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sixty thousand, of whom four thousand reside in alarm being given, when the monks are drawn up by Argostoli, and five thousand in Lixuri,
means of baskets, after the manner of the Copt
monasteries in Egypt. The establishment consists of CERIGO.
about sixty brothers, with a grand and sub-prior, &c., We now direct our attention to the most southerly who are supported by a revenue derived from landed of the Ionian Islands. If we look at the map of possessions in Greece and Russia. There are several Greece, we see a small island, distant a very few noblemen and well-educated gentlemen among the miles from the extreme south point of the Morea : brothers of the order, who have a good library, and this island is Cerigo, and may perhaps be considered every comfort that a seclusion from the world will as the most southern point of Europe.
admit of. The island is of an irregular oval shape, about
We will close this paper with a description of the twenty miles long, twelve broad, and fifty in circum
mode in which the marriage ceremony is performed ference, At the north is Cape Sparti, having a chapel on its extremity; to the south is Cape Capello, to the usage of the country, the girl who is to become
at Cerigo, as witnessed by Mr. Kendrick. According close to which is situate the harbour, and imme
a wife is conducted by her mother, accompanied by diately above is the chief town, called Kapsali, con
a number of friends, in front of her intended hustaining about five thousand inbabitants. The streets band's house. On the threshold of the door are are few and badly built, the houses being mostly placed several agricultural instruments. The mother constructed of wood. The shops display no tempting presents them, one after the other, to the bride, with merchandize ; and the whole appearance of the town these words—“With these implements must thou shows it to be inferior to those on the other islands.
work equally with thy husband, for the benefit of thy The island is in general covered but scantily with children, with whom the Panagia may, in her bounty, soil: it is barren and little cultivated. Consequently think fit to bless thee both.” Afterwards, a piece of the population are indebted to the Morea for nearly bread, made from the corn common to the island all the necessaries of life, even wood itself
. Their (maize) is presented to her, which she eats, whilst diet is chiefly fish; and the greater part of the her mother pronounces a kind of benediction in these patives either turn pirates, or enter as mariners in words: “May the Panagia, in her bountiful mercy, the service of the merchantmen who frequent the
never fail of sending thee sufficient for the family's Archipelago. The oil produced on the island is said sustenance, and mayest thou have grace enough to to be exquisite in its quality, and esteemed more than
return thanks for such bounty.” that in any of the other islands. The demand for it occasions this article to be comparatively dearer than any other; insomuch that the inhabitants have often There is even room for philosophy in the courts of princes, imported a cheaper oil, to enable them to part with but not for that speculative philosophy that makes everytheir own, The rocky soil is extremely favourable thing to be alike fitting at all times; but there is another
philosophy that is more pliable, that knows its proper scene, for the growth of olive-trees.
accommodates itself to it, and teaches man, with proWhile speaking of olive-plantations, we may allude priety and decency, to act that part which has fullen to his to an opinion expressed by Dr. Davy respecting them sbaré.—Sir Thomas MORE. generally, as connected with these islands :
THERE are more than ten thousand stations in the land The capabilities of the Ionian Islands are very great, from which is proclaimed aloud every seventh day, that and their advantages, in relation to soil, climate, and situa- there is a God above, a Providence, a judgment, a heaven, tion, were they what they might be, would surpass most other regions of the globe. At present, with the exception there is a settled impression on men's minds that these
a hell. It is mainly through this constant iteration, that of the currant islands, their population is scanty, and the things are true. They may disregard or attempt to stifle it, people generally are poor, and a large proportion of them but then the belief is fixed, and is more efficient to prevent wretched and ignorani. The olive-plantations which, during crime than the most vigilant system of human law. But the best times of the Venetians, constituted the wealth of how much more is that moral intluence increased, when we Corfu, are now almost its curse. The island is almost consider the peculiar doctrines of the cross; when we reoverrun with them, and requiring but little cultivation, member that, week after week, and day after day, God's they have given rise to habits of indolence, which have been ministers are employed in inculcating the great truths of the ruin of the people, especially associated with habits of the Gospel,-telling men of the purity of God, who marks carelessness, partly perhaps owing to the uncertainty of the
