« 前へ次へ »
constantly shifting their quarters; and the villages of
two or three tribes are often so intermingled that it is Fast by his wild resounding river The listless Kora lingers ever;
not easy to decide to which of them the territory Still drives his heifers forth to feed,
belongs. But, with respect to landed property, they Soothed by the gorrab's humming reed;
have none of the ideas which a European attaches to A rover still unchecked will range, As humour calls, or seasons change;
the term. They never consider the soil as properly This tent of mats and leathern gear,
worth claiming or disputing about. The water and All packed upon the patient steer.—PRINGLE. the pasturage is all they esteem, and when these are
exhausted, the soil is abandoned as useless. WhenAMONG the various tribes of the Hottentot race ever they find a spring unoccupied, there they plant the Korabs who inhabit the banks of the Orange their curious circular huts, and when they are tired River, have attained the highest degree of civilization. with the locality, others come and occupy their abanThey are a peaceable and friendly people; their mode doned spot. of life is pastoral, and the places of their abode ? At the time when the Dutch had possession of the unsettled. The name by which they designate their colony, the various native tribes suffered much cruel nation is Kora, or Koraqua. The affix qua means man oppression from their civilized rulers. The Korahs, or men, and may be omitted in most of the Hottentot however, were protected to a considerable extent, by dialects. The word Koraqua signifies a man wearing the wide desert Karro, situated between them and the shoes, as distinguished from the sandals which are in colony. Thus comparatively free from oppression, we general use among the other tribes.
need not be surprised to find the Korahs more civilized The Korahs are found widely dispersed over the than the general race of Hottentots: they display pone country on the northern side of the Gariep: but it is of those filthy and squalid appearances which characnot easy to define the boundaries of the country inha- terize some of the tribes on the skirts of the colony. bited by these wandering tribes, because they are in their persons thev are more cleanly, owing proVOL. XVII,
bably to the abundance of water with which the It is by the imitation of the lively colours of nature, far Orange River is at all seasons, and more especially in more than by exactness of forms, that drawings afford delight
to the far greater number of those who view them; correctsummer, supplied, and which in almost every other
ness and fidelity of outline being more seldom duly apprepart of the southern angle of Africa is a scarce article. ciated, although the more valuable
part of the art. Their dress and domestic utensils are neater and con
This Korah wore on his head a piece of leather, structed with more care. Their dwellings, which are
bound round in the form of a cap, and in the manner formed with great skill
, are in the shape of hemi. of a turban; and was clothed with a leathern cloak, spheres, generally about six feet high and eight in
or kaross, which, together with his whole body, were diameter, and are covered with several folds of neat
so covered with red ochre and grease, that the part of matting,' made of rushes
, or coarse grass. Their the wagon against which he leaned to have his porvessels for containing water, milk, &c., are sometimes trait taken, was painted, or rather soiled, with a red made of clay, baked in the sun, sometimes of gourds, stain, not easily extracted. and also of wood hollowed out from blocks of willow. number of bead necklaces of various colours, to which
From his neck hung a They do not appear to have any knowledge of agriculture, but their possessions of horned cattle, sheep, small tortoise to hold snuff or tobacco. His wrist
were appended a Bichuana knife, and the shell of a goats, and dogs, are sometimes considerable. They and fore arm were ornamented with bracelets of beads, have no kind of carriages, but on their removal from place to place, their mats , their household furniture, though perfectly friendly in all their intentions, these
cords of acacia bark, and a broad ivory ring. Aland utensils, are packed on oxen, (as represented in
men were each armed with a hassagay and kirri, and our frontispiece,) which in addition usually carry the
some with a bow. The countenance and manners of women and children.
