the offal of butchers' stalls, and completely separated from the mainland by a military | litter of the venders of vegetables, who had been allowed to work, or ditch, about 150 yards in length, 80 in establish themselves promiscuously throughout the town. breadth, and 40 deep. The sea enters at the north. There are but two streets which might be considered habitern mouth of this ditch; but at the southern end able, (besides that which fronts the esplanade,) by a person there is a wall which cuts off the communication. I used to the comfort and cleanliness of a well-regulated EuThe communication with the esplanade is by a draw- streets, one at each side, and in one is the Church of St.

ropean town. These are parallel with the two centre main bridge. Within the citadel, whose circumference is Speridion. The houses are built in the Venetian manner, 180 yards, are the old palace, an armoury, (now used the lowermost storv supporting the rest upon pilasters con

nected by arches, which form a sort of piazza at each side, its support. The devotion of the islanders affords a nearly through the whole of the principal streets. This

very considerable produce: the mariner and the armethod of building is well suited to a hot and rainy climate, tisan believe that they ensure the success of their as it affords shelter both from sun and rain.

speculation in sacrificing a part to St. Speridion: no There have been, however, many improvements made boat leaves the port in which the saint has not an through the influence of the British residents within interest in the profits of the voyage. the last few years.

As a last instance of the debasing character of the The Senate-House is a plain square building. Greek church, as professed by these islanders, we There are many churches in the town, of which tha may mention the ceremony of excommunication. of St. Speridion is the best. It contains the relics of According to Mr. Goodison, one of the most lucrative the saint and the shrine in which they are deposited, sources of profit to the priests, and at the same time which is richly ornamented with precious stones. one of the most powerful means of retaining the The interior is decorated with chandelier-lamps and people in their stupid credulity, are the excommunicandlesticks of solid gold and silver, the fashion and cations which a Greek, for the smallest sum, may size being according to the taste or devotion of the hurl against his neighbour. The latter has it also in donor. So great is the accumulation of wealth from his power to retaliate by another excommunication, the contributions of rich devotees, that it has been which renders null that of his adversary. The same found necessary to place a sentry upon this church; | priest performs both parts with equal zeal. These for it must be understood that the English interfere thunderbolts of the Greek church are administered in as little as possible with the national religion (the public, in the street, and opposite the house of him Greek Church) of the Ionians.

who is to be excommunicated. If the party have In connexion with this church, we may describe means enough, he secures the service of the chief the festival of St. Speridion, from the accounts of priest himself, who comes at the head of his clergy to Sauveur, Goodison, and others. Eight days previous pronounce the anathema. He proceeds to the house to the ceremony, the doors, windows, and steeple of of the individual in a habit of mourning, a black wax the church are ornamented with festoons of laurel and candle in his hand, and preceded by a large crucifix myrtle. On the eve of the festival, the shrine which and a black banner; his suite all likewise clothed in contains the body of the saint is exposed to the vene black. The imprecations are accompanied with rating gaze of the people. The shrine is of ebony, violent gestures. From that moment the person exembossed with silver, and enriched with precious communicated is excluded from every church, and stones. The front is enclosed with glass, through deprived of the prayers of the faithful. He cannot which is seen the saint in an upright position, dressed be restored to his rights, except by a counter excomin his robes: over the shrine is supported a beautiful munication, and if he have not the means of paying silk canopy. The head of the government* attends the expense, it often happens that he is driven to the the procession, with the military staff, and a large last excess, and revenges himself upon his adversary proportion of the garrison under arms; a military by assassinating him. band precedes it. The procession first moves to One of the out-door amusements of the inhabitants wards the citadel, where a royal salute is fired from of Corfu is called the chiostra publica: it is somewhat each battery. They then make the round of the similar to the old knightly custom of tilting at the esplanade, and proceed along the wall at the harbour ring, and generally takes place in summer.

