always have a choir) in the midst of the congregation, that thus they might the more readily and the more perfectly fulfil their proper office of singing with the people and not to them. When there are side aisles we would so place the benches that the entire space of the nave should be occupied by the worshippers, while the aisles should form the passage for approach and departure. The aisles might also accommodate the children of the parochial schools.

We must leave the case of cathedral choirs for future consideration; now contenting ourselves with the single

remark that here, instead of entering "upon an entirely different field of consideration," we have but to apply the principle before set forth and insisted on, and in these vast and glorious triumphs of Gothic genius and skill the arrangement for the purposes of worship will be at once correct in itself and consistent with the requirements of our own ritual.

With a repetition of our warm general recommendation of his present work we couple the expression of our hope that ere long we may welcome a companion volume from Mr. Scott's pen.


WHILST the civilised world is suffering the shock of a mighty paralysis in the sudden removal of one of the greatest of our statesmen, we appropriately turn to a subject whose chief interest lies in its connection with those political afTairs quorum pars magna Jfuit. Not that we would compare for a moment the gentleman whose name stands at the head of our article with the great man torn from us with so fearful and so humbling an abruptness; their merits were totally different, both in kind and degree, but the book before us is appropriate to the present time because it deals with that drama in which Sir Robert Peel played his distinguished part, and because its chief interest lies in its revelations respecting those party struggles in which he was a leader of such unquestioned power. Many years must pass away, many living actors must disappear from the now busy scene, and the wisdom of many acts of public policy must be demonstrated by their results, ere a true judgment can be formed of Sir Robert Peel's official character and actions; but even now, whilst the arena of state affairs exhibits some of his early friends banded in strong opposition to his more recent policy, all who were familiar with his public life will unite in proclaiming to the world,

and recording for the information of posterity, that he was a true Englishman; a man who loved his country with no divided heart, promoted its prosperity by many measures of great practical wisdom, amended its fundamental laws for the administration of justice in a judicious and statesmanlike spirit, and adorned its society not merely by his personal demeanour and the living rhetoric of a well-ordered life, but by many deeds of noble and disinterested liberality. The acts of statesmen are the life of history. Sir Robert's singular career is connected imperishably with many turning points in our national policy—epochs and events which will form hereafter great subjects of historical disquisition. May men learn to consider them in the same spirit of kindness and candour which has so honourably distinguished the conduct of all classes of the community on this national bereavement! By his removal one of our most brilliant guiding lights has been almost instantaneously quenched. The future, which in many respects is ominously dark, is rendered still darker by the suddenness of the melancholy deprivation.

No powerful call can bid arise
The buried prudent and the wise,

but who can despair of the fortunes of a nation which, on the instant, in obedience to the natural promptings of good and generous feeling, can lay aside all enmity, and unite, as one man, in the determination to do whatever can best evince the gratitude which, in spite of minor disagreements, a free people will always feel and show towards those who serve them, as Sir Robert Peel has done, with an honourable and independent faithfulness ?— But to the purpose which we have more immediately in hand.

* "Memoirs of the Political and Literary Life of Robert Plumer Ward, Esq. author of the L'»w of Nations, Tremaine, De Vere, Sec. &c. with selections from his correspondence, diaries, and unpublished literary remains. By the Honourable Edmund Phipps." 2 vols. 8vo.

Robert Ward was the sixth son and eighth child of John Ward, a Spanish merchant resident at Gibraltar. His mother, whose maiden name was Rebecca Raphael, was a lady of Jewish extraction. Robert was born in Mount Street, on the 19th March, 1765, on a visit paid by his parents to London. His early boyhood was passed at Gibraltar, where the attractive precocity of his childish talent in recitation procured him the attention of the lady of the Governor. Her warm and affectionate interest supplied in part and for a time the loss of his mother, which he was called upon to undergo ere he had the sense to know the greatness of such a bereavement. When about eight years of age he was sent to England for education, and we catch our earliest glimpse of him in the recollection of a lady still living, who describes him on his arrival in this country as dressed in a coat and vest (the coat and vest of a little boy !) of pompadour colour, silk stockings, Spanish leather shoes, and a cocked hat. The venerable reminiscent, who was then a girl a little older than himself, was accosted by him with the inquiry whether she had read Shakspere, and whether she did not delight in Macbeth?