not only our deeds, but our very words and thoughts, crop of olives, which of all crops is the most precarious, setting forth to awakened consciences the true nature and depending on circumstances of weather of a very delicate nature, and on a succession of circumstances baffling all
sure consequences of sin, and promising, iu God's name,
that if “the wicked man will turn from his sin, he shall calculation,
save his soul alive,"—-shall have pardon for the past through But to return to Cerigo. To the north of the a crucified Saviour, and grace to lead a new life in godli. harbour is a ruin called “Pales Castro," which stands
ness and honesty. Consider that there is in every district on the ancient town of Menelaus. There is still to in the land, a minister of religion commissioned by God,
and authorized by the State, to proclaim these truths. His be seen the remains of a bath, which by the inhabit
human authority is of course infinitely inferior in value to ants is said to be that of Helen, the faithless wife of that which he receives from God; still, practically, and Menelaus, and who caused the famous siege of Troy. with reference to its effect on human nature, it is of great To the south-east of a mountain named Santa Sophia, importance. He, and he alone, is authorized to administer from a church dedicated to her, which stands at its the sacraments of the Church ; publicly on the Lord's day, basis, there is a cavern of immense proportions, the and privately every day, to preach to the people the doc. entrance to which leads to a number of chambers trines and duties of Christ's religion; to admit children to
the Christian Church, instruct the ignorant, reprove the cut into the rock, adorned naturally by stalactites.
ungodly, console the afflicted, bless and sanctify the marNear Cerigo are one or two small islands. One of riage vow, and consign the dead with decent honour to the these is called Strophades, and is about five miles in grave: in short, to invest all the incidents of life with the circumference. On its eastern coast is situate the sacred garb of religion. Without an establishment, more celebrated convent of the Redeemer, built of white than half of the country would be destitute of these advanfreestone, resembling marble, to a height of ninety ship would be offered in them ; no marriages solemnized, no
tages; parish churches would fall to ruin ; no divine worfeet, divided into four parts, each protected by a
infants baptized; the dead would be buried in ditches, with tower. The access is only by means of a door lead barbarous irreverence. Surely such a change would fling ing to the vaults, which is closed up immediately on an us back into worse than Druidical barbarism. —GRESLEY.
bald head of a philosopher who was walking on the beach, thinking it to be a stone, and that the unfortunate possessor of the bald pate was killed thereby. The accident itself is within the verge of probability; but we much doubt whether a keen-eyed crow would make such a blunder as is here attributed to him. It has been said that James Watt, a philosopher of more modern times, might have had his head broken by similiar means, for he was once a witness of the carrying up, by a crow, of a crab, which was then let fall with great force on the beach.
Crows have a tendency to linger about preserves, warrens, pastures, and other spots where timid or weak animals are collected together, and, on any favourable opportunity, to pounce on their unfortunate
prey, peck out their eyes, and, if too heavy to be reThe Rook, (Corvus frugilegus.)
moved from the spot, leave them dead, and return to
the carrion at pleasure. In some places the destrucIt is remarked by Bishop Stanley, that people who i tion of eggs and young birds is very great, and the live in towns, or who are not much versed in matters crows will even peck the seed-corn and seed-potatoes relating to natural history, are very apt to consider out of the ground. On one occasion, a person walkthe rook and the crow as one and the same bird, alike ing near a plantation, heard a shrill cry, and on running as they are in size and colour, and seen, as they to see from whence it arose, discovered a crow sometimes are, spread over our fields, or uttering their fastening itself on a young rabbit, weighing nearly well-known cawings on the top of some hedge: yet three-quarters of a pound, which was making great they are as distinct in their characters and habits as a efforts to release itself, but in vain; for the crow rabbit and a hare. In order to assist the reader in succeeded in bearing it over two or three fields. From distinguishing between the external appearance of the living chiefly on animal food, the sagacity of the two birds, we give representations of them both, but the carrion crow appears to be rendered acute in discoverdifference in size is not quite so great as is here indi-ing not only a dead carcase, but also animals which cated. In the course of the following description of are weak and sickly: when one of these birds, therethe crow, many remarks will serve to illustrate the fore, is seen lingering about alone in any unusual spot, chief points of difference between these two members it may be generally suspected that a dying animal is of the corvus tribe, as to habits, &c.
