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THE FIELD OF THE CLOTH OF GOLD.
each one read the articles of agreement between In a former number of the Saturday Magazine* we them. Henry then began to speak, and said, “I have given an outline of the nature of the tournaments Henry, king of England ;". he stopped: his anwhich used to occur in England in the “olden time." | cestors had been accustomed for centuries to call But there occasionally happened, in foreign countries, themselves, with more presumption than truth, " kings meetings between sovereigns, where tournaments on of England and France;" but the indecorous effect a most magnificent scale were carried on. One of such a claim on the present occasion presented of the most celebrated of these is known by the name itself to his mind. He therefore added, “I will not of the Field of the Cloth of Gold, alluding to the gor- continue the title in your presence, for it would be an geous display made at a meeting of Henry the Eighth untruth.” The two kings then signed the articles, of England, with Francis the First of France, at a which was in fact the principal national business that particular spot in the latter country. As this meet- they had to transact, and took leave of each other, ing is characteristic of the manners of the times, we returning to their respective suites. The two cavalshall describe it somewhat minutely.
cades then returned, the one to Ardres and the other The occasion which led to it was this. The thrones to Guines, in the same order as they came. of England, France, and Germany, were occupied by The next day messengers were sent from Henry to three powerful monarchs, Henry the Eighth, Francis Francis, to arrange the manner and times of visiting the First, and Charles the Fifth. The two latter each other, how that the kings should one day enterseemed likely soon to come to hostilities about some tain the queens, and another day the queens entertain claims which both put forth for the kingdom of Naples; the kings,-how that the King of England should and each one was anxious to obtain the friendship of visit the Queen of France at Ardres, and the King of Henry the Eighth. Cardinal Wolsey was then in the France visit the Queen of England at Guines. There zenith of his power, and each of the foreign monarchs were many parts of these propositions in which Henry tried to win him over to their respective interests. arranged for mutual pledges for the good faith of the So far as means are left of judging, it appears that monarchs towards each other. These proposals sur. Henry was most inclined to favour Francis, while prised and somewhat hurt Francis, who had much of Wolsey was best disposed towards Charles. But be the spirit of chivalric honour about him. He therethis as it may, after Charles had come to England to fore resolved to pay his brother monarch a visit in pay a friendly visit to Henry, the latter went to such a way as should disarm anything like suspicion. accept an invitation from Francis, where they were He rose early next morning, took a gentleman and to sign a treaty of amity together,
a page with him, mounted a horse caparisoned as Francis settled his court, for the occasion, at Ardres, plainly as possible, and rode over to Guines. When while Henry took up his station at Guines, no great he arrived there he found all the places carefully distance from the former. Francis caused some guarded with archers, who were astonished to see him splendid buildings to be erected in and near Ardres for come so undefended. He demanded to be admitted the reception of his distingushed guest. One of these to his brother monarch, and was immediately allowed was a wooden building in the form of an amphitheatre, to pass, although informed at the same time that with three stages of chambers and galleries one above Henry was not yet risen. Francis passed on to Henry's the other, the whole covered with silk. There were chamber, opened the door, and stood before him. also provided a number of tents and pavilions, some Henry was in bed, and was astounded to see his formed of cloth of gold, and others of gold, silver, visitor. He knew, however, how to appreciate and silken damask. On the top of the king's pavilion generous confidence, although he had not himself was a figure of St. Michael, all in gold.
shown it in the first instance. He said to Francis, Henry's camp, if it may be so called, at Gufnes, "My brother, you have paid me a better compliment consisted of but one building, but it was a large and than ever one man paid to another, and have shown qlendid one. It was built of wood, in the form of a me the great trust which I ought to put in you: I
puare, and covered with silk and other gorgeous surrender myself your prisoner from this hour, and materials: an open court was in the centre of the plight my faith to you.” He then took a costly building, in which were fountains flowing with wine. necklace, worth fifteen thousand angelst from his A chapel was also erected there, and every conve neck, and put it round the neck of Francis, requestnience for receiving distinguished guests from Ardres. | ing him to wear the token for the love of his prisoner.