His first school was one kept by a Mr. Macfarlane at Walthamstow, the same person who was afterwards a violent republican, and was killed in the riots at the Middlesex election in 1806. At Walthamstow he had the subsequent Mr. Justice Allan Park for his school-fellow. He now enlarged his studies from Shakspere to Pope; laid out his first half-guinea at CutheU's book-stall in Middle Row, in the purchase of a copy of the edition of Pope of 1777, in ten small volumes; and in

order to peruse them uninterrupted by the boisterous tumult of the playground ascended the highest trees in the neighbourhood, and there, rocked in his airy cradle, imbibed from the pages of our great classic a taste for stately poetry and the " politer prose."

From Walthamstow Ward was transferred to Christ Church, Oxford. Of his residence there his friendly biographer can find no other traces than his lasting admiration for Cyril Jackson, his friendship for Sturges Bourne, and the less durable but still long-continuing embarrassment of a number of debts. From Oxford he removed to the Inner Temple, but before he was called to the bar was obliged to discontinue his legal studies and have recourse to the baths of Bareges to get rid of an alarming tendency to a stiffness in the kneejoint. His cure was complete, but was effected at the risk of his life, for there chanced to be in France at that time another person of the name of Ward who had been sentenced to the guillotine, but had escaped. At the height of the revolutionary fervour all Wards were alike. Robert was arrested. He was found guilty of wearing a coat and waistcoat of the same colour as his namesake. Such a circumstance amply satisfied the judicial evidence of the reign of terror. He was sent off to Paris to be guillotined, and only escaped, he tells us, by their catching the real traitor, whereupon the sentence against himself was commuted into a happy banishment from the territories of the glorious republic.

Ketuminn; to England, dressed in the truest Parisian mode, but by no means in love with republican institutions, he was called to the bar on the 18th of June, 1790, and was shortly afterwards thrown by "alucky chance' into the way of William Pitt. Walking through Bell Yard his attention was attracted by a revolutionary placard exhibited in the window of a patriotic watchmaker. Ward entered the shop, got into discussion with the man, and related his own experience of republican justice and what he had observed of the tender-mercies of revolutionary functionaries. Struck with the difference between practice and theory, the sturdy Englishman not only yielded up his democratical opinions, but proved the sincerity of his conversion by giving information against his friends. Ward and the watchmaker were examined before the Privy Council in the presence of Pitt, who, struck with the incident we have related, took the young advocate aside and privately obtained from him an account of his reasons for entering upon a voluntary encounter with the unstable watchmaker. Whether this meeting with the minister had any influence upon what alter wards ensued may be doubted. Mr. Phipps seems to think it probable that it had.

For some years the young barrister attracted little attention in court. He went the western circuit as a lookeron, and spent his long vacations in the Isle of Wight, where his elder brother, with himself the only survivor of his father's numerous family, had already fixed himself at a pretty spot called Northwood. It was there, in the autumn of 1794, that, acting upon a hint given him by Sir William Scott afterwards Lord Stowell, he wrote his "Inquiry into the Foundation and History of the Law of Nations in Europe from the time of the Greeks and Romans to the age of Grotius;" 2 vols. 8vo. London, 1795. The book is happily characterised by Mr. Phipps:

"He who should take up ' Ward's Law of Nations' with the expectation of finding in it authoritative dicta upon any point in question would be disappointed, while the lover of history, who might expect but a recapitulation of the maxims of international law, would be agreeably surprised at finding himself wandering (and wandering with profit) through the most flowery paths of the middle ages."

The book was successful, both as a work of literature and as a professional speculation. During the war there were many cases perpetually occurring in which the "Law of Nations" was the only standard of appeal. Such cases were Ward's aim. His clever book was a shot fired off at them, and it ultimately took effect, but at first its result was simply to aid the impresssion which his many light and pleasing qualities produced in general society. He was an admirable dancer, and a lively, witty talker. Nature had given him not regular features, but an expressive, animated, shrewd, cleverlooking countenance, with a piercing,