A long side, where a salute is fired by each ship of war, line of strong woodwork is erected on the esplanade; decorated with her flags. In the streets through about two-thirds of the way a string is drawn across which the procession moves the houses are all the top of two elevated posts, and from it is suspended ornamented with their drapery suspended from the a ring. The ring is divided into a certain number of windows. The ceremony is often interrupted by the circles, and the candidate who bits nearest and fairest sick, who are brought out upon this occasion to be in the inner one wins the prize, which is sometimes a placed under the shrine, in the full confidence of a sword of great value, or something of equal amount.

In all public calamities, the relies of the saint Seats are erected on each side the course for the acare exposed with the most religious confidence. commodation of the spectators; in front of the ring There is a circumstance mentioned by Mr. Goodison, are seated the judges. This ceremony is attended which shows the superstition of the people in its true by all the principal inhabitants, together with a vast light. In the month of December, 1815, there was a concourse of the lower orders. Those competitors festival in the church of St. Speridion, which was who engage in the affair are gaily dressed, and attended numerously attended by persons from all parts of the by esquires; their horses are likewise richly capaisland; some of whom, from the district of Leftimo, risoned: the lances of the competitors are about six returning home, died of the plague, which had at that feet long, having at the end a sharp steel point. time made its appearance in the island.

Dancing is a favourite amusement with the Corfiotes, circumstance exalted still higher St. Speridion in the and their national dance is supposed to be the same estimation of the townspeople, who failed not to at with the ancient Pyrrhic dance. A circle is formed tribute to his interposition their escape from this by men and women joining handkerchiefs; the circle powerful malady; as it was suspected, and not with opens, and the leading person goes through the evoout reason, that some of those persons from Leftimolution of the dance, which consists of forming and were, whilst in the town, actually infected with the re-forming the circle,-sometimes completely, -again contagion.

only to half its extent, -and sometimes it doubles The Church of St Speridion enjoys the revenues of back on itself; very often the leader passes through some lands which pious individuals have bestowed for the middle of the waving line, under the uplifted

hands of the dancers, and is followed by the whole As the procession was originally described several years ago, we wouid fain hope that official participation in such a scene has since

train. After a variety of movements of this descripthat been abolished. Whether such has been the case recently we tion, the first leader is succeeded by another. During do not know. Mr. Montgomery Martin, writing in 1834, makes the following remark:--" This absurdity ought to be done away with.

the whole continuance of this performance, the leader In granting full toleration and protection to every form of religion, alone is the active person. there is no necessity for the head of the government and the represen

The poorer classes of Corfiotes generally sleep on tative of our sovereign being made a participator in a heathenish system of idolatry, which degrades man below the level of brutes.” mats on the floor, but in most houses there is to be

cure.

This very

found a good bed, stuffed with wool, hair, or straw, publication in the island, except the Government and placed either on a regular bedstead, or on boards newspaper at Corfu, which is printed half in Italian, and tressels. In lieu of blankets, a counterpane, and half in Romaic Greek. thickly quilted and stuffed with wool, forms a very usual and very comfortable substitute. The Greek females pride themselves on the elegance of their

FAREWELL TO BRIGHTON. beds: they are covered with silk and embroidered

HEALTH-giving Brighton, with thy breezy. Downs, counterpanes, and with ornamental pillows, according I love thee best of all the British towns to the means of the owner. The generality of the That crowd our sea-girt isle, and grace her coast. middle, and the whole of the lower, order of people, Brighton, I love thee best, I owe thee most! sleep in their ordinary clothes, and rarely change

1 sought thee not gay Fashion's haunts to throng,

Far higlier pleasures prompt my grateful song; their personal or bed linen oftener than once a

Thy bold, bright sea, with every freshening wave, month: this affords a sad contrast to the silk and

New strength imparted, and new vigour gave; embroidered counterpanes, &c.; but we may presume But not alone to mortal sense confined, that the latter are confined to the higher classes. Rich intellectual stores attract the mind.The furniture of the humbler dwellings consists of a

Of thy fair cliffs along the eastern line few chairs, tables, a chest of drawers, a copper cooking

I sought Devotion's pure and holy shrine.

God's hallowed words in memory still I hear, kettle, and a few earthen pots and pans.