The meeting of the two kings was a matter of Francis thereupon drew forth a bracelet, worth thirty great ceremony. In order that neither one should thousand angels, and fastened it round Henry's arm. descend too much from his dignity, it was decided Henry then rose, and Francis insisted on performing that the meeting should take place midway between his toilet for him, saying that he would want no other their two encampments. A splendid tent was erected valet that morning. Shortly afterwards Francis at the appointed spot, and the ministers of the two mounted his horse, and returned to Ardres. kings, Wolsey and Robertet, met there with the On the road he met many of his nobles, who had papers which the two kings were to sign, respecting come in search of him, and one of them said, “ Sire, the treaty, &c. The monarchs came attended by you have acted unwisely to do as you have done; and splendid retinues. With Francis came the Duc de I am very glad to see you again, and give to the Bourbon, the Grand Admiral, some gentlemen es devil him who counselled you to the act." Francis quires, and three hundred archers. Henry came replied that nobody had counselled him, and indeed attended by the Dukes of Suffolk and Norfolk, some that there was not a man in the kingdom who would esynires, and four hundred archers.
so have counselled him. The respective cavalcades advanced up to barriers If Henry had been delighted with Francis's erected for the purpose; here the whole of the inferior frank demeanour, his retinue were still more so: they attendants remained, and the two monarchs advanced could hardly believe that he would have placed himon horseback to meet each other. After a
self in their hands in a totally defenceless condition. teous greeting, they dismounted gave their horses to On the following morning Henry determined to copy attendants, and walked together into the pavilion. the demeanour of his brother monarch. He went After many farther courtesies they sat down, and
* The angel was a gold coin, which, in the time of Henry the * See Saturday Magazine, Vol. XIV., p. 71
Eighth, was worth eight shillings,
over alone to Ardres, and returned, in every way, the the royal visitors; and the French king (perhaps from compliment paid him by Francis.
courtesy) gave the prize to the English wrestlers. When these mutual courtesies were rendered, the Archery then succeeded, at which Henry himself jousts and tournaments commenced, and continued joined, and showed great skill. for eight days. They were particularly splendid, and When the whole entertainment was nearly at an were performed both on horse and on foot. The end, Henry one evening took Francis by the collar French and English knights took with them each ten and said, " My brother, I should like to have a wrestor a dozen men at arms, so that there were in the whole ling-bout with you," and made one or two attempts to three hundred armed men engaged. The place where throw him; but Francis, who was a strong, man, they jousted was barricaded, and the archers of eah fairly threw him to the ground. party guarded the entrance to the enclosed lists. The On the last day a grand banquet was provided, at monarchs, nobles, and knights then encountered each which all the visitors on both sides were present. other, in the approved manner of the chivalrous ages; After which, grand mass was sung by Cardinal and the old chroniclers of both countries expatiate Wolsey, in a little chapel built for the purpose: all with delight on the feats performed. Holinshed tells the French and English singers assisted in the performus,—"On the eleventh of June, the two queens of The cardinal then blessed the two kings, and England and France came to the campe, where either | heralds proclaimed peace between them, which was to saluted other right honorablie, and went into a stage be ratified by a marriage between the son of Francis for them prepared. At the houre assigned, the two and the daughter of Henry. kings, armed at all peeces, mounted on horssebacke, Holinshed gives rather a droll account of the hum: and with their companies, entered the field; the French bler visitors to the show.—“During this triumph, much king on a courser barbed, covered with purple sattin, people of Picardie and West Flanders drew to Guines, broched with gold, and embrodered with corbin's to see the king of England and his honor, to whom fethers, round and buckled; the fether was blacke and vittels of the court were given in plentie: the conduit hatched with gold: on his head-peece he bare a of the gate did run wine alwaies. There were vagasleeve. All the parteners of the French kings bonds, plowmen, labourers, and of the bragerie, chalenge were in like apparell, everie thing correspon- wagoners and beggers, that for drunkennesse laie in dent in cloath of silke embrodered.
On his person
routs and heaps. So great resort came thither, that were attendant on horssebacke noble persons, and on knights and ladies, who were come to see the noble. foot foure persons, all apparelled in purple sattin." nesse, were faine to lie in baie and straw, and held
The dress of Henry and his knights are then des- them thereof highlie pleased." cribed; but these we will pass over, in order to detail The history of the next few years showed how the events of the day:—"Thus with honor and noble hollow was the foundation on which all these pageants courage these two noble kings with their companies were built.
