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TO THEIR AGES.
NOTES ON SHEEP.
unfortunately much 'out of fashion in England, but still DIFFERENT NAMES OF SHEEP ACCORDING
extremely serviceable everywhere. It might also comprise general views and practical results concerning the earth's
surface, showing the best modes of quarrying, of discrimi. It is a very general custom in England to calculate the age nating the nature of soils, and improving them for agriculof sheep from the shearing-season, as for instance, the
tural purposes. chief flocks in the United Kingdoms are 'lambed between A work of this kind would be extremely serviceable to the end of January and March, and shorn in June and July. the young peasant, and assist him in his progress through Our owners estimate the ages of their flocks from the latter life. As a stimulus, suitable rewards should be offered to period, as may be seen from the following terms by which him for such improvement as he may make in that branch the ages of sheep are calculated.
of industry to which his application is directed. It were During the time the lambs run with their dams, the indeed to be wished that some of our patriotic noblemen, or male is called either a “tup lamb,” or “ram lamb." From benevolent corporations, would carry out the suggestion the period of his being weaned, to the shearing season, he is here offered. A mixed elementary and practical tuition, classed under different denominations, such as a “tup hog," undertaken on a plan similar to the one here insinuated, or “teg hog," and when deprived of his fleece he is very besides being beneficial at home, would be attended with the generally distinguished by the term “ shearling tup, shear- best consequences in our grazing colonies. ling hog, or shearling teg." After being shorn a second time, he is called a "two-shear tup, two-shear hog, or two
UTILITY OF SHEEP. shear teg," and when a year older he bears the above names, Were it not for sheep, a large portion of the hilly districts with the addition of another year to his age. The ewes are called “ewe-lambs” until weaned, and after that period -unproductive and uncultivated. The steepest ascents
of the United Kingdom would have remained barren wastes shearling ewes, two-shear ewes, and three and four-shear and most mountainous districts are traversed by this little ewes,” &c.
animal, who there seeds without the aid of culture, or the IMPROVEMENT OF RURAL EDUCATION
support of man, whilst tlocks fertilize and improve the land The true philanthropist and real patriot will be disposed
on which they pasture, and thus augment its produce, at the to encourage the emigration to our grazing colonies of same time that the enlightened and scientific agriculturist, young, healthy, and useful persons, incapable of earning a through the operation of folding, conveys by their aid competent livelihood at home. But he will not stop here. manure to land inaccessible to a dung-cart, and thus causes He will extend his benevolence a step further, and endeavour them to become fruitful, and yield an increase of grain for to see that early instruction, adapted to their respective the use and benefit of the human race. callings, is instilled into the minds of our field labourers. Again, the experienced agriculturist applies the services It is to be feared that generally speaking the plan of rural of sheep, at certain seasons of the year, to early corn crops education in England is defective, and I became the more when in too forward a state. At such periods these useful convinced that this was the case from a circumstance which animals are commonly turned into those fields which fell under my own observation.
appear too luxuriant, and by nipping the too early plants, Some time ago I was requested by a mercantile house in check their growth, whilst their little feet break and pulAustralia to send out to them a party of shepherds, for the verize the clods of earth, and by gentle pressure contribute management of flocks. I accordingly procured sixteen
to the defence of the tender roots from the winter's frost. from Kent, Wilts, and Norfolk, well recommended, no more
Their manure also serves to fertilize the land, by causing than half of whom could read and write. On inquiry I the plants to fructify, and the produce to increase. Such learnt that the uneducated parties, when boys, had been
are the uses and advantages of sheep, as applied to agriculoccupied in tending flocks, which prevented them from
ture, receiving any instruction. Surely in an age like this,
SHEEP-SHEARING, when in large towns institutions are established to instruct the mechanical classes, some method might be adopted to
During the operation of shearing an amusing scene is diffuse useful knowledge among our peasantry !