The Korahs subsist to a great extent on curdled this chief were expressive of a goodnatured quiet dismilk, and on berries and roots: they are particularly position : bis behaviour was even respectful, and less attentive to their cattle, which they train in habits of troublesome in the way of begging, than that of the strict subordination and command. When a cow is generality of his countrymen. supposed to withhold her milk, they adopt a plan, and rapid, the Korabs adopt a curious contrivance to
In crossing the Orange River, which is both wide which, according to Herodotus, was practised by the get over their sheep and other property. They take ancient Scythians: this method is too offensive to
a log of wood, from six to eight feet in length, and at describe. Their dress consists of skin cloaks, similar to those the distance of a few inches from one of its ends, fix a
wooden peg. On this log the person intending to of the other Hottentot tribes: the Korah women de
cross the river stretches himself at full length, and scribed by Barrow, wore square ornamented aprons, holding fast by the peg with one hand, while with the suspended from the waist, with copper chains and other, and occasionally with his feet, he strikes to beads of glass round the neck, the wrists, and legs. keep the end of the log in a certain direction, (which These chains he supposes to have been procured from
is that of an angle of about forty-five degrees with the the Damaras, a nation of Kaffers to the north-westward, dwelling at the foot of the Copper Mountains. stream,) the obliquity of the log opposed to the cur“This metal, indeed, is said to be found in many places rent causes it, in floating down the stream, to push
gradually over to the opposite side. near the banks of the Orange River, and the party
One of the most ancient as well as favourite recrepicked up what appeared to be a specimen of native ations of the Hottentots is found in the Gorrah or Gogold; but mines are of little value in a country where rah, a musical instrument, which in form and appearthere are no materials necessary for working them, no
ance resembles a violin bow, but in its nature and use, navigable rivers, nor passable roads, by which their it is quite different, being in fact a combination of a produce can at any reasonable expense be transported to a market. Those who set any value on this part stick, or bow, on which a catgut string is stretched.
stringed and a wind instrument. It consists of a slender of Southern Africa for the mines it contains, know To the lower end of this string is attached a flat piece very little of the nature of the country.” These remarks of the quill of an ostrich, in such a manner as to were made by Barrow, about forty years ago, during form part of the length of the string. This quill being nearly the whole of which time the colony of the Cape applied to the lips, is made to vibrate, by strongly inof Good Hope has remained in the possession of the haling
and exhaling the air. The resulting tones are English, whose benevolence and enterprise in extending civilization, are perhaps as remarkable as the vast pass” of the instrument, the tunes appear unmeaning
described as being powerful, but from the small “comextent of land which they possess in almost every and monotonous to civilized ears. portion of the globe.
When a Korah dies and leaves no children behind For further information respecting the costume of him it is the custom for his brother to take whatever the Korahs, we select the following amusing sketch
property he may have left, while the widow is entitled from Mr. Burchell's valuable work on South Africa,
only to that share of it which has been gained by her Four Korahs paid me a visit, and I purchased of them a
own labour and management. A case is mentioned fresh ostrich egg, for a small piece of tobacco. They belonged to a neighbouring kraal, of which one of them was his companions to come and see. The astonishment now became the chief. Of this man I drew the portrait. After making general; a crowd gathered round, and their various modes of express.
ing surprise, were highly entertaining: None having ever imagined the bargain to give him a large piece of tobacco, he stood
the possibility that objects could be so imitated by art as to exhibit the patiently and still, till I had finished my drawing; which,
colour and appearance of life, they seemed to believe that it had been however, being done only with a black lead pencil, excited done by magic; while others supposing it to be the fish itself, fastened little wonder or admiration compared to that which he and upon the paper, inquired where was the wound where it had been his companions expressed at my drawing of the Yellow-fish*. struck. Nothing could be more amusing than the curious looks of
incredulity and amazement exhibited in their countenances, when * The incident mentioned in the text is so amusing and charac- they beheld the back of the drawing, and felt the thinness of what teristic, that we quote it in the words of Mr. Burchell."Since our they had thought to be a solid fish. There was but one way in arrival at this station, a party of Korahs, attracted by our provisions, which the mystery could be cleared up to them: and but one mode had iaken up their abode with us. This morning, one of them struck a of explanation which could be rendered at all comprehensive to their
eelvisch (Yellow.fish); and I borrowed it of him to finish the simple minds: 1 showed them the colours and pencils; and in colouring of a drawing made at the Sack river. As soon as this was their presence laid some of the same tint on a piece of paper, done, I called him to the wagon to take his fish again; when, catch After this they all retired, sa:isfied and greatly pleased ; and continued ing a sight of the drawing, he was in an instant struck with a inost for a long while talking with each other on the wonder they had just laughable degree of astonishment, and for a minute stood literally seen; and possibly in such a manner, the acquisition of idcas perdumb with wonder; gazing at it with mouth and eyes wide open. secily new, might excite in them, for the time at least, an increased last, without taking off his eyes from the object, he called aloud to activity in the faculty of consideration and reflection.”