In tones which long must dwell upon the ear,The dress of the peasantry consists chiefly of a

(May car, obedient to a high control, white capote of thick felt, (the principal ingredient in Keturn them back, to graft them on the soul.) which is goats' hair,) or coarse shaggy woollen cloth Each proud imagination, each vain thought, in summer, and of an additional article of the same Has such abashed when such a preacher taught, material in cold or wet weather. The capot is very

'Tis Heaven's authority.—Who would deny

The Christian humble,-though his office high? rarely taken off. The under dress is a woollen vest,

What though his speech, to royal ears addressed, large breeches of coarse cotton, called thorake, with

Gained willing entrance to a royal breast, cloth leggings, and a coarse sandal of undressed hide, No prophet he to "prophesy smooth things, secured by thongs, or a shoe of half-dressed leather, Mocking the presence of the King of Kings scarcely less rude. This is the national dress of the Unawed by courtly frowns, (if such there are,) aboriginal peasantry; but the settlers, whether Alba

Or courtly plaudits, more ensnaring far.–

God's laws unchangeable,–His will supreme, nians, Moreotes, or others, retain some traces of their

“ The truth in Jesus” is his constant theme, native costume, such as the red skullcap, the turban, The meanest of his flock his equal care, &c. A girdle or zone, of silk or cotton, is almost Claims equal interest in the good man's prayer. invariably worn round the waist by both sexes. The His voice impressive conscience can awake, better classes wear a double-breasted vest, usually

And selfish feelings to their centre shake,made of blue or maroon-coloured velvet, with a double

Can wing the heart with penitential tears, row of hanging gold or silver buttons, descending from

Awake, and yet assuage such mourner's fears.

Then when the soul cast down shall sad confess the shoulder to the waist, generally bordered with Its burthen great, and its own nothingness, broad gold lace, and fastened with a sash of coloured lle bids the humbled spirit upward gaze, silk : Cossack trousers, cut short at the knee, or the With eye of faith and words of holy praise. white Albanian kilt or petticoat, white stockings, and

He paints the christian hope, and well I ween buckled shoes, complete the dress. The hair is worn

Can peace instil, and hope and joy serene,floating on the shoulders by the men, and by the

That hope eternal,-—"peace which passeth show,"

Which, meteor like, no mortal hope can know, women plaited and hanging down to the heels, and a

Then, when the softened spirit inly feels handkerchief on the head.

The joys which Christianity reveals, The women are loaded with as much clothes of Ho teaches how, to show its heavenly birth, coarse cotton, silk, or brocade, as they can procure;

And prove its fruits, it must descend on earth. and are passionately fond of every species of orna

That true religion sanctifies above,

And closely knits the bonds of human love, ment, especially necklaces, earrings, and girdle buckles.

"And God, to make “his perfect work" appear, The yests are made, like those of the men, of rich

Demands our gratitude and our obedience here! velvet, ornamented with gold lace, and flowing open: beneath is worn a cestus or girdle, fastened in front Such were his words— his precepts high and pure, by a clasp of gold or silver (we are here speaking of

(Oh! may they ever in each heart endure !) the higher class of females). Many of the women And thus revered, prosperity increase, tinge the nails and tips of the fingers of a pink colour; Brighton farewell !--Be thine health, jcy, and peace! and the practice of inserting powdered antimony along

E. F. W. the edges of the eyelids is very common, especially among such as come from the islands of the Archi. It is not in the hey-day of health and enjoyment,-it is not pelago.

in the morning sunshine of his vernal day, that man can be The preceding details relate principally to the city expected feelingly to remember his latter end, and to fix his of Corfu, the only large town in the island. There heart upon eternity. But in after-life many causes operate are about 100 small villages, averaging from 300 to to wean us from the world: grief softens the heart; sickness 400 ivhabitants each. The total population on the searches it; the blossoms of hope are shed; death cuts down

the flower of the affections; the disappointed man turns his island is about 34,000 males, and 29,000 females. thoughts toward a state of existence where his wiser desires Of the whole 63,000, about 16,000 are engaged in may be fixed with the certainty of faith; the successful man agriculture, 2000 in manufactures, and 2000 in com- feels that the objects which he has ardently pursued fail to Inerce, the remainder being government officers, satisfy the cravings of an immortal spirit; the wicked man military force, professional men, and gentry. There turneth away from his wickedness, that he may save his is at Corfu a public University, and an ecclesiastical soul alive.--Southey. seminary for the education of young men intended for the priesthood of the Greek church. There is occupied as to sigh over the shortness of life, and to find at