presented to the admirers of nature and the lovers of pastoral We hear of schools for farmers being established on the scenery, by witnessing, the ewes, when deprived of their European continent, and although this mode of tuition in
fleeces and restored to their lambs. The former bleat plainEngland might not perhaps produce the effect desired, tively and as if fully sensible of the injury sustained, nevertheless I humbly conceive the object in view might be
while the latter, responding to the call of their dams, attained by some other expedient, and it would be to the hesitate to approach on beholding them in so new and honour and the credit of our leading agriculturists to have strange a form. This scene is thus admirably described in one devised. They themselves would eventually reap the Cuvier's Animal Kingdom. benefit. A little public spirit is all that is wanting to
“He who, in shearing-time, when the lambs are put up remove what truly may be called a national calamity, if not separately from the ewes, witnesses the correct knowledge a disgrace. Let us therefore begin systematically, and see
these animals have of each other's voices; the particular that suitable pocket-books, or manuals, are placed in the bleating of the mother, just escaped from the shears, and the hands of the several classes of our unlettered peasants.
responsive cail of the lamb, skipping at the same moment To have poor children taught to read and write ought to
of time to meet her; its startling attitude at the first sight of be the bounden duty of the parish overseer, and no parent her altered appearance, and the re-assured gambol at her should be allowed to avail himself of the personal services repeated voice and well-known smell; he who observes them, of any junior member of his family until this has been
at these moments, will not refuse them as great a share of accomplished. Thanks to the generous and benevolent intelligence as their ancient subjugation, extreme delicacy, dispositions of our resident nobility and gentry, in no
and consequent habitual dependance on man's will, allow." village, or rural district of the kingdom, can poverty be
[From SOUTHEY's Treatise on Sheep.] pleaded as an excuse for the omission.
When a peasant-boy, for example, has made sufficient progress in the first rudiments, and is called upon to earn his
DUELLING. livelihood in the open air, either by means of field-hus
Reputation?—that's man's idol, bandry, or tending sheep, he ought to have a portable and
Set up against God, the maker of all laws, 'strongly-bound tract put in his hand, written in a plain Who hath commanded us we should not kill, and elementary manner, on agriculture and the manage And yet we say we must, for reputation ! ment of sheep, and containing lists of the ordinary fruit and What honest man can either fear his own, forest trees, descriptions of the best methods of draining Or else will hurt another's reputation ? land, and an enumeration of the seasons for sowing, modes Fear to do base and unworthy things is valour ; of planting and grafting, &c., accompanied by instructive If they be done to us, to suffer them plates.
Is valour too. This manual ought also to treat of the common diseases among cattle, horses, and sheep, to which might be added a
LONDON: plate, representing the short-jointed, clean-legged, bony and compact cart-horse, of which there are a few fine specimens
JOHN WILLIAM PARKER, WEST STRAND, still remaining in Suffolk and Norfolk. · Correct drawings
PUBLISHED IN WEEKLY NUMBERS, PRICE ONE PENNY, AND IN MONTHLY L'ARTS, of this kind would familiarize the eye to a breed of horses Sold by all Booksellers and Newsvenders in the Kingdom.
RUE ST. ANTOINE AND THE BASTILLE, AS THEY APPEARED IN THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY.
preach within two leagues of Paris, nor in any other part In the Supplement for December, we brought down our where the Court might be: eight towns were also given up sketch of the history of Paris to that dreadful period when to them. This concession alarmed the Catholic party; and Protestants were doomed to suffer a heavy persecution for Rome, Spain, and the Guises formed the Catholic League, the conscientious worship of the Almighty in the principles an association whose object was to uphold Catholic power of the Reformed Church. We now resume our sketch, against all attempts of the Protestants. As one of the and shall rapidly review the principal events in which articles of this league was, that the Catholics were to be in Paris was concerned, from the massacre of St. Bartholomew future entirely dependent on the chief of the league, and to about the year 1780.