by Burchell in which a Bushwoman, wife of a Korana,
PLYMOUTH AND DEVONPORT. III. had by collecting a quantity of certain roots or leaves, We proceed with our description of the chief objects used for chewing as a substitute for tobacco, acquired of interest at Plymouth and Devonport. about a dozen sheep; which on the death of her The citadel of Plymouth, which, next to Drake's husband were unjustly taken possession of by his Island, is the most important of the defences of the brother. The woman, remonstrating in vain, and place, is situated at the eastern extremity of the Hoe, unable to obtain justice, collected together her Bush- at the point where Sutton Pool branches out of the man friends; who, exasperated at the unfair treatment Catwater. It was built on the site of an old fort, by she had received, were resolved to seek justice with command of Charles the Second, about the year 1670. the aid of the bow and the hassagay. The Korah took It is built principally of limestone and granite, and exactly the same steps to defend himself, and to re consists of three regular and two irregular bastions, tain what he had unlawfully seized. “For among them, the curtains of the regular bastions being strengthened as among civilized and polished nations,” says Mr. by two ravelins and horn-works. The north, west, Burchell,“ he who is in the wrong will always find and east sides are bounded by a deep ditch, countersome false argument to prove that he is in the right." scarp, and covered way, pallisadoed: the south side, The plan by which this “trial by battle” is generally which faces the sea, is defended by a lower fort, built decided, consists in plundering each other of their upon the rocks on the sea-shore: this fort and the cattle, and sometimes with a more sanguinary inten- upper parapets are surmounted by cannon. Two tion, in lying in ambush for their adversaries, whom gateways, with drawbridges, form the entrance from they seldom fail to shoot if they come within reach; the town: the second gateway, which opens immebut being well aware of each other's mode of warfare, diately into the citadel, displays a sculpture of the their cunning and caution generally save them. royal arms, and other devices. In the interior is a When one party has proved itself to be the strongest spacious esplanade, around which are built the officers' the affair is settled, and they continue to live as houses, the chapel, the magazine, the hospital, and the before without molesting each other.
barracks. In the centre is a bronze statue of George the Second, in the costume of a Roman warrior, on a
pedestal bearing a Latin inscription. The ramparts VANITY OF INTELLECT.
are nearly three quarters of a mile in circumference, Man's intellect has indeed great power over all out
and constitute a very favourite promenade. On the ward things. This we are not disposed to question. opposite side of the entrance to Sutton Pool is a In these days more especially we all take far too
series of dilapidated fortifications, called Queen Anne's much pride in it, and make presumptuous boast of battery: this battery was once serviceable as a defence it, nay, are apt to fall down and worship it, as the one of the harbour, though it is no longer used for that great miracle worker, the true mover of mountains.