were built. Not only did the son and daughter of entered into the field, and them presented unto the the respective monarchs not marry each other, but queenes. After reverence doone, they rode round in the very next year, Henry the Eighth joined some about the tilt, and so tooke their places appointed." of the continental powers in hostility to Francis, and The knights who were to take part in the tilting were wars succeeded wars with great rapidity. As a then severally introduced to the two queens, before political event therefore, the “field of the cloth of whom they made their reverence: they were dressed gold” was of small importance; but it is valuable as in velvet, satin, plumes, and other gorgeous materials. furnishing illustrations of the manners and customs of The French king tilted with one of the English noble- the age. men, and “ did valientlie and brake spears mightilie.” It was then Henry's turn :-" Then ran the king
THE EXTRAORDINARY CASE OF JOHN of England to Monsieur Grandville with great vigor;
CARTER. so that the speares brake in the kings bande to the vautplate all to shivers. And at the second course he In the year 1589 there was published by Henry gave the said Monsieur Grandville such a stroke, that Goltzius, a German engraver, a series of twelve heads, the charnell of his head-peece, although the same was representing the Twelve Apostles, under each of which veriè strong, was broken in such wise that he might is a sentence of the Creed, in conformity with the run no more, whereby the king wanted three courses. well-known tradition that that compendium of the Then ran the Duke de Vandosme, and met his coun Christian faith was the joint work of those first misterpart right noblie, and brake speares right valient- sionaries of the Gospel; each of whom is said to have lie. The noble Duke of Suffolke charged his course, contributed a certain portion. This tradition is not and met right valientlie his counterpart, and fur- of a very early date, and the story is on many accounts nished the five courses right noblie togither like good incredible; although the substance of that Creed may men of armes. And when all parties of the chalenge well endure the strictest scrutiny, its articles being had right valientlie furnished their courses, they ran gathered together,” according to the words of St. again the two noble kings, who did so valientlie, that Austin, "from those places where they lie scattered the beholders had great joy; after which courses the throughout the Holy Scriptures." There is nothing heralds cried, " Desarmée," and the trumpets sounded remarkable in relation to this set of heads; but the to lodging."
circumstances under which one of the series (the head Such was one day's feats, and the other days were of St. John) has recently been copied, and that too spent in a similar manner. In the evenings, the in a most beautiful manner, are well worthy of attenkings and knights went to visit the queens in tion. their pavilion, and gaiety and splendor everywhere Three years ago the individual by whom the copy reigned : on one of the evenings the queen of France was executed had never so much as thought of making prepared a masque for the entertainment of her a drawing. Many persons will be ready to think guests. But these costly festivals, which Hall, Holin- that there is nothing very wonderful in this, for that shed, Fleurange, and other chroniclers describe at much may be done in three years; but they will pro: full length, we must pass over.
bably alter their opinion before they come to the end When the tilting was over for the day, French and of our narrative. English wrestlers used to exhibit their prowess before John Carter, the person of whom we are speaking:
is the son of a labouring man, who is still living at on the bed, almost perpendicularly before his face, Coggeshall, in Essex. After having been taught to and with his hair-pencil between his teeth, he can read and write at the parish school, he was put to produce, by means of the motion of his neck, assisted learn the trade of silk-weaving, and, although not a occasionally by the lips, the most delicate and beausteady lad, was esteemed in due time to be a good | tifully-turned strokes. He has just begun to try a workman, At the age of twenty he married; but new subject, the human face; and his first attempt in unhappily he did not give up his former bad habits, this way was the head of St. John, of which we have being frequently intoxicated, and very rarely seen at | been speaking. church.
As far as regards his bodily state, there has been One Saturday night, in May, 1836, he had been no appearance of any alteration lately; and if he should drinking at the ale-house with seven or eight other be spared for any length of time, and should pursue young men, as much inclined for mischief as himself, his present course of improvement, he may one day when one of them proposed that the whole party become no mean proficient in an art, which seems to should go up to the plantations of Osgood Hanbury, require, as an essential qualification, that which he Esq., of Holfield Grange, to rob the rooks' nests. In does not in the smallest degree possess—the free use this reprehensible employment they were engaged of the hands. He lives upon a parish allowance; his until near one o'clock on Sunday morning, when Car- weak state of health preventing any further applicater, having climbed to the top of a fir-tree, attempted tion to his new employment than is sufficient to proto reach another, which, in the darkness of the night, cure for him some few additional comforts, or, as they appeared to be within his reach; he jumped, missed may be well called in his case, necessaries. his hold, and fell to the ground. Happily for him [We were desirous of presenting our readers with an engraving the branches broke his fall, or he would, in all pro- from Carter's copy of the old print, but found it impossible to bability, have been killed on the spot; the height of convey, by means of stereotype plates and the steam-press, any
correct idea of the elaborate and minute execution, and the sinthe tree being not less than forty feet.