were to execute whatever he commanded, the king thought Charles the Ninth, the weak and wicked prinee under proper to become himself the chief of it, in order to keep whose reign the massacre was perpetrated, died in 1972, some authority over an association which might else prove in dreadful agonies of body and mind,—the victim at once dangerous to him. The result of this combination, or assoof a slow fever, and of the yet more terrible infliction of ciation, was, that the contest with the Catholics recomstinging remorse. He was succeeded by his brother, menced, and did not terminate as long as the king lived. Henry the Third, who reigned about sixteen years. Edu. But the members of the league were worthy of each other, cated in the same school, placed in similar circumstances, and showed how little mutual dependence was placed: the directed by the same councils as his brother, he seemed Duke of Guise soon showed hostility to the king,—was likely to hold the same conduct, and to entertain the same assassinated by his order,—and the king himself was finally principles. But although he was as great a persecutor, as assassinated, in 1538, by a monk, named Jacques Clement, perfidious and as superstitious as Charles, he was not so instigated, as is supposed, by the leaguers. sanguinary; but delighted more in scenes of licentious The Capuchins were first established in Paris in this debauchery. He was, to a considerable extent, a tool in reign. The Court of Rome, alarmed at the progress of the hands of Rome and Spain; and he readily consented Protestantism, determined to multiply the number of its to continue the persecution of the Protestants, provided his emissaries. Paris was already surcharged with monasteries own private pleasures were not interfered with.
and monks, convents for both sexes, and religious commuBut five years of warring against the Protestants pro- nities of every name and kind. To these were added duced no definite results; and, weary of the contest, Henry Jesuits and Capuchins; the former of whom undertook to consented to a kind of treaty, by which liberty of conscience gain spiritual power over the higher orders, and the latter and the public exercise of religion were granted to the over the poor and humble. The Capuchins afterwards Protestants, but with the restriction, that they were not to became some of the most zealous agents of the Papal power, Vol. XVII.
while the Jesuits added a great deal of subtle sagacity to to defend themselves; and the General said that at last he their zeal.
became weary of merely striking them to the ground, and
declared that he would kill no more of them. DAY OF TIE BARRICADES.
After a highly discreditable scene of pillage, the troops The city of Paris, during this reign, suffered many of Henry retired from Paris, in order to lay siege to of those vicissitudes which influenced France generally; Etampes. But in the May of the following year, (1589,) he but there was one day, called the Day of the Barricades, again presented himself before the walls of Paris, and then in which Paris showed the great power which a dense commenced a siege which, for the exquisite misery suffered population, suddenly excited, can manifest in political by the huinbler classes of the besieged, has been rarely exturmoils. We have mentioned that Henry the Third celled in the history of nations. We must detail this siege joined the leaguers, in order to shield himself from their somewhat fully. power; but it appears that the Duke of Guise had some Henry determined to starve out the city, instead of thing more than the support of the Catholic cause in view; assaulting it; and for that purpose blockaded it on every for although Henry was a zealous Catholic, there was a side, in order that no provisions should be conveyed into the never-ceasing hostility on the part of the duke. In truth, city. His first operation, therefore, was to gain possession he aimed at dethroning the king, and assuming the reins of all the faux bourgs that surrounded the city walls. He of regal power himself. Guise contrived to gain the good- divided his army into ten portions, and at twelve o'clock at will of the Parisians, and to draw down odium on the king. midnight, on the 8th of May, these ten divisions attacked He so far succeeded in this plan as to determine on a bold simultaneously the ten fauxbourgs, which at that time proceeding on the 12th of May, 1588. On the niorning of formed the suburbs of the city, and soon conquered the that day, the king, aware that there was a plot in operation, whole. Henry was thus enabled to bring his forces close surrounded himself with 4000 Swiss guards, who placed up to the barriers or gates of the city, and thus to prevent themselves in the Place de Grève; while 2000 more occu