not far from that place: as the animal weakens, the By referring to the Saturday Magazine, Vol. XVI., crow approaches nearer, and when the devoted prey p. 150, the reader will perceive what are the average is no longer able to defend itself, the crow pecks out dimensions of a rook. The common black crow, or its eyes and then easily masters it. It was remarked carrion crow, is a little larger than a rook, being about by Sir E. Home, that the crow is often accused of twenty inches in length, twenty-six in the breadth of destroying the grass, by pulling it up by the roots; the expanded wings, and twenty ounces in weight. but that this is not really the case, the circumThe plumage of this species is wholly black, with the stances being as follows:-In searching for grubs exception of a slight greenish tint on the upper part. which are concealed in the earth, and which live on The carrion crow appears to unite the dispositions of the roots of the grass, the crow pulls at the blade of two or three species of the same family. In form, grass with its bill; and when the grass comes up, colour, and predatory habits, it resembles the raven; the bird knows that there are under it insects which in restlessness, and a disposition to hoard, it is like have destroyed the roots, and in this way detects the jackdaw; and in general cunning and sagacity them; but if the blade of grass remains firm, the crow it has some traits of the magpie. This bird is less goes to another part of the field ; the plucking of the commonly seen amongst us, and far less sociable in grass, therefore, is only a means for attaining a parits habits than the rook, nestling in retired places, and ticular end, that end being the collecting of insects generally passing the summer in extensive forests, as food. In a field where grubs are very abundant, whence it issues only for the sake of procuring food the crows scatter the grass on every side, so as to for its young
give the appearance of having rooted it up. The general food of the crow consists of young Such are a few of the most prominent points birds, eggs, and carrion, and its habits are so gross respecting the food of the crow: we will now proceed that it has been described as a bird which plunders to other details illustrative of its habits and instincts. all that it can find, kills all that it can master, and It is said that the crow may be easily tamed, and feeds greedily upon any garbage that comes in its converted into an entertaining inmate of a house, way. Crows frequently appear in small flocks, and capable of distinguishing at a glance, a stranger from act as scavengers in the neighbourhood of towns one of the family, and also capable of something like and villages, eating up the refuse which would other grateful recognition. In proof of the last-mentioned wise be offensive. The same thing often occurs on sea- remark, the following anecdote is given :-A crow shores, where the dead fishes and birds which are which had been reared and kept by a gentleman for cast up by the waves are greedily devoured by the a long time, suddenly disappeared, and was supposed crows: if they meet with a muscle or a cockle, and to have been killed; but as the owner was walking fail in the attempt to break through the hard shell, out about a year afterwards, a crow flying over his they have been seen to seize the shell in their bill, head, in company with others, left them, and, Aying mount to a great height in the air, and let it fall on a towards him, perched upon his shoulder. He soon hard rock, by which the shell is broken, and the fish recognised it to be his lost crow; but the crow exposed as a prey to the bird. This circumstance app red to be too fond of his twelvemonths' liberty must have been known in early times; for we read in to wish to return to friendly captivity again. an ancient author of a crow, which, having taken up One of the most remarkable circumstances in the an oyster to a considerable height, dropped it on the history of the crow, is the large assemblies of these
birds which sometimes congregate in one spot, for two crows were perpetually on the look-out, frequently some purpose which is yet a matter of discussion hovering over, and watching for the opportunity of among naturalists.
