his ruined towns. To perpetuate the late victory, the name Bartholomew, St. Martin, and St. Croix, for the fee simple of the Bourg was changed to that of Citta Vittoriosa, or of 50001. sterling, which included all the plantations, slaves, the Victorious City. The Fort St. Elmo was to be extended and stores, and debts.--and the annalist says the same was and a new town founded upon Mount Sceberras, and to a most unprofitable speculation for the order. Twelve years carry on these works upon a magnificent scale, the Christian afterwards these islands were sold to some French 'merworld was successfully appealed to for funds, and engineers chants, and a little more than a century from the date of and artificers were invited from every part of Italy, to carry these transactions English proprietors were to be found in out the plans of the grand-master, who laid, on the 28th of the same islands, who, from one year's revenue of a single March, 1566, the first stone of the new city. Upon this plantation, could have paid the whole purchase-money stone was an inscription in the Latin language, to the effect which the Maltese knights had given for them. that the grand-master, La Valette, taking into consideration The grand-master Redin, who died in 1660, erected a the perilous siege which had lately terminated, had deter- chain of watch towers, for the defence of the coast, and mined to build a town on Mount Sceberras, the better to Nicholas Cotoner, anticipating an attack from the Turks, check any future descents of the barbarians. The new city invited an eminent Italian engineer, named Valperga, to was named, by universal consent, the city of La Valette; visit the island, and under his superintendence, an ento which the epithet “Umilissima," or the most humble, closure called the Cotonera was added to the fortifications. was added as indicative of the humility of the order. It is an immense work, little short of three miles long, and

For nearly two years the grand-master spent almost the consists of nine bastions and two demi-bastions, connecting whole of his time with the masons and artificers on Mount the Isle de la Sangle with the Bourg, or Citta Vittoriosa, Sceberras, and upon a scarcity of money occurring, had the and embracing all the heights which commanded the ancient boldness to issue a brass coinage of nominal value on which defences of both places. The area within was sufficiently was inscribed, “non æs, sed fides," that is, not money, but extensive to contain the whole population of the island, with credit. The punctuality however with which this spurious their cattle and effects. The grand-master was blamed for currency was withdrawn, as often as remittances arrived from the magnitude of the work, as beyond the means of the order, Europe, never allowed public confidence to give way. In 1568 | but he boldly commenced in 1670, and carried it on unre. John de la Valette died from the effects of a coup-de-soleil

, mittingly for a period of ten years, when the treasury was and was succeeded in the grand-mastership by Peter de exhausted, and thirty years elapsed before any further Monte. In 1571, the new city was so far finished as to be measures were adopted for its completion. La Floriana, made the seat of government, and in the same year, the order which Lascaris built to defend Valetta, was enlarged by of St. John took part in the memorable sea-fight off Lepanto Cotoner; and a new fort, called Ricasoli, was erected on the in Greece, “ the first great action," says Cervantes, the author headland which commands the entrance of the Grand Port. of Don Quixote, “in which the naval supremacy of the Otto- At the same time, a lazzaretto was built on what was then an man empire was successfully disputed by Christian arms." islet in Port Musceit, but which has since been changed by

Passing over a period of thirty years, we come to the art into a peninsula. accession of Alof de Vignacourt, of whom we give a copy As we have spoken freely of the dark morality of the of a full length portrait taken by Caravaggio, the celebrated order of St. John, we are only the more relieved by the Italian painter. Alof de Vignacourt was a man of great contrast of an occasional brighter spot. Sanguinary con talent, and enjoyed a long and brilliant reign, during which Nicts in Greece against the Turks, in which the order had he completed the greatest public work that man could raise been allies of the Venetians, had been so fatal to the at Malta. We have stated in our introduction that there are Christians about the year 1690, that a large portion of the few springs and no streams upon the island; the climate at male population of the Maltese islands had been swept off, the same time is one of the hottest on earth, either within and mostly widows only, and orphans, remained to suffer or without the tropics, at least this is the opinion of sailors the miseries of destitution. Through the instrumentality of from whatever part of the globe they visit it; water, then, in the grand-master, Adrian de Vignacourt, a kinsman of this burning climate is the first essential of animal existence, | Alof de Vignacourt, a fund was raised for the support of and of this there was no general supply except that afforded the sufferers,—"an incident," says the historian, “ more by the rainy season. Choosing the largest spring in the honourable to his memory than if he had died the victor of southern part of the island where these are most abundant, an hundred fights." Malta, too, was violently shaken by Vignacourt raised upon arches an aqueduct, nine and a half an earthquake on January 11th, 1693, which continued for English miles in length, in order to carry water into the three days, and laid several buildings in ruins, and the same city of Valetta. He erected public fountains and con shocks extended to Sicily with greater violence, and the necied these, both with the aqueduct itself, and with sub- town of Augusta was almost wholly destroyed, but no sooner terranean cisterns, in which the natives until to-day preserve was this disaster known at Malta than a squadron was desthe rains of winter, which, when dry, could now be fed by the patched with supplies to the houseless inhabitants. artificial supply. He has quenched the thirst of man and beast from that time until now; and honour to the name of