the entrance of provisions. pied the different bridges of Paris. This was done quite The leaders of the besieged were, however, resolved to early in the morning, and by four o'clock, parties of the hold out to the last, although the prospect before them was populace were seen assembling, and a cry of “To arms" was terrible; for they had not more than a fortnight's provisions raised. Chains were speedily stretched across the ends of within the walls. But as Henry drew off a portion of his the streets, while a party of armed students and artisans, army for a time, in order to take possession of Nantes, the headed by the Duke of Brissac, one of the chiefs of the Parisians succeeded in obtaining some additional provisions. league, tore up the pavement, and with the stones, together A message was sent to demand succour from the Duke of with earth trodden hard in casks, constructed a barricade Parma; and when Henry's army had completely hemmed in the Place Maubert, in the south-west quarter of the in the city, a census of the population and an inventory of town. By noon of the same day, similar barricades were the provisions were taken, when it was found that there erected in all the principal streets, the effect of which was were 200,000 human beings within the walls, together with to cut off the communication of the royal troops from one enough wheat for one month's consumption, and 1500 hogspart of the city to the other. These barricades were de- heads of oats. Never, perhaps, did a month's provisions fended by parties of musqueteers; while the inhabitants appear a more cherished treasure. were stationed at the roofs and windows of the houses to The ecclesiastical authorities of the city now exerted all fire, or to hurl stones at the soldiers beneath. The soldiers the well known authority of the priesthood of the Romish attempted to disperse the assemblages of armed citizens; faith to keep in subjection those of the Parisians who were but they were almost everywhere beaten back and defeated. disposed to murmur at the prospect before them. They
The king had now nå course to pursue than to treat preached sermons, in which they inveighed most outrawith the Duke of Guise, the acknowledged head of the geously against the heretic besieger (for it must be borne assailants. The duke undertook to stop the carnage which in mind that a large share of the hostility of the clergy and the people were making among the soldiers. He rode nobles against Henry was due to the difference of religion among the people, and his orders to that effect were in between him and them, although he had previously made stantly obeyed,' amid cries of "Guise for ever!" Guise a show of conversion); and they called down the vengeance intended to make use of his newls-gained advantage on of Heaven on all who should dare to consider his claims as the following morning; but, during the night, the king well-founded. The priests also adopted the expedient of contrived to escape from the Louvre, and left Paris. Thus reading from their pulpits forged letters, purporting to ended the “day of the barricades."
come from the Duke de Mayenne, and announcing apSIEGE OF PARIS BY HENRY OF NAVARRE.
proaching succour. . Spectacles and processions of various
kinds were devised, in order to distract the attention of the The death of the king, which we hare said was the work people from their own sufferings. On one occasion, a sort of Jacques Clement, occurred at St. Cloud, while Henry, of military review of eeclesiastics took place. The Bishop together with Henry of Navarre, were laying plans for of Senlis walked at the head of the procession, followed by besieging Paris. When the king was dead, Henry of ccclesiastics walking four and four. Then followed the Navarre caused himself to be proclaimed king, under the four mendicant orders, the Capuchins, the friars minims, title of Henry the Fourth. His claim to the throne rested and an assemblage of students. The chiefs of the religious on the following grounds. He was the grandson of the orders carried each one a crucifix in the left hand and a King of Navarre, a country which, at that time, had not halberd in the right; while others among them carried yet been united to France. He therefore inherited the arquebusses, daggers, and other kinds of arms. Many of throne of Navarre; and having married the sister of Charles them wore helmets and corslets. A Scotch ecclesiastic, the Ninth, claimed, on the death of Henry the Third, the named Hamilton, acted as serjeant, marshalled them in French crown, as being the nearest relative to the deceased order, stopped them when a hymn was to be sung, and king. This claim appears to have been just; but it was then ordered them to march again. not so deemed, for interest' sake, by the bigoted Catholics But all this vain trifling was of little worth to the poor who then held sway in France. Henry of Navarre had sufferers whom hunger began to attack. When the comsupported the cause of the Huguenots, or Protestants, with mon stock of provisions was exhausted, the religious houses, great vigour, and had naturally earned the deadly hatred which were found to be plentifully provided, were ordered of the Catholics on that account. As he was at St. Cloud to share their provisions with the rest. When even this when the king died, the Catholics, or leaguers, were store was gone, alarm seized on all. Henry had now so resolved not to permit him to enter Paris, but to set up one completely invested the city, that not the smallest quantity of their own party as king.