These assemblies have attracted carrying off a prize. The moment the crows made the more attention on account of the generally solitary one of their periodical assaults, the whole tribe of habits of the bird ; and some curious instances of gulls was set in commotion, some crouching down on them have been given in a popular little work on the nests, to protect the eggs, and others raising a British Birds. In the northern parts of Scotland, shrill cry to daunt the intruders. The crows howas well as in the Feroe Islands, extraordinary meet. ever generally succeeded in their object, thrusting ings of crows are known to occur; the birds collect their beaks into the gulls' eggs, and bearing them off. in great numbers, as if they had been all summoned In one particular season, the female crow being shot, for the occasion: a few of the flock sit with drooping the male disappeared, but returned again in a few heads, and others seem as grave as judges, while a days, bringing with him a new mate, to assist in third party are exceedingly active and noisy; in the the work of depredation. course of about an hour they disperse, and it is not Crows were so numerous in England in the reign unusual, after they have flown away, to find one or of Henry the Eighth as to be thought an evil worthy two left dead on the spot. There seems every reason of parliamentary redress: an act was passed for their to believe that these meetings partake of a judicial destruction, in which rooks and choughs were incharacter, for Dr. Edmonston states that they will cluded. Every hamlet was to provide crow-nets for sometimes continue for a day or two, before the ten years, and all the inhabitants, at certain times object, whatever it may be, is completed ;-crows during that space, were to assemble and consult on continuing to arrive from all quarters during the the best means for their extirpation. It was formerly "session :" as soon as they have all arrived, a very called the gor-crow, to distinguish it from the rook, general noise ensues, and shortly after the whole of and was considered a bird of unlucky omen. them fall upon one or two individuals, and put them to death; after which they quietly disperse. Another instance of the same kind is related with respect to an assembly of storks as having occurred near the small village of Oggersheim, on the banks of the Rhine;—this we mention here as illustrative of the peculiar animal instinct under discussion. In a large meadow near the village a number of storks assemble in the autumn, previous to the annual migration. At one of these meetings, about fifty were observed, formed in a ring round one individual, who appeared greatly alarmed. One of the party thien seemed to address the conclave, by clapping its wings for several minutes. He was followed by a second, a third, and a fourth, in regular succession, each one seeming, as far as we can understand such dumb language, to express his opinion by a similar clapping of wings. At last they all joined in the same act, and then, pouncing on the poor culprit,
The Crow, (Corvus corone.) speedily despatched him: after this they departed. Somewhat similar habits have been observed to [4 Familiar History of Birds: their Nature, Habits, and Instincts.
By EDWARD STANLEY, Lord Bishop of Norwich.] prevail among herons, magpies, starlings, and other birds; and the nature and objects of these assemblies are attracting the notice of many ingenious An attribute so precious, that, in my consideration, it naturalists.
becomes a virtue, is a gentle and constant equality of The nest of the crow very much resembles that temper. To sustain it, not only exacts a pure mind, but a of others of the corvus tribe, but differs from that of vigour of understanding which resists the petty vexations the rook in this circumstance, that the latter bird
and fleeting contrarieties which a multitude of objects and
events are continually bringing. What an unutterable charm lines its nest with long fibrous roots, which are
does it give to the society of the man who possesses it! How neatly interwoven into a sort of fine basket-work; 1 is it possible to avoid loving him whom we are certain whereas the crow prefers to line its nest with a always to find with serenity on his brow, and a smile on his thick mattress of wool, rabbits' fur, and similar soft countenance ? matters, laid over a clumsy wall of clay, which is built within a strong basketing of birch twigs and Among the virtues which ought to secure a kind regard, black-thorn branches. The crow may, however,
we universally assign to modesty a high rank. A simple
and modest man lives unknown, until a moment, which he bc said to be more attentive to the nests of other could not have foreseen, reveals his estimable qualities and birds than to its own, for the purpose of plundering his generous actions. I compare him to the concealed them of their eggs.
A curious instance of this kind flower, springing from an humble stem, which escapes the is described as having been observed, year after year, view, and is discovered only by its perfume. Pride quickly off the coast of Wales. Near the South Stack fixes the eye, and he who is always his own eulogist, disLighthouse some gulls, who had been driven away A truly modest man, emerging from his transient obscurity,
penses every other person from the obligation to praise him. by the proceedings of the workmen engaged in will obtain those delightful praises which the heart awards building the lighthouse, ventured to return and to without effort. His superiority, far from being importunate, build their nests on various parts of the rock near will become attractive. Modesty gives to talents and virtues the lighthouse.