gularly soft and beautiful effect of his camel-hair pencil drawing. ] panions carried him home in a state of insensibility, and apparently dying, to his wife, who had gone to bed ill, and, as usual, in no small anxiety about her
THE IONIAN ISLANDS. III. unsteady husband. Hearing the noise below, and thinking that he had come home in liquor, she came
ZANTE AND Paxo. down, and, as may be easily imagined, was overcome We resume our notice of the Ionian Islands with by the spectacle which presented itself. He was description of ZANTE. lying on a hurdle, and one of his companions was Zante is an island situated about ten miles distant sitting by his side; the others having left him. Every from Cephalonia, and fifteen miles from the nearest thing was done for him that could be done; but it point of the Morea. It is about twenty-four miles was late' on Sunday afternoon before he recovered his long, and about twelve miles broad. Its shape is that senses; and then his first thought was that he should of an irregular oval, indented with a deep bay at its certainly die, and should have to render up his south-east extremity. The western coast of Zante account to his offended Maker, with all his sins upon exhibits a range of limestone hills, forming steep cliffs his head. A week of intense pain, without a moment's to the sea; while the eastern coast is opposite the sleep, served to increase his alarm; but by degrees Morea, and contains a harbour, within which is situhis bodily sufferings were mitigated, and there ap- ated the town of Zante. There is a pier, on which a peared to be some reason to think that his life might landing is effected by those who visit the town; and be spared, at all events for a time. As the inflam- this pier is often a scene of the bustle which distinmation and swelling subsided, it became evident that guishes a port at which traders arrive from various he had sustained some injury in the spine, which had countries. “It was crowded,” says Dr. Holland, entirely deprived him of the use of his limbs, and, “with an assemblage of people, singular in their interindeed, of every muscle of his body, and of all sen mixture and appearance. In one spot was seen a sation, below the collar-bone. For twelve months he group of Zantiotes, uniting the Venetian with the lay motionless upon his bed; but the time was not
Greek in their external costume and manner; and lost; for, by the blessing of God upon the endeavours in another place a body of soldiers of the Greek regiof the worthy and benevolent clergyman of the parish, ment, their dress at this time little altered from its aided by some excellent neighbours, and a supply of national character, and their aspect as little fashioned good books, he was brought to a sense of the sinful- into the military mould of European troops. In ness of his former life, and to an earnest, and, as is other parts of the area, the red-faced English soldier hoped, effectual inquiry after the means of pardon cariously contrasted with the natives of the country and salvation, through repentance, faith, and renewed in thc feature and expression of his countenance, as obedience. He is now a devout attendant at church, well as in his military dress; and, in addition to and at the holy communion, whenever the weather these, Corsican and Calabrian soldiers, sailors from is such as to allow of his being drawn thither on a various parts of the Mediterranean, and a few Greek sort of couch upon which he is moved.
merchants, habited in the fashion of continental Greece. About a year after the accident, his wife saw, and This singular national mixture is found in many of borrowed for him, a little book which gave an account the Mediterranean ports." of a young woman, who, having lost the use of her The circumference of the island is sixty miles, the hands, amused herself by drawing with her mouth: greater part consisting of an extensive plain, stretchhe determined to try to do the same. At first he ing from north to south, and about six or eight copied butterflies in water-colours; but soon adopted miles broad, and bounded both on the east and west a better style. His kind patrons, the family of Mr. by hills. There are two bays, one on the east, and Hanbury, supplied him with Bewick's Birds, and the other on the south, and the least distance of the other engravings of the same description ; and he island from the mainland of Greece is about twelve soon learned to sketch them very accurately with a miles. The great plain of Zante, enclosed between camel's-hair brush and Indian ink. Inclined towards the hills, is the principal source of support to the the right side, with his paper and copy fixed to his inhabitants, from the fertility which distinguishes it. drawing desk, which is placed in a convenient position Looking down upon this plain from any of the
surrounding eminences, it has the aspect of one con as the classical writer describes it to have been done tinued vineyard, with a few intervals of land occupied two thousand years ago. in tillage or pasturage. Numerous villages and The island is very subjec to earthquakes, two or country houses are scattered over the plain, sur three often occurring in one month; and in the rounded by gardens, or by groves of olive, orange, summer of 1811, for thirty or forty successive days, . and other fruit-trees. The sides of the hills, which several shocks were felt each day. Fissures in the form its boundary, present everywhere mingied castle wall and the principal buildings bear evidence scenery of wood and cultivation, diversified with deep of the frequency of these visitations. They are genevalleys which afford an infinite variety of surface. rally preceded by a peculiar heaviness and sulphureous The hills, which rise to ten or twelve hundred feet character in the atmosphere, and are followed by high, present a limit to the plain, which harmonizes showers of rain. well with the other parts of the scenery.