of food could be conveyed into it. The people urged the Henry of Navarre, whom we shall now call Henry the authorities to submit; but the latter, firm in their refusal, Fourth, collected together all his troops in order to take by imprisoned, hanged, and even threw into the river, those force the city which resisted his demands. On the 31st of who advised surrender; and a decree was passed, making October, he appeared with his army before Paris, and im- it a crime punishable with death even to allude to such a mediately began to secure the fauxbourg, or suburb of step, St. Germains. In doing so, much unnecessary and cruel When the grain was all eaten, all the cats and dogs shedding of blood tarnished the reputation of Henry's contained in the city were ordered to be killed, and cooked army. One of the divisions of his troops enclosed a crowd for the food of the poor: this was done in public kitchens, of the inhabitants of St. Germains, in the market-place, established in various parts of the city, where the meat was and massacred 400 of them, in a space of ground less than boiled in large cauldrons, and distributed every day. This 200 paces in extent. The unfortunates made no attempt | supply, together with 200 horses, and 800 asses and mules,
lasted about a fortnight. The poor had then recourse to the carriage. This monk's name was Ravaillac, and he the skins of all these animals, which they devoured; to rats afterwards died by horrible tortures. and mice, whenever they could be captured; and even to It is difficult to view with a lenient eye the manner in the bones of the heads of dogs, bruised into a kind of pulp. which Henry made religion the tool of his political proceedBut those who devoured such food were found to survive ings. But putting motives out of the question, the Protesbut a short time; so that what with those, and others who tant cause gained considerably during his reign. On the died of positive starvation, two or three hundred persons 13th of April, 1598, he passed the celebrated Edict Oy were found lying dead in the streets every morning; a
Nantes, which re-established in a solid and effective manner consequence of which was, that pestilence became added to all the favours which had been granted to the reformed, their other sorrows.
and added more which had not been thought of before, parWhen the siege had lasted about six weeks, some of the ticularly that of allowing them a free admission to all empoor contrived, one dark night, to slide down from the wall ployments of trust, profit, and honour; establishing chambers into the moat, and, throwing themselves at Henry's feet, in which the members of the two religions were equal, and conjured him to allow them to leave the city. He was the permitting their children to be educated without removed with their piteous tale, and, on the following day, straint in any of the universities. allowed 3000 of the poorest inhabitants to leave the place. Henry was succeeded by Louis the Thirteenth, under But as the Guise party resolutely refused to surrender, the the regency of the queen-mother, Mary de Medicis. relief to the besieged was but temporary. The citizens During the minority of the king there were repeated cabals petitioned the governor—but in vain; and when the popu- between the queen-regent and the ambitious nobles; but lace became clamorous, vast numbers of them were when, in 1617, he came of age, and resumed the regal auinstantly hanged, in order to intimidate the rest. By this thority, he chose as his counsellor the talented and ambitious time, not a cat, a dog, a blade of grass, or an ear of corn Cardinal Richelieu. The political events of this reign we was to be found in the place, and the sufferers actually cannot detail, but we must mention that religious wars broke pounded slates, and baked them for food: nay, even graves out and distracted France. Notwithstanding the Edict of were rifled, and the dead bodies ground and baked in a Nantes, the Catholic party renewed hostilities against the similar manner. One more incident, and we must close Protestants, and after many sanguinary scenes, the edict this scene of horrors: two children having died, the starving was confirmed in 1621. But this treaty did not last long, mother salted their bodies, and, with a female servant, for hostilities broke out again; and it was not till 1628 that subsisted on them for several days.