Here they remained in quiet, until the same charm which chastity adds to beauty. two crows came, and built a nest directly opposite the spot where the gulls' nests were situated in We are guilty of the whimsical contradiction of judging our greatest number: this they appeared to have done of others with severity; while we every day sacrifice prin
own ideas with complacency, and of pronouncing upon those for the express purpose of stealing the gulls' eggs;ciples which we esteem, through fear of being blamed by for no sooner did the gulls begin to lay, than the people whom we despise.
How duly every morning she displays
Her open breast, when Titan spreads his rays;
How she observes him in his daily walk,
Still bending towards hiin her small slender stalk :
How when he down declines, she droops and mourns,
And how she veils her flowers when he is gone, herb called balm, which is ornamental as well as use
As if she scorned to be looked on ful, and is particularly attractive to bees from the
By an inferior eye; or did contemn abundance of honey which is obtained from its
To wait upon a meaner light than him. flowers. The Greek name Melissa (a bee) has been
When this I meditate, methinks the flowers given to the plant on this account, and it has also Have spirits far more generous than ours; been called apiastrum, from apis, the Latin word for a And give us fair examples to despise
The servile fawnings and idolatries, bee. The herb was used equally with mint for rub
Wherewith we court these earthly things below, bing the hives previously to taking a swarm, and
Which merit not the service we bestow. appears to have had the effect of attaching the colony
GEORGE WITHER. 1635. to its new settlement. Pliny speaks of this method of securing bees, and says, that where there is plenty is possessed by the marigold, in common with other
The property of closing the petals at sunset, which of balm in the garden, there is no fear of the swarms straying. Virgil also notices the effect of plants belongiug to the same class, (syngenesia,) has
attracted the attention of several of our poets. Browne, this herb in bringing back bees that have strayed in his Pastorals, and Shakspeare, in his Winter's Tale, from their hive,
allude to the circumstance; and Chatterton mentions When you the swarms 'scaped from the hive descry
The Marybudde, that shutteth with the light.
But it is not this property of the plant which claims They still to pools and leafy bowers repair:
our notice here; for we are to consider it merely as There juice of balm and woodbine sprinkle round, one of the usual inhabitants of the herb garden, and Strike jingling brass, and tinkling cymbal sound; to inquire into its uses as such. The loved perfume will sudden rest inspire
The marigold is a native of the south of Europe, And they, as usual, to their hives retire.
and was introduced and cultivated here at about the
same period, or a little prior to the introduction of Balm was first cultivated in this country about the balm." Its botanical name of calendula is supposed to year 1573. It is a perennial plant flowering in June be derived from calendæ, the Latin for the first day of and July, and looks very pretty when in blossom, every month, and to have been given to it on account especially the species called great-flowered balm, of its long continuance in blossom. which has purple flowers of a pleasing odour. The
Gerard describes five sorts of marigold, which were herb commonly cultivated in our gardens is a native knowu to him before the year 1597; but it would of the mountains of Geneva, Savoy, and Italy. It
seem that they differed from each other only in conbelongs to the natural order Verticillatæ, and 's a
of accidental difference of soil or culture, member of the same family as the common calamint and were not distinct species; for he says, “All these (Melissa calamintha), which stands in the fourteenth five, which formerly had so many figures, differ class and first order of Linnæus. There is a very nothing but in the bignesse and littlenesse of the handsome plant called bastard-balm, or balm-leaved plants and flowres, and in the intensenesse and rearchangel (Melittis), which is commonly introduced missnesse of their colour, which is either orange, in flower-gardens, and which like the true balm yields yellow, or of a straw-colour.” The species now alluded a great deal of honey. Both plants may be readily to, Calendula sativa, he says, was so much used in propagated by parting the roots so as to leave five or Holland, that “the yellow leaves of the flowres are six buds to each, and planting them out in the spring dried and kept throughout Dutchland against winter, and autumn in beds of common garden-mould.
to put in broths, in phisicall potions, and for divers Balm has an aromatic odour and taste, and is es.
other purposes, in such quantities, that in some groteemed by some persons as a substitute, as pleasant cers' or sellers of spices' houses are to be found barrels as it is innocent, for foreign tea. The infusion made filled with them, and retailed by the pennie, more or from the green herb, is much better than from the lesse, in so much that no broths are well made withdry, which is contrary to the general rule in regard out dried marigolds." The custom still prevails in to other plants. The medicinal virtues of this herb are greatly lauded ranks of persons in that country.