I can suppose an inhabitant of the primæval world so much also a secondary school, maintained at the public the end of many centuries, that they had all slipped through expense, for general instruction; as well as central, his fingers, and were passed away like a shadow.-Cowdistrict, and village schools. There is no periodical) PER.

CONSIDERATIONS ON ROME.

teach us to love Him as our Father. It may show us the FROM A SERMON DELIVERED IN THE ENGLISH CHAPEL

ways of destruction; but it cannot show us the ways of

salvation. For this higher doctrine there is but One AT ROME.

Teacher and Guide, 'eren He who came down from the If the feelings I have wished to excite have been awakened right hand of the Father, and divested Himself of His terwithin you it must already have occurred to you that we

rors, and arrayed Himself in mercy, and emptied Himself who are here assembled may in a still more special sense be said to have come out into the wilderness to see a pro- Love, and put on the form of a Servant, appearing amongst

of His power, and showed Himself as the pure Spirit of phet. We may have had no such purpose: we may have us as our Brother, that He might lead us to look up to His been unconscious what we were doing. But what is Rome? Father as ours, and offered up His precious body on the Is she a reed shaken by the wind? she who has stood the assault of five and twenty centuries, who has conquered, the salvation of all such as would follow His gracious guid

cross, to check the progress of destruction, and to purchase and has been conquered, and again has conquered her con

ance. Before Him therefore, the Captain of our Salvation, querors, and made them bow down before her. Is she

let us now and ever cast down our hearts and minds; and clothed in soft raiment? Nature indeed has clothed her in

whatever power, whatever talent, whatever knowledge, whatits beauty: Art has clothed her in its beauties: Time has

ever wisdom we may receive as our portion in this world, fused and blended them together; and majestic and solemn whatever of noble and solemn feeling it may awaken, let us is the garb of the city so full of years, so rich in the memo

lay them meekly and devoutly at His feet, and employ ries of bygone generations. But vain and most frivolous

them faithfully and diligently in His service. were the thought, if any have come hither in search of luxuries. Let them go to Baiæ; this is no place for them.

[The Victory of Faith, and other Sermons: By JULIUS CHARIES They, on the other hand, who have come out into the wilder

HARE, now Archdeacon of Lewes.] ness to see a prophet may tarry here. For where upon earth is there any spot, Jerusalem alone excepted, in which

OBSERVANCE OF THE SABBATH. the power of the Lord has been manifested, as it has been in this fateful city?-in this monumental mass, which

The importance of the religious observance of the Sabbath neither the ferocity nor the cupidity of man has yet been

is seldom sufficiently estimated. The violation of this duty able to sweep away, and in contending against which Time

by the young is one of the most decided marks of incipient seems to have been curtailed of its all-effacing power,-in

moral degeneracy. Religious restraint is fast losing its hold this vast indestructible tomb of lier who once

upon that young man, who, having been educated in the fear

was the Mistress of the World. When other mighty cities have

of God, begins to spend the Sabbath in idleness or in

amusement. And so also of communities. The desecration fallen, they have fallen utterly: the dominion of death

of the Sabbath is one of those evident indications of that over them has been total: the very ground on which some of them stood has become a prey to the elements: the

criminal recklessness, that insane love of pleasure, and that generations that won and rejoiced in their glory live only,

subjection to the government of appetite and passion which if at all, in the scanty and shadowy records of history. But

forebodes that the “ beginning of the end" of social happiwhen Rome had fallen, she rose again. When her carnal

ness, and of true national prosperity, has arrived. empire had been stripped off from her, she came forth as