8. DECLINE OF THE KNIGHTS. Vignacourt, far abore those whose names are written in the blood they spilt!

For near a century the Maltese navy had been on the The same grand-master also added to the defences of decline, and the grand-master, Perillos, who succeeded the island, by erecting strong works at the different harbours, Adrian de Vignacourt in 1697, built a squadron of decked as well as upon the little island of Cumino. His reign, how-war-ships, of a much larger size than the galleys, and erected ever, was not one of unbroken peace, for not only were his various useful public works, as monuments of his tranquil knights engaged in frequent contests with the Turks at sea, and honourable reign. A few years after this, Manuel de but the latter sent sixty galleys against Malta, in 1615, and Villena built a considerable fort on the islet in Port landed 5000 men with the intention of carrying off the in- Musceit, which was called Fort Manuel, after the founder, habitants into slavery; but the Maltese, having had timely and added a series of magnificent works to the landward notice of their approach, retreated with their property into defences of the new city, completing the Floriana, which was various strongholds, and the Ottomans, unable to attempt commenced by Lascaris and enlarged by Cotoner. The a siege, had to re-embark without capturing a single man. good effects of these precautions were soon obvious, for

This insecurity of the open country might have led us to à Turkish fleet of ten ships, which appeared off the port, was suppose that the welfare of the lower classes of the Maltese so intimidated by the impregnable aspect of the whole was but ill looked after by the order, had not the popula. island, that, after firing a few guns, its commander held it tion, which is, within a certain limit, a test of the physical prudent to retire. condition of a people, rapidly increased since the great In 1736, we find that Emanuel Pinto de Fonseca sucsiege. When the Turks raised the famous siege, and left the ceeded to the grand-mastership, and it is recorded that the island in 1565, the population of Malta did not greatly merciful tenor of his reign rendered him a blessing to all exceed 10,000, but in 1632, after a period of sixty-seven his subjects, even to the Mohammedan slaves, which, at that years, it amounted to upwards of 51,000 souls, exclusive of time, amounted to about four thousand. By far the greater the members of the order, and familiars of the inquisition, portion of these enjoyed perfect liberty, as confidential dowho had settled there. In 1636 Paul Lascaris Castelard mestics in the households of the knights; but an incident was elected grand-master, and founded a library in 1650, occurred which encouraged them to throw off the yoke of for the benefit however of the knights only, but which is slavery, although, in this case, it was a merciful bondage. now in existence as the property of the present government It happened that a Turkish galley was brought into Malta of the island. The same person bought, about the same by the Christian slaves who had manned her, who had risen time, the West India Islands, named St. Christopher, St. upon their Moslem officers while at sea, and subverted their