the religious wars which had distracted France were terWhen the siege had lasted three months, one hundred minated. In one of the contests during Louis the Thir, thousand persons had perished from hunger and disease, teenth's reign, the town of Negreplisse was besieged, and being one-half of the entire population. Henry himself after having been taken, it was resolved
make a terrible was sickened at the thought of such a devastation, and example of the inhabitants, who had refused to surrender occasionally permitted provision to be carried in; but as the on any terms.-the inhabitants were all massacred, withleaguers, notwithstanding the scenes around them, still out distinction of sex, age, or rank! The wars in which the refused to yield, the Parisians found themselves again Protestants and Catholics of France had been engaged for so hemmed in, and reduced to despair. But their period of many years, had cost 1,000,000 of human lives, 150,000,000 suffering now approached an end. The Duke of Parma, livres of money, and the destruction of 9 cities, 400 villages, whose assistance had been so long looked for, approached 2000 churches, 2000 monasteries, and 10,000 houses. The the neighbourhood on August 30, and Henry immediately ultimate result of these terrible conflicts was, that the Pro departed with his army from before Paris in order to give testant religion was admitted on a kind of sufferance into him battle. "At the dawn of day," says a French historian, France, but possessed of but little influence. There were “the sentinel perceived that the city was deserted by the no particular attacks made on the rights and freedom of enemy. Immediately cries of joy were heard along the conscience of Protestants, until that most disastrous one walls. The inhabitants, aroused by these cries, could under Louis the Fourteenth: a persecution which robbed scarcely credit such unhoped-for good fortune: they ran to France of some of its most valuable subjects. This will the ramparts to assure themselves with their own eyes that presently occupy our attention. such was the fact. A Te Deum was immediately sung, the preacher, Panigarole, delivered a sermon, and arranged a
CIVIL WARS OF THE FRONDISTS. grand procession. But the famishing inhabitants left this Louis the Thirteenth, and his great minister Richelieu, procession, and ran out into the neighbouring fields and both died in 1643, and the throne passed to his son Louis villages in search of grass and herbage."
the Fourteenth. As the young king was, however, only REIGN OF HENRI QUATRE-EDICT OF NANTES
five years of age, the kingdom was governed during his
minority by his mother, Anne of Austria, widow of Louis LOUIS THE THIRTEENTHI.
the Thirteenth. France was in a very convulsed state. It was four years after this before Henry the Fourth The court and the parliament espoused different interests, gained possession of Paris; in which interval he solemnly and a long series of cabals followed. In these Paris had abjured the Protestant faith. But ihis did !ot satisfy the its share, as on all similar occasions. Anne had taken to leaguers, who were obviously more influenced by political her counsel the able but profligale Cardinal Mazarin; and than religious feelings. He ultimately gained possession there now arose two parties, the court party, headed by of Paris by giving the governor, Count de Brissac, a bribe Mazarin and the queen-regent, and the Frondiste, or the of nearly two million livres. Henry and his troops entered Fronde, who comprised by far the larger portion of the parsecretly by the aid of the governor, and immediately took liament, and of the inhabitants of Paris. The appellation possession of the regal palace. The populace very soon Fronde is said to have been derived from frondeurs or became favourable, for it was not so much they, as the slingers, and to denote that the party could orerthrow leaders of the Catholic party, who had been so hostile to Mazarin with the same ease as David slew Goliah. The Henry.