Hence we see how imperative is the duty of parents, and the queen of a spiritual empire: and within her walls the

of legislators, on this subject. The head of every family is dead seem still to subsist side by side with the living, in

obliged, by the command of God, not only to honour this day awful and most indistinguishable communion. So that here

himself, but to use all the means in his power to secure the the most trivial can hardly escape being struck with some

observance of it by all those committed to his charge. He lessons of serious thought, such as bear the mind from the is thus not only promoting his own, but his children's present into the past, and through the past into the future.

happiness; for nothing is a more sure antagonist force to all Even they can hardly fail to discern some of the truths

the allurements of vice, as nothing tends more strongly to which are here written in characters of gigantic size, legible

fix in the minds of the young a conviction of the existence even to the most short-sighted, intelligible even to the

and attributes of God, than the solemn keeping of this day. dullest. For who can fail to perceive here how strong and

And hence, also, legislators are false to their trust, who, mighty man is, feeble as he may appear outwardly, when either by the enactment of laws, or by their example, dimithe Lord of Hosts is bearing him onward? how strength

nish, in the least degree, in the minds of a people, the reless and impotent, on the other hand, although armed with

verence due to that day which God has set apart for all the power and skill of the earth, when the Lord of

Himself.-WAYLAND's Elements of Moral Science. Hosts is against him? Where else has the Lord shown such strength with His arm? Where else has he so scat Let us turn to the contemplation of Nature, ever new, ever tered the proud in the imagination of their hearts? Where abundant in inexhaustible variety. Whether we scrutinize else has He so put down the mighty from their seat? and the damp recesses of woods in the wintry months, when so exalted those that were of low degree? Where else do the numerous tribes of mosses are displaying their minute we read so plainly that it is the Lord who giveth the but highly interesting structure; whether we walk forth in victory, and that it is the Lord who taketh it away? the early spring, when the ruby tints of the hawthorn-bush Where else do we see so palpably, that, even in this world, give the first sign of its approaching vegetation, or a little despite of the violence and wiles of its prince, that which after, when the violet welcomes us with its scent, and the is morally the best is in the end also the strongest--that primrose with its beauty ; whether we contemplate in sucvirtue, like knowledge, is power,—that moral energy in a cession all the profuse treasures of the summer, or the more people is indispensable, not only to win an empire, but to hidden secrets of Nature at the season when fruits and keep it-and that luxury and vice enfeeble the arm, until seeds are forming; the most familiar objects, like old friends, the sceptre drops from its grasp? Of what place on the will always afford us something to study and to admire in whole globe may it be said with such truth, that, so far at their character, while new discoveries will awaken a train of least as regards natural religion, it is a prophet, yea, and new ideas. T vellow blossoms of the morning, that fold more than a prophet.

up their delicate leaves as the day advances; others that At the same time, my brethren, before I conclude, I court and sustain the full blaze of noon; and the pale nightmust remind you, that, though among men born of women scented tribe, which expand and diffuse their very sweet there had not risen a greater than John the Baptist, notwith. fragrance, towards evening, will all please in their turn. standing he that was least in the kingdom of heaven was Though spring is the season of hope and novelty, to a greater than he. Though among the works of men's hands naturalist more especially, yet the wise provisions and and minds none is greater, even in the sense we have been abundant resources of Nature, in the close of the year, will considering, none fitter to impress us with deep and mo- yield an observing mind no less pleasure, than the rich vamentous truths, than this city, in which all the might of the riety of her autumnal tints affords to the admirers of her heathen world was concentrated and consummated, and all external charms. The more we study the works of the the fruits of its genius were stored up, yet the least of those Creator, the more wisdom, beauty, and harmony become truths which we draw exclusively from the Gospel is manifest, even to our limited apprehensions: and while we deeper and more momentous than all that come from this admire, it is impossible not to adore. or any other natural source. This city may tell us of the Soft roll your incense, herbs, and fruits, and Aowers, terrors of the Lord; but it cannot tell us of His mercies. In mingled clouds, to Him, whose sun exalts, It may display His power; but it cannot display His love. Whose breath perfumes you, and whose pencil paints. It may teach us to fear Him as our Governor; but it cannot

Sir J. E. Smith's Introduction to Botang

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