We must now briefly notice the town and its inha. The greater part of the island seems to be composed bitants. The town of Zante stretches along the of calcareous rocks, while gypsum appears on various eastern shore for about a mile and a half, but is parts of the surface, forming many projecting points : nowhere so much as half a mile in breadth. The buildnear a village in the centre of the island it appears in ings are chiefly in the Italian style, and the interior of low, round eminences, bare of vegetation, and present. the town everywhere shows great neatness. The streets ing a singular aspect, from the partial lustre of the are generally narrow; the houses in the principal exposed surface. But no part of the mineral forma streets (which are usually of stone) four or five stories tion of Zante is so remarkable as the pitch wells, in height. Many churches appear in different parts of which are situated about ten miles from the town, and the town and its environs; a few of them having which have been celebrated since the time of Herodo- steeples, the remainder with the elevated façade, tus. A small tract of marshy land, stretching down which is seen in the catholic churches in Sicily and to the sea, and surrounded on other sides by low Spain. There is an aspect of dulness given to the eminences of limestone, or a bituminous shale, is the streets by the close-barred lattices which cover most immediate locality of the springs : they are found in of the windows, projecting forwards in such a manner three or four different places of the morass, appearing | as to form a sort of triangular box, through the bars like small pools, the sides and bottoms of which are of which a female figure may now and then be seen thickly lined with petroleum in a viscid state, and by by those passing below. The principal street runs agitation easily raised in large flakes to the surface. parallel to the shore, and is lined with piazzas and The most remarkable of these pools is one which is shops. circular in form, about fifty feet in circumference, The castle stands on a hill 350 feet high: it was and a few feet in depth, in which the petroleum built by the Venetians, and is very large, including, has accumulated to a considerable quantity. The besides barracks and store houses, many detached water of the spring, which is doubtless the means private buildings, with gardens annexed to them. of conveying the mineral upwards to the surface, Since Zante came into the possession of the English, forms a small stream from the pool, sensibly impreg much labour has been bestowed both upon the castle nated with bituminous matter, which it partially and the fortification. deposits as it flows through the morass: the other The inhabitants of Zante form a sort of intermepools are of similar character. The petroleum is diate link between the Greeks and the Italians ; for generally collected once in the year, and the average while the proximity of the island to Greece, and its quantity obtained from the springs is said to be early union with it, have tended to give it a Grecian about a hundred barrels : it is chiefly used for the character, the long dominion of the Venetians over caulking of vessels. The pitch is collected by draw- these islands, and their constant commercial intercourse ing it from the pools on a bough of myrtle, or other with them, have tended to impart Italian manners to shrub, attached to a pole, precisely in the same way the Zantiotes. Mr. Dodwell says that the state of
society is rather on a low footing in the island. The violent, that they cannot possibly continue long at it. nobility, chiefly counts of Venetian creation, though They slip two strong bars, after the manner of a cap. not inferior to that of the principal towns in Sicily, yet stan, and then with a shout, or simultaneous cry, they in general are men of little refinement, and in their urge them forward by a simultaneous movement, the modes of life scarcely equal to the middle classes of effect of which is marked by a quantity of oil oozing English society.
through the mat, and falling into a hole cut in the The Zantiotes profess the religion of the Greek ground for its reception. After the interval of forty Church, and adhere rigidly to it; and though the or fifty seconds, the labourers dart forward again with Catholic worship is tolerated, and there is a Catholic similar violence, and with a bodily effort which must establishment in the island, the two parties do not strain their whole frame. The quantity of oil that seem to have very friendly feelings towards each two expert labourers can express in a day is estiother. In the spring of the year the Zantiotes cele-mated at ten or twelve jars, of rather more than three brate the festival of All Saints: a large proportion of gallons each. Mr. Martin in a note observes:-“ Sir the population assemble among the olive-groves near Edward Baynes informs me that he is now, (Septemthe town, where they amuse themselves with dancing, ber, 1835,) sending out to Corfu a steam-engine, with music, feasting, &c.