captivating eye. His conversation was delightful. He had a talent for detailing droll or interesting adventures in places now well known, but then inaccessible to English tourists; and, beyond everything else, he possessed a singular musical power of extemporaneous composition, which everybody agrees to have been very charming. Without being able to read a note of music, he had the faculty of improvising harmonies of the most pleasurable kind, which he played off upon the piano-forte by the hour together, with admirable execution and enchanting good taste. When to these fascinating qualities was added the fact, that he had written a really good book upon a subject very far out of the customary range of study, it can be easily perceived that in society he must have been no ordinary lion. His confident biographer asserts that such was the certainty of his fascination, that he would have required much less than the half-hour claimed by Wilkes to gain a preference over the handsomest man in the good graces of the fair sex. It may be so, and yet it is strange that, with all his power, his first venture towards matrimony was a failure. In vain his muse added the allurement of appeals neither mean nor spiritless to the enchantment of his other qualifications. The lady was overpowered but not won; fascinated but not captivated. Whether the gentleman was thought imperious or overhasty, or whether a previous impression was found indelible, or the lady— the supposition is all but incredible— was capricious, or irresolute, or fickle, is a truth beyond our ken; all that appears is, that she withstood his charming, and that the all-conquering pianist withdrew from the siege, issuing at the same time a manifesto in verse which, in our judgment, is not over-gallant.

His next venture was a most fortunate one. At a "London party he made acquaintance with Miss Catherine Julia Maling, one of the daughters of Christopher Thompson Maling, esq. the head of a good Durham family. The acquaintance was agreeable to the lady, and his position as an accepted suitor was soon recognised by her family. One of her sisters was then about to be married to the late Lord Mulgrave, and Ward and his lordship were thrown a good deal together. The result was an intimacy between them of the closest, and to Ward of the most valuable, kind. In the meantime Ward applied sedulously to his profession. He changed his circuit from the western to the northern to secure the influence of his new and powerful friends, and after a time his book and his connections began to tell, and hints were dropped about coming briefs. In true lovers' faith in the discernment of suitors, Ward and Miss Catherine plighted their mutual troth on the 2nd April, 1796. At first the young barrister talked of studying in his own room every evening. In the next stage of his progress he went off to court in the morning with his single brief in his pocket. In a little while that which Charles Lamb (adopting a line of Ward's favourite poet) termed "the great first cause least understood," became the parent of numbers, although never beyond number. "We," said his good wife, "have made fifteen guineas the last fortnight . . . He has a prospect of a good harvest this term; he is just returned from Westminster with three causes in view ; not exactly three briefs in his pocket, but if they are not amicably settled (which I trust they will not be J he is to have them." His study of international law led to his employment in cases before the Privy Council, and on the circuit a fortunate chance or a stray brief for some poor wretch of a prisoner occasionally fell to his share, but he had had still time left for other pursuits, and wisely determined to fill it up by writing another book. The rights of maritime neutrals were now in frequent discussion both in the courts and in parliament. To that subject he devoted himself, and was fortunate enough to secure for his treatise the approbation of both Lord Grenville and Sir William Scott. It was followed also by an offer from Lord Eldon of ajudgeship in the Admiralty Court of Nova Scotia. But, although his health had given way under the pressure even of his little business, Ward had sufficient confidence in himself and his connections to hesitate in accepting an appointment which was a mere honourable banishment. Whilst he doubted, Lord Eldon, less tolerant of Gent. Mao. Vol. XXXIV.

the doubts of other people than of his own, filled up the appointment. In 1802 the influence of his connection with Lord Mulgrave threw him into a new and far more stirring course. Lord Lowther having offered to Pitt, then out of office, during the Addington administration, the nomination of a member for Cockermouth for three years, "after which he wished to reserve it for his nephew Lord Burghersh," the seat was proposed to Ward and by him was at once accepted. He did not abandon his profession, but the northern circuit was then scarcely compatible with the duties of a party man; it was therefore necessary for him to relinquish that, and confine himself thenceforth to his practice before the Privy Council.

He was returned to parliament at the time when Pitt's dissatisfaction with the conduct of Addington had given rise to that feeling in favour of the return of the former to power which gave rise to the foolish movement got up by Canning, and commonly termed the Paper Plot. The Malmesbury Correspondence contained several important papers upon this subject. The book before us adds many others of very considerable value. Between them the whole matter is pretty nearly unravelled.