authority. Among the Turks thus captured was the pasha The struggle between the Christian and the Turk had of Rhodes, a man of eminence; and the grand-master, dwindled into insignificant and piratical contests. The anxious to propitiate the French, who were allies of the only warlike exploit of Pinto's reign was to bombard several sultan of Constantinople, immediately gave up this distin. piratical ports, but to small purpose; and, from this date, guished prisoner to the French minister at Malta, who the cruising of a few privateers constituted the naval delodged him in a palace, made him a princely allowance, monstration of the knights." The galleys," says Sonnini, and surrounded him with Turkish slaves. Among these “were armed, or rather embarrassed, with an incredible slaves was a negro, the very man whose treachery had sold number of lands; the general alone had 800 men on board. the pasha into the hands of the Christians while at sea. They were superbly ornamented ; gold blazed on the nuThis wretch, conceiving that he was ill rewarded for his merous basso-relievos and sculptures on the stern; enortreason, formed the daring project of subverting the govern mous sails, striped with blue and white, carried on their ment of the knights, and of rendering the Sultan for ever middle a great cross of Malta, painted red. Their elegant his debtor, by putting him in possession of Malta. The flags floated majestically. In a word, everything concurred, pasha eagerly agreed to promote the scheme; the Turkish when they were under sail, to render it a magnificent specslaves were soon involved in the conspiracy; a fleet from tacle ; but their construction was little adapted either for Barbary, aware of the project, was to appear off the harbour fighting or for standing foul weather. The order kept on the festival of St. Peter and St. Paul, which was held them up rather as an image of its ancient splendour, than at Citta Notabile, in the interior of the island, and at the for their utility. It was one of those ancient institutions hour of the mid-day siesta, those who remained in the city which had once served to render the brotherhood illustrious; of Valetta were to be massacred. A slave, who held a but now only attested its selfishness and decay. The caraconfidential situation near the grand-master's person, was vans, or cruises of the galleys, were now nothing but parties instructed to enter Pinto's chamber at the hour when the of pleasure to and from the delicious havens of Sicily; the intense heat overpowers all ranks alike with sleep, and de- defence of those superb ramparts, the monuments of the capitate him, and then instantly to exhibit the bleeding glory of the order, was confided to foreign and mercenary head in the grand balcony of the palace, as a signal for the soldiers; and that social energy, which had made one of slaves of the other knights to follow his example. All the greatest empires of the universe to tremble, was now no these arrangements were carried on in so secret a manner longer exemplified, except in the sparks of courage struck that no Christian on the island had even a suspicion of from a few individuals." their existence; but just before the appointed day, in a We must not omit perhaps the last worthy action these moment of passion, aggravated by the effects of wine and galleys performed. In the year 1783 a frightful earthquake opiurn, the negro quarrelled with a young Persian, a soldier ravaged Sicily and the southern part of Italy, and in parin the grand-master's guard, who was in his confidence, ticular the towns of Messina and Reggio; and those inbaand attempted to stab him; but the youth escaped, and, bitants that escaped alive were exposed, without food or either through fear or vengeance, at once divulged the for- shelter, in the open country. The Maltese galleys were midable conspiracy. The pasha, being under the protection laid up in ordinary at the time intelligence of this disaster of France, escaped punishment; but about a hundred of reached the island ; but they were made ready for sea, notthose implicated in the plan suffered death. Some were withstanding, in a single night, and instantly set sail for burned alive, some were broken on the wheel, and others the scene of desolation, carrying with them medicines, beds, were torn to pieces by four galleys rowing different ways. and tents for the relief of the sufferers.

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The heirs and descendants of Sir John Manners IN No. 493 of the Saturday Magazine we introduced continued to reside at Haddon Hall, from the time of a copy of one of the beautiful plates, forming part of Queen Elizabeth till the beginning of the last century. Nash's Mansions of England in the Olden Time. On One of these descendants, the Earl of Rutland, was the present occasion we shall give a brief account of created Duke of Rutland during the reign of Queen one of the most remarkable baronial residences in Anne, and he maintained one hundred and forty England, viz., Haddon Hall, Derbyshire, the represervants at Haddon: the mansion was kept open, in sentation of which is copied, by permission, from the true style of old English hospitality, during twelve Mr. Nash's work. This house is considered to be days after Christmas. But soon after this the Duke “the most perfect of the ancient baronial mansions of Rutland removed his residence from Haddon to the remaining; and is certainly better calculated than any still more princely mansion of Belvoir Castle, Rutlandother to convey an idea of the large establishment and shire; and since that time Haddon has not been used extensive hospitality of the old English baron." as a regular residence; but it has been an occasional

Haddon Hall is situated about eight miles from scene of mirth and hospitality. At the conclusion of Matlock, in Derbyshire, in á vale of the river the American wär, the whole mansion was devoted to Wye, called the vale of Haddon, and is usually a hospitable entertainment, in which two hundred approached either from Matlock or from Bakewell. couples danced in the long gallery. The towers of Haddon become visible at about two Haddon Hall has been known and celebrated by miles from the latter place, and are seen reflected in many of our historians. Fuller, speaking of it, says: a small sheet of water lying beneath. On approach _"The north part of Derbyshire, called the Peak, is ing the house it is seen to consist of parts erected at poor above and rich beneath the ground, yet are there very different periods; but the most contradictory some exceptions therein: witness the fair pastures opinions are expressed by different authors respecting nigh Haddon, belonging to the Duke of Rutland, so the period at which the oldest part of it was erected. incredibly battling of cattle, that one proffered to Gilpin has recorded his opinion that the old tower surround it with shillings in order to purchase it, which surmounts the gateway, that once formed the which because to be set sideways, not edgeways, were principal entrance into Haddon, had its origin anterior refused." to the conquest. Mr. Rhodes considers that there is In describing the appearance of Haddon, we must no testimony, either written or otherwise, that any bear in mind that it was not a castle, but a residence. portion of it was erected many years before the reign It was one of the chief of those which have been of King Stephen; while Lysons says that the chapel called castellated houses; that is, mansions adorned and hall are the most ancient parts, having been built with turrets and battlements, but utterly incapable by Sir Richard Vernon, who died in the year 1452. of defence, except against a rude mob, armed with