Holland, and marigolds are greatly valued by all in the old English herbals, but as they are much the
The flowers of this plant were formerly esteemed of
use in various complaints, such as jaundice, measles, useless to repeat them. As a grateful and cooling drink small-pox, &c., and patients suffering from pestilenin fevers, we are willing to give balm tea a particular tial fever were sometimes tormented with a plaister, notice, and to recommend it to the attention of our
made with the dry flowers in powder, lard, turpentine, readers. It may be made still more refreshing by and rosin, applied to the breast, which was said to the addition of a little lemon juice, Evelyn tells us of another way in which to employ leaves were likewise used in salads, and were said to
“strengthen and succour the heart infinitely!" The this herb. He says, “this noble plant yields an in. be a proper food for persons of a scorbutic habit. comparable wine,"—also, that "sprigs of fresh.
The principal medicinal use of the herb, however, gathered balm put into wine in the heat of summer
appears to have been as an alleviation of ague, and give it a marvellous quickness."
we have testimony of its usefulness in this respect at An essential oil may be obtained from the flowering the present day, when taken frequently in the form tops of this plant, which is very fragrant, and which of tea. The petals, or rather the yellow florets which may be used in preparing an imitation of eau de compose the ray of this flower, have an aromatic Cologne.
smell, and, when chewed, are found to be warm and MARIGOLD.-Calendula.
somewhat pungent in taste: hence they derive their When with a serious musing, I behold
sudorific virtues, in which they are said to be scarcely The grateful and obsequious Marigold,
inferior to saffron itself. The resemblance between
the colour of marigold and saffron, in the dried state, ON POISONS AND SECRET POISONING. is sufficiently near to allow of the former being used
No. I. as an adulterant to the latter.
Marigolds are cultivated in the neighbourhood of The word poison is a relative, not an absolute term; Loudon to some extent, and have a beautiful appear for while substances, ordinarily considered as poisonance wben in blossom, which may be almost said to ous, cease to be so under some circumstances, so be all the year round, for during a mild winter the other bodies, usually of an innocuous nature, someplants are continually putting forth their buds.
The times, by reason of the presence of constitutional peuses to which they are applied are chiefly for the culiarities, produce the most serious or fatal results. flavouring of soups and broths, in which the florets Thus the most virulent poisons, as prussic acid, are boiled, and communicate a pleasing taste.
arsenic, and corrosive sublimate, become, when em. Virgil notices the marigold in the second eclogue ployed in minute doses by the skilful physician, of his Bucolics.
valuable means of restoring health: the power too Cassia and Dill are added to the store,
acquired by habit of resisting the effects of poisons is With cowslips, marigolds, and many more
seen in the opium-eating Turk; but perhaps the In order wove, a garland to complete,
most extraordinary example of this on record is that Adorned with every flower and every sweet.
of the man seen by M. Pouquerville at Constantinople, And Gay, in his burlesque Pastorals, asks,
in 1798, known by the name of Suleyman, the corroWhat flower is that which bears the Virgin's name, sive sublimate taker. He was then nearly a century The richest metal joined with the same?
