GENERAL Directions, &c.


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Select Sentences
A Hint to Parents

On the Duty of School-Boys

ROLLIN The History of Joseph, abridged

PERCIVAL A fhort Syitem of Virtue and Happiness

KNOX The Child trained up for the Gallows LIVINGSTON Character of Fidelia

ADDISON History of Jerusalem

The faithful American Dog

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Filial Duty and Axection
The Bee
On the starry Heavens

Of Queen Mary and the Martyrs
Story of Logan, a Mingo Chief

The aged Prisoner released from the Bastile MERCIER
Account of Columbus

Description of Babylon

The Sailor and the Monkies
The Brave Soldier's Revenge
Oration on Female Education
Fernando Cortez and William Penn

The Whistle

True Patriotism, displayed at the Siege of Calais HUME
Sublimity of the Scriptures HABAKKUK, St. John
Anecdote of Montesquieu
The Bencvolent Pair
The unfortunate Philanthropist

St. Paul's Speech before King Agrippa
Cruelty to Animals

Speech of Nicolaus
The little Girl's Addrefs to the Viqtares Airs. MORTON
Advice to a young Tradesman

1 Parental Affection. Story of the Bear
The Victim. An Indiar. Story

The Art of Pleafing

Exaniple of Justice and Magnanimity
The Duellists. . Scene between Edward and Henry
Speech of Ms. Pitt, on the Slave Trade
The Slaves. An Elegy

The humane Indian
The Mammoth

Dialogue upon Female Education

Singular Adventure of Gen. Putnam

Extract from Dr. Warren's Oration

OR Profane Swearing

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The Triumph of Virtue-

Bemale Industry

The Lap-Dog

Extract from Mr. Dawes' Oration

General Washington's Resignation

Speech of a Scythian Ambassador

The Revenge of a great Soul

Cudjoe, the faithful African

The African Chicf


Mercury and a modern fine Lady


Speech of Publius Scipio

Speech of Hannibal

Address to the Inhab. of New-Hampshire BELKNAP

Cicero and Lord Chesterfield


Of the Elephant


Speech of Mr. Walpole

Speech of Mr. Pict

Story of a second Jofeph


Scene between Cato and Decius


The Beggar's Petition

The Test of Goodness

Description of Mount Ærna


Pialogue between two School-Boys

Extract from Mr. J. Q. Adanıs' Oration

On knowing the World at an early Age


History of Pocahontas


Speech of Caius Marius to the Romans

Fraternal Affection

The Importance of studying the English Language

The Hottentot and the Lion


Gustavus Vasa and Cristiern


Narrative of four Sailors

Speech of Caäuleius

Description of the Falls of Niagara


Benevolent Affections




Narrative of Mrs. Howe's Captivity


Mr. Pite's Speech, 1745

'The Lion


Story of the grateful Turk

Prutus and Caflius

Speech of Demofthenes

A Father's Advice to his Children


On the Pulpit and Preachers


Brutus' Speech on the Death of Cesar

Juba and Syphax


General Wolfe's Address to his Army

Foscari, the unfortunate Venetian.


Cicero's Oration against Verres

Dialogue between a Tutor and Pupil

A short Address to Parents


The 2.eceptor's Address to his Scholars


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THE first object of a reader or speaker, is, to be clearly understood by his hearers. In order for this, it is neceffary that be thould pronounce his words distinct-. ly, and deliberately; that be should carefully avoid the two extremes of uttering either too fast, or too flow, and that his tone of voice should be perfectly natural.

A reader or speaker should endeavor to acquire a perfect command of his voice ; fo as neither to stun his. hearers by pitching it upon too high a key ; nor tire their patience by obliging them to listen to founds which are fcarcely audible:

It is not the loudest speaker, who is always the best underltood ; but he who pronounces upon that key which fills the space occupied by the audience. That pitch of voice, which is used in ordinary conversation, is usually the best for a public speaker.