following narration will show the manner in which the We cannot follow minutely the course of events which Fronde exhibited their power. succeeded Henry's entry into Paris. We may merely ob On the 26th of August 1648, Peter Broussel, one of the serve, that so deadly was the hatred of the Catholic party councillors of the parliament, and a distinguished member toward him, that he was in constant fear of his life,-a cir- of the Fronde, was arrested by command of Mazarin, and cumstance sufficient to embitter the existence of any man. conveyed to prison. Broussel had so ingratiated himsel. No less than seventeen distinct attempts at assassination with the people generally, that he was called Father of the were planned during his reign, and in these conspiracies, People, and Patriarch of the Fronde, and his detention monks, priests, cardinals, and legates, figured so conspicu excited a great ferment. A cry of rescue was almost imously as to show how deadly was the hostility of the Romish mediately raised among the residents of the neighbourhood. party to him. The eighteenth attempt was successful. He This cry soon spread to every part of the city, the inhabireceived intimation that an attempt was to be made on his tants flew to arms, the chains were stretched across the life, and he was in a state of anxious suspense respecting ends of the street, the pavements were torn up and formed it. At length, May 14, 1610, he was riding from the Louvre into barricades, and everything showed a probable renewal to the Arsenal, when the street through which he passed of the “day of the barricades" before described. When was blocked up with vehicles. His carriage was forced to Mazarin heard the news of the disturbed state of Paris, stop; and as he was stooping to address the Duc d'Epernon he ordered troops to occupy the bridges which separate the on the opposite seat, a monk stepped up on the wheel of city into two parts, so as to cut off the communication from the carriage, and stabbed him through ihe open window of one to the other. But the multitude, who had providcom
themselves with weapons from every available source, to the wishes of the people. Broussel was then liberated, attacked the troops with so much vigour and firmness, and was received with every demonstration of joy by the that the latter were obliged to quit two of the bridges, and people; after which they returned to their homes; and the could only succeed in maintaining one of them, the Pont chains and barricades were removed from the streets by Royal. The reason for this defeat was to be found in the order of parliament.-Thus ended the “Barricade of the circumstance, that the people had so barricaded the passages Fronde." from one part of the city to another, that the soldiers were A long series of contests ensued, during the minority almost deprived of the power of acting vigorously.
of Louis the Fourteenth, between the court party on the At this period Cardinal Retz presented himself on the one hand, and the magistracy and parliament on the other.
He was at that time called Coadjutor de Retz, that The queen regent, and her minister Mazarin, showed a is, coadjutor or assistant to the Archbishop of Paris, with strong disposition to usurp more than the recognized regal the right of succession to that see. He appeared, in his authority; while the parliament were equally resolved to clerical robes, before the people on one of the bridges, and resist any encroachments on the public liberty. harangued them, exhorting them to return to their homes. During these turmoils, a circumstance occurred which The reply to this exhortation was, that Broussel's liberty shows how much moral dignity and firmness are felt by was what they sought, and that they would not abandon the hot and violent. The discontent and hostility between their arms until they had obtained it. This answer induced parties had risen to such a height, that some of the Fronde Retz to go to the queen-regent, and by stating the position were thinking of calling in foreign aid, to put down the of the metropolis, to advise her to yield to the popular de regent and Mazarin. But the more moderate of the mand. This appeal was for a long time as ineffectual to magistrates and of the parliament, disgusted at the her as it had been to the people; but a further view of the attempts to ruin the best interests of the country by such case showed the propriety of not pushing matters to ex means, resolved nobly to forego their claims on the court tremities. Marshal de Meillerai was therefore sent out to party, rather than adopt such a step. The president, tell the populace, that when they had laid down their arms, Molé, therefore signed a sort of treaty or compact with the and had dispersed, Broussel should be liberated. But the court, by which the evils of foreign interference were Marshal having unluckily adopted the expedient of advan- avoided. But great was the indignation of the populace, cing toward them with a drawn sword, and shouting “ Vive and of the seditious leaders, at this compact: the leaders le Roi;" the people, thinking his intentions hostile, attacked were perplexel, and hardly knew how to assent to such a him, upon which he instantly shot one man dead. He then
It became Mole's duty to announce the treaty to galloped to another street, but so many persons had assem the parliament, and it required all his firmness to do so. bled, that he thought it prudent to return to the palace, A ferocious crowd, crying "Treason! No peace! No Mahaving done more harm than good in his mission. Soon zarin !" surrounded the house of parliament, and the throng after this, the populace returned to their own houses, but within the walls were nearly as violent as those without; with the intent of using redoubled vigour on the following for the number was small of those who took Mole's sagaday.