old, had long babituated himself to the use of opium, Nothing can be more common or familiar than this and finding at last that this drug did not produce the plant, and the provision which is made for its propa- effect desired, he had recourse to corrosive sublimate, gation will ever cause it to be so. The seeds are which he had taken, when M. P. saw him, for a numerous, and sow themselves every year, even if the period of thirty years, his dose at that time being a ground is frequently disturbed; so that where mari- dram daily. Examples of an opposite kind are nugolds have once been, there they will appear again merous, but we will only mention that Morgagni and again, unless care be taken to eradicate them ere relates an instance of poisoning by bread made from the seed is perfected. These self-sown plants, how the farina of a chesnut, and Donatus another of the ever, gradually degenerate, and become smaller and ill effects which always attended an individual when. weaker than those which are produced from annual ever he partook of eggs. sowings. To procure the flowers in their greatest The branch of science which treats of the history, perfection, the seed should be sown early in April, in detection, and treatment of the effects of poisons, is a light soil, and when the young plants come up, they called Toxicology, than which none has profited more should be hoed out to six or eight inches apart, and by the great progress made in modern times in cheafterwards removed into another bed, and placed at a mistry, and other portions of medical knowledge. similar distance from each other. Nothing more is The result attained is an improved method of treatrequired to keep them healthy than that they should ment, which has rescued many a life rashly hazarded, be cleared of weeds occasionally. The plants come and a nicety of analysis, which has been repeatedly early into flower, and, when fully expanded, the blos- instrumental in detecting criminal design, and in desoms should be gathered on a dry day, separated from fending reputation, where this has been unjustly imthe stalk and calyx, spread on a cloth in an airy room puted. to dry, and, after a few days, during which they Poisons might be arranged according as they are should be frequently turned, they will be sufficiently derived from the animal, vegetable, or mineral king, dry to be placed in drawers, or in paper bags, for doms, but it has been found more practically useful use.
to class them according to the effects they produce upon the animal economy, as originally recommended
by Foderé: he made five classes, but more recent CONFIDENCE AND DISTRUST.
writers have reduced these to three, viz., Ist, irritant RIGHTEOUSLY have jealousy and suspicion been ever re- or acrid poisons, which produce irritation, inflammation, garded as among the meanest and most hateful features of the human character, as features which cannot coexist with contact when swallowed; 2nd, narcotic poisons, which
or corrosion of the parts with which they come into any gentle or generous feeling. And as they poison the heart in which they lurk, so do they not only blight the show their effects chiefly upon the bruin, causing a happiness, but degrade the character, of those who como deprivation of sensibility; 3rd, narcotico-acrid poisons, under their shadow. To think and believe ill of our breth which may produce either or both of these effects. The ren is the very way to make them what we beliove them to poisons of the first class are found in the mineral kingbe: to think and believe well of them encourages them and dom, as arsenic, mineral acid, lead, &c.; in the vegetable, makes them better. Your despair of them drives them also
as hellebore and savine; and in the animal kingdom, to despondence: your hope of them fills them with hope. The one dismays them, almost as if they saw the spectre
as cantharides and poisonous fish: those of the two of their sins stalking abroad in the sight of the world; other classes are derived solely from the vegetable the other is like the angel of their better nature, cheering kingdom, as opium and henbane, hemlock and nux them and beckoning theın forward. The most conspicuous vomica. Much controversy has occurred respecting examples of this are those of such frequent occurrence the mode in which poisonous bodies affect the sys. in war; where there is the most immediate occasion for tem, but it would seem to result, from the experiments combined energy; and where the noblest, and perhaps the most valuable quality in the character of a general is confi- of Sir Benjamin Brodie, Professor Orfila, and other dence in his soldiers. Your hearts must have glowed, when inquirers, that, although poisons may sometimes act you heard of that heroic and sublime battle-cry, England by being absorbed into the blood, yet they ordinarily expects every man to do his duty. What then must have produce their effects by the impressions they make been its power on those who heard it, with the enemy full opon the nerves with which they come into contact. in sight! The spirit that gave it could not but conquer : Sismondi observes that the terrible art of poisonwell might he feel that in giving it he had done the utmost he could do: and the shout that replied to it from the whole I ing is the first branch of chemistry acquired by fleet was an instantaneous assurance of victory. This too barbarous nations. All states, having any pretensions was one of the victories of Faith. So will it ever be. to civilisation, have always held it in just abhorrence, -HARE.
as the most cruel and cowardly of all modes of assas