purpose. But powerful as it may be, omnipotent as we may The Custom-house is an elegant building, standing deem it to be, over the world around us, over the out
on the Parade, or Coal-quay. The front is built of ward fields of nature, there is one region where our hearts and consciences tell us, sometimes in half, rusticated piers of the same material. On the ground
granite, with a colonnade of five arches, supported by muttered whispers, sometimes in cries of anguish and floor are the offices of the principal surveyor, tide.. agony, that it is almost powerless: and that region is
surveyor, landing-waiter, searcher, &c. A granite the dim, visionary, passion-haunted one within our staircase leads to the long-room, a spacious apart own breasts. We all know but too well, -every one whose life has not fowed away in listless
ment for the dispatch of public business, adjoining every one who has ever struggled against the evil | The whole building presents a handsome appearance,
to which are the comptroller's and collector's offices. within him, must have felt but too deeply, that our
There is a government establishment at Bovisand, intellectual convictions, clear and strong as they may
on the eastern bank of Plymouth Sound, for supplyhave been, have never of themselves been able to ing ships with their cargo of water. A noble resershake the foundations of a single sin, to subdue a
voir, capable of containing nearly twelve thousand single vice, to root out a single evil habit. Ever since
tuns of water, is constructed in a narrow valley, into that severing of the heart from the intellect, which
which flow several fine streams collected from the took place when man gave himself up to the lust of neighbouring hills. The water is conducted in iron godless knowledge, the Passions have made mock at pipes from the reservoir to a pier built at Staddon the Understanding, whenever it has attempted to con- Point, where every facility is afforded for the approach trol them, and have only flattered and pampered it, and shelter of boats in stormy weather. The object when it was content to wear their livery, and to drudge of this reservoir is to afford to ships lying in the in their service; while the Will has lifted up its head
Sound a more speedy supply of water than they could against the Understanding in haughty defiance and otherwise obtain. Moreover this lesson, which we learn from our
The entrance to the Catwater is bounded on one own grievous experience, is confirmed by all the evi
side by the citadel, of which we have already spoken, dence of history; where, in example after example, and on the other by a long, narrow peninsula, called we see, how vain and impotent the enlightening of the Mount Batten. On the most elevated point of this understanding has been to elevate and purify man's peninsula is an ancient circular fort, built during the moral being; and how, unless that enlightenment has reign of King Charles the First, to aid in the defence been working together with other healthier powers, of Plymouth Sound and the Catwater. It is in toleand been kept in check by them, its operation on the rably good preservation, and has of late years been character of nations has rather been to weaken and appropriated by the harbour-master to the purpose dissipate their energies, to crumble the primitive rock of a look-out house. Not far from this spot is a into sand.-HARE.
small town called Oreston, whence the immense supply
of stone was obtained for the construction of the The Christian religion, though pensive and serious, is not sad. It produces tranquillity, confidence, and joy. It is Breakwater. Large beds of limestone rock line the indeed only a departure from just and true views of Catwater, and these have been quarried to a great religion that is followed by a vague sadness, gloom, and
extent. The rock will receive a very fine polish, and despondency.
being beautifully veined, is frequently used for chim
poses. While the quarrying was proceeding, in the 2 with gas. There are three entrances to the town on
ney-pieces, tables, vases, and other ornamental pur.
the land side, one from Stoke, one from Stonehouse, year 1812, a nodule of clay was discovered at a depth and one from Morice Town. of about sixty feet from the summit of the rock, and When the town had obtained permission from the twenty-five from the margin of the sea. This nodule king to appropriate the name of Devonport, a column was about twenty-five feet long, and twelve feet was erected to celebrate the event. This column was square; and un opening it there were found within erected by subscription, at an expense of about three several bones of the rhinoceros, in a more perfect thousand pounds. It stands on a solid rock, twenty. state, and containing less animal matter than usual two feet above the level of the pavement. The rock in bonés dug out of rocks. The proprietors of is ascended by a handsome flight of steps, enclosed shipping, which anchored in the Catwater, were at: by parapets of wrought marble, and communicating one tine apprehensive that by continuing to quarry with an arched gateway opening upon a terrace which at Oreston, the Catwater would be deprived of a natu- surrounds the column." On the rock is a plinth nine. ral barrier which the limestone hill afforded, from the teen feet higb: above this is another, nine feet high, gales frequently blowing from the south; and petitions with panels for inscriptions: on the upper plinth rests: were presented to the Admiralty, praying them to the shaft of the column, fluted, and of the Dorie: cease quarrying at Oreston. We believe that when order: this is surmounted by a balcony, and a pedesthe Breakwater was completed, the necessity for tal to support a figure of George the Fourth.