3. Early attention ought to be paid to the pauses ; but the rules for thefe are so indefinite and arbitrary, and so difficult to be comprehended, that long experience is neceffary in order to acquire a perfect knowledge of their use. With regard to the length of the several pauses, no precise rules can be given. This, together with the variety of tones which accompany them, depends much upon the nature of the subject.

4. Perhaps nothing is of more importance to a reader or fpeaker, than a proper attention to accent, emphasis, and c.idence. Every word in our language, of more than one fyllable, has, at leaft, one accented syllable. This fyllable ought to be rightly known, and the word should be pronounced by the reader or speaker in the fame mamer as he would pronounce it in ordinary conversation.

5. By

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5. By emphasis, we distinguish those words in sentence which we efteen the most important, by laying a greater stress of voice upon them than we do upon the others.. And it is surprising to observe how the sense of a phrase may be altered by varying the emphafis. The following example will serve as an illustration.

6." This short question, Will you ride to town today ?” may be understood in four different ways, and, consequently, may receive four different apswers, according to the placing of che emphafis.

7. If it be pronounced thus ; Will you ride to town today? the answer may properly be, no ; I shall send my son.. If thus ; Will you ride to town to-day ? Answer, no ; I intend to walk. Will you ride to town to-day ? No; I shall ride into the country. Will you ride to town to-day : No ; but I shall to-morrow.

8. This shows how necessary it is that a reader or speaker should know where to place his emphasis. And the only rule for this is, that he Itudy to attain a just conception of the force and spirit of the sentiments which he delivers. There is as great a difference between one who lays his emphasis properly, and one who pays no regard to it, or places it wrong, as there is between one who plays on an instrument with a masterly hand, and the most bungling performer.

9. Cadence is the reverse of emphasis. It is a depresfion or lowering of the voice ; and commonly falls upon the last fyllable in a sentence. It is varied, however, according to the sense. When a question is asked, it seldom falls pon the last word ; and

many fentences require no cadence.

at all.


In addition to what has been said, it is of great importance to attend particularly to tones and gestures. To almost every

sentiment we utter, more especially, to every Strong emotion, nature has adapted some peculiar tone of voice. And we may observe, that every man, when he is much ir earnest in common discourse, when he is speaking on som subject which interests him nearly, has an eloquent or persuasive tone and manner.

If one were to tell another that he was very angry, or very much grieved, in a tone which did not fuit fuch emo.



tions, instead of being believed, he would be laughed at. The best direction which can be given, is, to copy the proper tones for expreting every sentiment from those which nature dictates to us in conversation with others.

12. With respect to gesture, the few 'following hints may be of fome service. When speaking in public, one should endeavor to preserve as much dignity as possible in the whole attitude of the body. An erect posture is generally to be chosen ; standing firm fo as to have the fullelt command of all his motions. Any inclination, which is used, should be forwards towards the hearers, which is a natural expression of earnestoe's.

13. As for the countenance, the chief rule is, that it should correspond with the nature of the discourse ; and when no particular emotion is expressed, a ferious and manly look is always the best. The


Thould never be fixed close on any one object, but move easily round upon the whole audience.

14 In the motions made with the hands confifts the chief

part of gesture in speaking. The right hand should be used more frequently than the left. Warm emotions demand the motion of both hands corresponding together. All the gestures should be free and easy. Perpendicular movements with the hands, that is, in a straight line


and down, are seldom good. Oblique motions are, in general, he most graceful.

15. Motions made with tre hands Mould proceed rather from the fhoulders than from the elbows ; for they appear much more easy. Too sudden and nimble motions thould be avoided. Earnestness can be fully expressed without them. Above all things, a speaker should guard against affectation, which is always disgustiul.


TIME is more valuable to young people than to any others. They should not lose an hour in forming their taste, their manners, and their minds ; for whatever they are to a certain degree, at eighteen, they will be more o: Jeis so all the rest of their live

2. Nothing

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