In this part of the book it is more in the nature of a collection of letters upon political affairs than a biography. Mr. Ward corresponded with Lord Mulgrave, and in these letters we have a clear and valuable detail of the course of public events. Addington, it is well known, held on for many months, greatly to the annoyance of all Pitt's friends, and of few amongst them more than the expectant Ward. His legal practice was of course any thing but improved by his going into Parliament, and he made no great figure in the house. What he looked forward to and longed for was Pitt's return to power. Until that day he remained poor and in obscurity, but eminently happy at home with his wife and children, in spite of all the drawbacks inseparable from the condition of a public man in narrow circumstances. In the summer of 1803 his wife was ill with cough and fever. He took a small place at West Moulscv called Spring Croft, to X

E've her the benefit of change of air. i the autumn Pitt went thither to dine with him.

November's sky was chill and drear, November's leaf was red and sear. The damp and cold had robbed gloomy firs, a shady lawn, and small rooms level with the ground, of their chief attractions.

"' What could persuade you,' inquired Mr. Pitt, as he looked around him,' what could persuade you, Ward, to come to such a dismal place?' 'That which is the grand motive to a poor man—money,' replied Ward. 'Iadeed 1 and pray how much do they give you?' inquired Pitt."

But with all his dinings and his occasional witticisms none of Pitt's friends or followers could dive into the secret of his views in reference to public affairs. In that respect the confiding submissiveness of his party was very singular. Lord Mulgrave thus writes to Ward on the opening of the session in November 1803.

"You know, my dear Ward, that the moderation of one at least of Pitt's moderate friends arises from a conviction that nobody can judge so wellas Mr. Pitt himself of what is the most wise and honourable conduct for him to pursue ; and that the head of a political party has a right to expect that kind of deference from his friends as long as they continue to call themselves such. . . . For my own part I have an unfeigned deference to Pitt's judgment, and an implicit confidence in his virtues and patriotism, and I shall always candidly and fully apprise him of my opinions; but I never will act for him without his knowledge, nor against him when he has informed me of his views, wishes, and judgment for the conduct of his friends. Whenever my opinion either of his judgment or virtue changes I will follow the dictates of my own, and declare myself unconnected with him. I do not think I have talents to guide or influence to spoil him; the public opinion sanctions his judgment and justifies my concurrence in it. The whole tenor of his life, the broad foundation of his fame, the great success of his measures, are all the consequence of his not conceiving with the judgment of ordinary men; of his not walking in the narrow path of shortsighted speculation; of his not following the routine of ordinary politicians; of his not judging of extraordinary events and

delicate predicaments as common understandings would do: in short, he is what he is. His line of conduct is not the line of conduct of the common herd, and his place can neither be filled nor regained in a manner worthy of his greatness but by himself." (i. 144, 145.)

The session which opened at the close of 1803 was one of fierce attack upon Addington. Ward aided the onslaught by a pamphlet entitled " A View of the relative Situations of Mr. Pitt and Mr. Addington previous to and on the Night of Mr. Patten's Motion," for which he received the thanks of Mr. Pitt. When Addington yielded to the combined attack of the parties of Pitt and Fox, and Pitt at length returned to office, Ward's first appointment was to a AVelsh judgeship, which he earned not merely by past fidelity, but by coming forward with his ready pen to defend Pitt's seizure of the Spanish treasure-ships before a declaration of war.* Ward's appointment to his judgeship had not been actually made out when Lord Mulgrave took oflice as foreign secretary, and solicited Ward to accompany him to the Foreign Office as under-secretary. The necessity for abandoning his profession was no obstacle to Ward's acceptance of the uncertain and precarious appointment. He had long been a politician rather than a lawyer, and the law and he now bade farewell to each other, with little loss or regret on either side. Twelve months was the brief tenure by which he held his much-coveted official station. Pitt's death came upon Ward and his friends like a thunderbolt. The accession of their great Whig opponent sent them all adrift; Ward as poor as ever. A touching circumstance is told in these volumes respecting Pitt's anxiety for Ward on his death-bed. On his resignation of the Welsh judgeship Pitt had promised him a pension to commence when he should cease to hold office. The dying statesman remembered that amidst the pressure of other matters the promise had not been fulfilled. He alluded to the circumstance several times during his illness, and spoke with kindness of him to whom it had been made.

* His publication was entitled "An Inquiry into the Manner in which the different Wars of Europe have commenced during the hut two centuries.''

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