Before speaking of the mansion itself, it may be clubs and staves, on whom the gates might be shut; well to give a brief sketch of the history of the vari. and their internal arrangements were such, that the ous changes which have occurred in the proprietor- baron was enable to entertain a host of retainers. ship. In Doomsday Book Haddon is set down as a Haddon consists of several apartments and offices berewick in the manor of Bakewell, and as belonging erected at different periods round two quadrangular to the king; but it was soon after constituted into a courts. Both of these courts are embattled, and surmanor, and became the property of the Avenells. The rounded with many turrets, and projecting bows, and heiresses of this family married into the families of the they have a communication with one another by a Vernons and Bassetts, in the reign of Richard the passage. First. By means of intermarriages, the entire manor On entering the building through the entrance of Haddon became vested in one possessot, Sir from Bakewell, the visitor finds himself in the lower Richard Vernon, in the reign of Henry the Sixth. court, which is attained by an awkward flight of steps. Sir Richard filled the office of speaker of the parlia-Oa crossing this court to the passage connecting it ment, which was held at Leicester in the fourth year of with the other court, the main entrance to the buildHenry the Sixth's reign: the king afterwards made ing is reached, and here is situated the Great Hall, him treasurer of Calais. Sir Richard died in 1452, always a place of importance in our old baronial man. and was succeeded by his son, who was afterwards sions. At the upper end of the hall is the raised appointed to the office of constable of England. The platform, or dais, which in these old apartments was next possessor, Sir Henry Vernon, was governor and the place of honour for the more distinguished guests. treasurer to Prince Arthur, the eldest son of Henry The upper part of two sides of the hall is occupied by the Seventh. There is a tradition, that the prince a gallery, where the bards and minstrels of Haddon frequently lived with Sir Henry at Haddon Hall, were wont to enliven the festivities held in the hall. where there was an apartment called the prince's The hall appears to be the only room in the mansion chamber. Sir George Vernon, the son of the baronet capable of dining such large numbers of persons as just spoken of, lived at Haddon in such magnificent were in the habit of assembling in such mansion as style, and was so distinguished for his hospitality, that this, and it is probable that it was the general dining he acquired the name of King of the Peak. (The Peak apartment. On entering the porch of the mansion, is a mountain of that name, forming one of the most the screen which separates the hall from the passage remarkable objeets in that part of Derbyshire near is on the right hand; and on the left are four large which Haddon is situated.) On the death of Sir door-ways, with high pointed arches. These door-ways George, as he had no male heir, his immense estates, Mr. King supposed to have led, in ancient times, to which comprised no less than thirty manors, descended the apartments or offices of the butler, the clerk of to his two daughters, Margaret and Dorothy; the the kitchen, the cellarer, and the steward of the houseformer of whom was married to Sir Thomas Stanley, hold. The first of these door-ways, which, at the Knt., second son of the Earl of Derby, and the latter time Mr. King wrote, still retained its ancient strong to Sir John Manners, second son to the first Earl of oak door, had a little wicket in the middle, just large Rutland, of the house of Manners. Some of the enough to put plates or trenchers in and out; and estates fell to Sir Thomas Stanley; and others, in- from this circumstance, combined with the room concluding Haddon, to Sir John Manners: this occurred taining a vast old oak chest, with divisions for bread, in the reign of Queen Elizabeth,

a large old cupboard for cheese, and a number of

shelves for butter, Mr. King supposes this room to as a punishment for his offence." We would hazard have been the butler's station. There seems additional a conjecture, that, whatever might be inflicted for neevidence of this, because there is a passage, down glect of duties, it was not often necessary to subject steps, from this apartment to a large vaulted room, a servant to this ordeal for "refusing duly to take his arched with stone and supported by pillars: there is a horn of ale." low benching of stone-work round the walls, calcu As there are many important and interesting parts lated to hold beer-casks; and a stone drain, running of the building still to be described, we shall devote along beneath and in front of it, seems to have been another article to the completion of the subject. intended to carry off the drainings. Near this room, which seems to have been a beer-cellar, are brew. houses, and bake-houses, where are remains of the THE NATURAL HISTORY OF THE MONTHS, places once occupied by large coppers, coolers, and ovens; and near these again are store-rooms for corn

IX. SEPTEMBER. and malt, with a separate entrance from the exterior of the building. These rooms, viz., the butler's apart

Next him September marched eke on foot; ment, the beer-cellar, the brew-house, bake-house, and

Yet was he heavy laden with the spoyle

Of harvest's riches, which he made his boot, store-rooms, seemed to have formed one distinct suite

And him enriched with bounty of the soyle: of offices, under the care of one person.