cious view of the evils of civil discord. Molé stood up, and Before the people had begun to assemble on the morning read the treaty, amid the clamorous opposition of the of the twenty-seventh, two companies of Swiss guards assembly. The prince of Conti, one of the nobles of what marched to secure one of the city gates. This immediately was called the popular cause, exclaimed against a peace excited the people, who seized their arms, attacked the concluded without his knowledge and that of his friends. troops, killed many of them, and put the rest to flight. “You are the cause of it," retorted Molé, “ for whilst we About the same time, the chancellor Seguier received orders were at Ruel, you were treating with the enemies of France; from court to proceed to the parliament, and forbid any dis- you were inviting the Austrians, the Spaniards, and the cussion respecting the subject' then under agitation, a enemies of France, to invade the kingdom.”—“It is not tyrannical proceeding which did not fail to excite still further without the consent of several members of the parliament the resentment of the populace. Having tried in rain to that we took this step," replied the prince, without denying pass some of the barricades in his way to the Palais de the charge. “Name them!" exclaimed Molé firmly,“ name Justice (where the sittings of the parliament were held), the traitors, that we may proceed to try and judge ther." the chancellor was proceeding along the Quay des Augus- The firmness of the president at once awed the nobles, and tins; when the people attacked him, and forced him to take won over the majority of the assembled magistrates to suprefuge in the Hotel de Luynes, situated on that quay. But port him. The only hope of the favourers of sedition was they did not leave him in quiet: beating in the outer door, in the rabble, who, excited and incensed, had penetrated they searched for him in all the apartments, and were just into the passages and corridors of the house. Some, with about to set fire to the house, when a party of military came poniards and arms, demanded the head of the president: up, and succeeded in conveying him safely in a coach to “Give us up the Grande Barbc '"(long beard, for this they wards the Palais, but not without a fierce contest; for the called him.) Molé heard them with unshaken courage. mob pursued the soldiers, fired on them, and killed several; Those around him besought him to escape by a private pasand some shots which were fired at the carriage killed two sage. Justice never skulks,” replied Nolé, “nor will I, its gent emen sitting near the chancellor, and wounded his representative. I may perish, but will never commit an act daughter, the Duchess de Sully.
of cowardice which would give hardihood to the mob." In All these events were soun known in every corner of accordance with this moral firmness, Molé walked fearlessly Paris; the people flew to arms; and by ten o'clock, there down the principal staircase, through the mob, who were were no fewer than two hundred barricades constructed in awed and subdued by his magnanimity, and allowed him different parts. Flags and banners were hoisted on these to pass unhurt. De Retz, one of the most powerful of the barricades, and behind each of them was posted a band of opposing nobles, has recorded, “that he could perceire in armed citizens, ready to dispute the passage of the military. the countenance of Molé, while threatened by the fury of Still the regent and the minister remained obstinately bent the multitude, not a movement that did not indicate imon maintaining their position. The parliament proceeded perturbable firmness, and at the same time a presence and in a body to the Palais, and requested the liberation of elevatio. of mind greater than firmness, and almost superBroussel, as the only means of restoring peace to the city, natural." All their importunities were vain: the regent remained
SIEGE OF PARIS BY CONDÉ. unmoved, and the parliament retired as they came. But while they were proceeding to the Palais de Justice, a mob Perhaps at no other period in French history were the orator advanced, but without any violence or coarseness, contests for power so varied and so changeable as at the and demanded of the president whether he had brought period of which we are speaking. The queen-regent (for back Broussel. The president replied that he had not, Louis the Fourteenth was not yet old enough to assume the and that they were returning back to the parliament house reins of government) had disgusted all parties by her perto deliberate on their future plans. “No," said the man, tinacious retention of Mazarin, who had been an Italian "you must return to the Palais, and bring Broussel with monk, in the ministry. The prince of Condé, and other you: without him you shall not pass." Others of the mob members of royal blood, formed one party; Molé, and the were more intemperate; seized the president by the beard, moderate parliamentarians formed another; the violent and threatened to set the Palais on fire, and stab the members, together with the lower classes, formed a third; regent and Mazarin. The president and members were while De Retz intrigued with all in succession, as best therefore forced to return to the Palais; and after an served his own interest. It was during the existence of ineffectual attempt to prevail on the regent, a council was this state of things, that Paris was besieged by the prince held, at which Mazarin expressed the necessity of yielding 1 of Condé. Marshal Turenne had compelled the prince to