hydraulic presses, for the squeezing of the olives, and Female society is said by Dr. Holland to be hardly with four pair of stones attached, for the grinding of found at Zante, in the sense in which we are accus corn. Such an effort to set a good example to the tomed to use the term. The ancient usages of the islanders is highly praiseworthy; the more so as Sir country still confine the women, in great measure, to Edward is expending 40001 in carrying the meritorious their own houses, and equally limit their education to project into effect, without any expectation of profit." the most trifling and common-place attainments. This may be a fitting occasion on which to say a
But the English have had possession of Zante few words respecting the culture of the other staple several years since the period when Dr. Holland production of the islands,-currants. Currants are visited it, and we may now reasonably expect that the fruit of a small vine of delicate nature, the culmany improvements have followed the ameliorating tivation of which requires much care. Six or seven effect of constant intercourse with a highly civilized years elapse, after a plantation has been made, before and enlightened nation. Religion, commerce, and the it yields a crop. In the beginning of October, the presence of educated persons rarely fail to impart a earth about the roots of the plant is loosened, and humanizing and elevating feature to the society of a gathered up in small heaps, away from the vine, which place previously occupying a humble position in those is pruned in March; after which the ground is again respects. The population of Zante is about 20,000 laid down smooth around the plant, which grows low, males, and 18,000 females. About 9000 of the in- and is supported by sticks. The crops are liable to habitants are engaged in agriculture.
injury in spring, from the blight called the “brina," Paxo.
and rainy weather at the harvest-season produces This island, the smallest of the septinsular group, great mischief. The currants are gathered towards is situated between Corfu and Santa Maura, from the September, and, after being carefully picked, are furmer of which it is distant only seven miles. It is thrown singly upon a stone-foor, exposed to the sun twelve miles in circumferenee, and contains an area in the open air. The drying process occupies a forte of about twenty-seven square miles: it is of an oval night, if the weather is not favourable. A heavy shape, and composed of a single mountain, which pro shower or thunderstorm (no unfrequent occurrence bably at one period formed part of Corfu. Port Gai at that season), not only interrupts it, but sometimes affords good anchorage for a few vessels; but there is causes fermentation: the fruit is, in that case, fit only an inner barbour, formed by an island, almost in con to be given to animals. Should it escape these risks, tact with the other, having a circular battery com it is deposited in magazines called “seraglie," until manding the town, which is scattered in an irregular purchased. The "seragliente,” or warehouse-keeper, manner on the beach.
delivers to the depositor a paper acknowledging the There are about eleven thousand acres of the soil receipt of the quantity delivered, which passes curin cultivation for olives, to produce oil; indeed the rently in exchange from hand to hand till the time island, from the nature of its soil, is chiefly calculated of export. Under the old Venetian government, the for the growth of the olive. The olive flowers in liberty of traffic in this produce was exceedingly reApril, and the fruit is ripe in October: it is not plucked stricted. In Zante five persons, chosen out of the when ripe, but is allowed to fall on the bare ground, council of nobles, assembled in presence of the proa process which often lasts till April. The trees are veditore, regulated what should be the price ; and neither regularly pruned, nor trenched, and they are those who wished to purchase were under the necesthickly planted. It is said that the produce of the sity of declaring to the government the quantity they olive-trees, thus thickly planted, brings more money desired. This system was abolished when the islands to the proprietor, than if they were thinned, and the came under British rule; but parliament, in 1829, ground they occupy otherwise cultivated.
laid the enormous duty of 44s. 4d. per cwt. on their The machines employed in the manufacture or importation into England,—that is, five times the pressure of the oil are, according to Mr. Martin, of price of the currants at the island. Since then we the rudest construction. The olives are pressed believe the duties have been lightened. under a perpendicular stone wheel, which revolves in Pazo is so small an island that we need not dwell a large-sized horizontal stone, of a circular form, in detail respecting it, reserving our space for Cephasomewhat hollowed in the centre. A horse or mule | lonia, Santa Maura, &c. We will merely say that sets the machinery in motion, and a peasant runs be- the inhabitants are rather above 5000 in number, of fore, and shovels the olives under the approaching whom about 250 are engaged in agriculture, 200 in wheel, the action of which is necessarily confined to manufactures, and 100 in commerce. a limited space, while its power is very insignificant. To the southward, or rather south-east of Paxo, is The bruised mass is then transferred to a bag made of a still smaller island, called Antipaxo, chiefly inhabited rushes or mat, which is subjected to a heavy pressure : by fishermen. While the Venetians held sway, this this pressure is increased by means of a screw, worked island was a notorious retreat for pirates, who levied by two men at irregular intervals; for the labour is so severe contributions on all who fell within their power.