In his one hand, as fit for harvest's toyle, The next pointed archway, in the entrance passage,

He held a knife-hook; and in th' other hand

A paire of weights, with which he did assoyle is the entrance to a long narrow passage, leading

Both more and lesse, where it in doubt aid stand, with a continued descent, to the great kitchen, and

And equal gave to each as justice duly scanned. --SPENSER. having, midway, a half-door, or hatch, with a broad shelf on the top of it: on this shelf the dishes of The character of this month sensibly reminds us of provisions were placed by the cook's assistants, and the decline of the year. The weather is in general taken by the servants-in-waiting on the persons dining clear and serene, but the days are considerably in the hall. In the kitchen are still remaining two shortened, and the morning and evening air has all vast fire places, with irons for a very large number the chilliness of autumn. The sun shines with a of spits. There are likewise stoves; double ranges of mellow lustre, still imparting summer's heat during dressers ; large chopping-blocks; and a massive wooden the middle of the day. The change which has taken table, with a surface hollowed out so as to form place in the appearance of the country tells us kneading-troughs for pastry; and in the floor are some plainly that the youth of the year is gone, and that large rings, by which stones were lifted up which even its full maturity and strength are passing away. covered the entrances to the drains. In connexion with The fields lately covered with wavy corn, or enlivened the kitchen are numerous apartments which probably by the busy labours of those engaged in its ingatherserved as lạrders, &c., and which appear to have been ing, are now deserted and bare, and the harvest moon, in communication only with the kitchen.

(as the planet is at this season called on account of The third pointed archway in the entrance passage its bright and lengthened radiance,) sheds its beams opens merely into one very small vaulted room, un on our land, when, with the exception of the northern connected with any other: this, from its position and counties, the harvest is in most cases fully gathered appearance, seems to have been the wine cellar; a in. The meadows, divested long since of their second supposition which is not inconsistent with the small. crop of grass, are still looking fresh and beautiful, ness of its size, for wine was used more as a cordial and afford pasturage to the numerous cattle now than as a regular accompaniment of the dinner-table, freely admitted to graze in them. The hedges have at the time when Haddon was in its glory.

lost nearly all their beauty: few and solitary are the The fourth arched entrance of which we have blossoms that adorn them, and even these are pale spoken leads to the bottom of a deep staircase, quite and wan, compared with the earlier productions of distinct from the grand staircase of the house. This the year. The "scarlet hip, and stony haw," have staircase conducts to a number of small apartments not yet attained their full colouring, and therefore do on the upper floor, which, from their number and not materially enliven the dull green of the branches situation, seem to have been appropriated to numerous on which they hang. The bending and rustling guests and their retainers. The sleeping apartments boughs of the hazel thicket often remind us that the for the common servants seem to have been in various season of nutting has arrived, and the young hands other parts of the house.

are as busily employed as ever in that favourite occuWe have said that these four arched entrances to pation. The settled state of the weather usual during the servants' offices are separated from the great hall this month makes it a favourite season for country by a screen. This screen is ornamented with ancient excursions. The silent recesses of woods and forests carved work, and presents a striking feature in the are invaded by groups of merry visitants, who find old hall. On the right of the entrance into the hali abundant pleasure in threading the tangled and there is an immense fire-place, large enough to roast intricate paths, and then in assembling beneath the an unjointed ox, had such a thing been required; and wide-spread canopy of some aged oak, and partaking a number of old portraits, greatly injured by time, of the rural repast, made doubly refreshing by the are hung amongst the other trophies that adorn the rambles of the morning and the healthful tone of hall. On the wainscoat of the wall is seen an iron spirits and appetite thus acquired. But it is not on fastening of peculiar construction, large enough to such occasions, or when surrounded by a laughing admit the wrist of a man's hand: this is said to have throng of young and happy persons, that we have been placed there for the purpose of punishing trivial leisure to take in the full majesty and richness of the offences;

and also served to enforce the laws and re scene presented by some of our still remaining forests. gulations adopted amongst the servants of this esta- There is an awful grandeur in their dark recesses, a blishment. “ The man who refused duly to take his sublimity about their lofty canopies and massy pillars, horn of ale, or neglected to perform the duties of his and an impressive stillness throughout their seemingly office, had his hand locked to the wainscoat, somewhat immeasurable extent, which deeply affect and higher than his head, by this iron fastening, when solemnize the mind, and with which the voice of cold water was poured down the sleeve of his doublet merriment seems little consonant.

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