A spi working these quarries was at an end.
ral staircase winds round the interior of the column, The "solitary rock at the eastern margin of the and leads to the gallery, from whence a splendida entrance to the Sound, called the Mewstone, is not a view is obtained of the hills, vales, and wooded scenery, i fortification: indeed it is merely a rocky abode for stretching from Hengeston Down on the north to the rabbits and gulls.
ocean on the south, and from Dartmoor on the east We must now describe the Hamoaze rather more to the Cornish hills on the west. at . will Near the column is the town-hall, a building debear in mind that it stands north-westward of Ply: signed from the Parthenon at Athens, and erected mouth Sound; the entrance to it being by Cremil or about twenty years ago. There is a portico in front, Crimble Passage: this passage is bounded on the one with four Doric columns, twenty-seven feet and a side by Mount Edgecumbe, and on the other by a half in height, and five and a half in diameter. From long narrow tongue of land called Devil's Point. the portico a flight of steps leads to the hall, a noble Having entered this narrow passage, we find ourselves apartment, seventy-five feet long, forty wide, and in the Hamoaze, one of the noblest harbours in Eu- thirty-one high. It is provided with benches, which rope, perhaps in the world. This is, in fact, a part can be removed as occasion requires; so that the hall of the river Tamar, and extends about four miles, can be appropriated to any public meeting. There from Mount Edgecumbe to Saltash. The deepest are smaller apartments for official and parochial busipart of this harbour is at high water about twenty ness; and also cells in the lower part of the building fathoms, and at low water about fifteen fathoms in for prisoners. depth. This large sheet of water is a receptacle für Almost contiguous to the town-hall is a building of those ships of war which are not required for active Egyptian architecture, intended originally for a matheservice, and which are laid up in ordinary, moored tomatical school, but now used as a public library. It strong chains which stretch across the harbour. is said that Denon, who is celebrated for his intimate These vessels are stripped of their yards, top-masts, acquaintance with Egyptian architecture, said that he and rigging; the hulls are painted yellow; and wooden considered this the best attempt to appropriate Egyproofs are erected over them to protect them from the tian architecture to domestic purposes that had ever weather. All these vessels are under the superintend come under his notice. The stock of books is not ence of the Commissioner of the Dockyard. There large, but they are of a sterling and valuable chais a first-rate ship, called the flag-ship, in the harbour: racter. The building cost about fifteen hundred and any orders or communications from the Admiralty pounds. regarding the ships in the harbour, are made first to The three erections of which we have spoken are the commissioner, from him to the captain of the situated almost close together, on an ascent forming flag-ship, and from him to the captains or officers of the extremity of a street fronting the principal enthe other vessels. There is always a naval comman trance to the town from. Plymouth, and collectively der-in-chief, called a port-admiral, to superintend the form an attractive and imposing collection of buildwhole, but he usually resides on shore, in a govern- ings. But these are not all. Between the column ment-house. From its sheltered situation, there is and the library is a chapel, of which Mr. Rowe thus no harbour in the kingdom more secure than the speaks :-Hamoaze; and the number of large ships always It is designed by Mr. Foulston, after the Hindoo style, lying there forms a striking sight.
with the ornaments and accompaniments appropriate to that
fantastic manner, but of massive and bold proportions. Through lines of stately ships; and as we pass,
These are so judiciously arranged, that the whole front preThe tale goes quickly round of glories old,
sents a highly effectire and pleasing appearance; and the Of battles won on the great sea, of chiefs
building, though placed in juxta-position with the fine portico Whose daring flags triumphantly were borne
of the town-hall, maintains its rank, and seems to suffer no. By this or that famed vessel. Noiseless now
thing from a contrast which would be destructive to many Is each forsaken structure, save when sounds
buildings, in which bold and picturesque effect had been less The listless keeper's foot; nought else invades
the objects of the architect's attention. The deep impressive silence of those decks.
There are several places of public worship in Devon. Where lately trod a thousand gallant men!
port, but they do not call for particular description
CARRINGTON. here. The town is no way deficient in those chariWe must now briefly notice the chief objects in table and benevolent institutions which form so striking Devonport of a private or commercial nature. It a feature in many of our English cities and towns. is a well-built town, about twice as long, from north The Devonport and Stonehouse public dispensary is to south, as the width, from east to west. The streets situated in Chapel Street. There are likewise public are well paved with variegated marble, and well lighted schools for poor boys and girls, a Female Benevolent
Society, the Dorcas Society, &c. Of buildings de- 1 is a little island, situated in the middle of Plymouth voted to other purposes, there are a Savings Bank, a Sound, called Drake's Island, or sometimes St. NichuScientific Institution, a Classical and Mathematical las's Island. In the time of Henry the Eighth the Public School, &c. The market at Devonport is only building on this island was a small chapel. In abundantly supplied with the necessaries and luxu. the following reign a royal letter was sent to the ries of life, the produce of the surrounding country. mayor and corporation of Plymouth, ordering them Fish is always to be had in great plenty, and at low to fortify this chapel, in order to assist in repelling prices, and the market is considered to be one of the foreign attacks. This appears to have been acted on. best in the kingdom, both for the excellence of the During the civil war, the island was generally in the supply, and the lowness of the prices.
hands of the parliamentary party, and had many The peculiar connexion existing between the town additions made to its fortifications. Since then the of Devonport and the government has given rise to a defences have been greatly strengthened and increased. mode of local government differing from that existing The island is about three furlongs in length, and is in most towns. . The town is under the jurisdiction of connected with the south-western shore by a ridge of commissioners, among whom are--the lord of the rocks, which are uncovered at low water, and constimanor, who holds courts leet and baron at Michaels tute what is called the bridge. The depth of water, mas--the stewards of the manor, the rector of the even at the highest tides, is not sufficient to admit parish, the commissioner of her majesty's dockyard, any vessel except of very small burden; so that the naval commander-in-chief, the mayor, aldermen, larger vessels are obliged to make a circuit of two and recorder of the boroughs of Plymouth and Salt- additional miles, in order to go round the other side ash--the manorial lords of East Stonehouse, and of of the island. Among other arrangements for defence, East and West Anthony--and the stewards of these the island contains furnaces for heating balls red-hot. last named manors. These commissioners have the Immediately opposite Drake's Island is the Hoe, a superintendence of all the affairs of the poor, the fine open spot, from whence an extensive view may be lighting, watching, and cleansing of the town, and obtained. It occupies the whole line of Plymouth the granting of licenses to porters, watchmen, &c. Sound, facing the south, and is an open eminence
Between Devonport and Plymouth is an open spot, devoid of trees or shrubs, but covered with a grassy called Mount Wise, which has been termed the sward, in the centre of which is a wide gravelled path, “Champ-de-Mars" of the place. It is an elevated forming a favourite promenade for the inhabitants of fortified spot, with a parade, consisting of a level ex the two towns. Its height being equal to that of any panse of gravel, skirted by patches of green sward. ground in the immediate neighbourhood, it commande Government-house, and the residence of the port an extensive view over Plymouth, Devonport, Stoneadmiral, are built on this hill, and whenever a house, and Stoke. review takes place this hill is the chief scene of it. One more article, which will complete the subject,
The principal point of defence for all the valuable will enable us to describe the principal features. ut national property centred in Devonport and Plymouth, Plymouth as a trading and corporate town.