He resided for two years in Madeira, whence his letters are of touching interest. He was born in Glasgow, and being designed for the ministry in the Scottish church, was educated at the college in that city, where he was a favourite pupil of the late Sir Daniel K. Sandford. Whilst there, the present Dr. Tait, Dean of Carlisle, was his class-fellow, and it tells as well for the scholarship of the Doctor, as it does for that of Halley, that on one occasion Sir Daniel Sandford introduced the latter to an eminent scholar of Edinburgh as " the man that beat Tait."

The History of Charlemagne. By G. P. R. James, Esq. [Churton's Library for the Million] Svo.—This is the first number of a Library which is to consist of works of standard authors reproduced "in an abbreviated form, carefully condensed and rewritten."

The Life of Anselm, Archbishop of Canterbury. Translated and abridged from the German of F. R. Hasse, professor of Evangelical Theology in the University of Bonn. By the Rev. William Turner, M.A., 8«o.—Mohler, Franck, Hasse, and other Germans have done a great deal towards reviving the memory of Anselm, and instructing the present generation in the merits of the great dispute which he waged with William Rufus and Henry I.; the same dispute between Church and State, although in another form, which seems about to be revived in our own days. We ought to be much obliged to any one who will make us better acquainted with the writings of these learned foreigners, but we cannot help wishing that the translator of Hasse had been a little better acquainted with the historical literature of his own country. Such words as Orderich, Lymings, Heptarcy, Herriot, Morlelach, &c. &c. &c, do not tell favourably for the translator's competency, whilst such references as, "William of Malmsbury de gettis regg. Angl. i.—iii. in Saville Script. &c." can only be accounted for by the strange and melancholy fact disclosed in the preface, that

there is a district in England so far removed from literature and civilization, that in it no access can be had to " Mabillon, William of Malmesbury, &c." This land of darkness lies nnder the shadow of the cathedral of Chichester, in which Mr. Botfield told ns there was an excellent library.

The Baths of Rhenish Germany.- with Notices of the adjacent Towns. By Edwin Lee. 12mo.—The most prominent feature in this pocket volume is Wiesbaden, in the Duchy of Nassau, a district of which the author says, "Perhaps no part of the world contains within so small a space so many valuable and efficacious medicinal springs, differing in nature, as this duchy. They lie, for the most part, at the foot of the Taunus range of hills, and are consequently but a short distance one from the other. Thus, within a drive of five or six hours, one may pass by the sulphur springs of Weilbach, the cold saline ones of Soden, the acidulous of Kronthall, the hot saline of Wiesbaden, the warm of Schlangenbad, the chalybeate of Schwalbach, and the alcaline ones of Ems; und there are many others, in various parts of the duchy, from some of which the water is largely exported, as Selters, Fachingen, Geilnau, &c." To this remarkable circle of healthgiving springs, and to all the other watering places of Rhenish Germany, Mr. Lee in turn pays attention, beginning with Chaude Fontaine, and ending with Stuttgard, the whole being twenty in number. He speaks of them upon old acquaintance, having previously published a more extended work, on the Baths of all Germany, and he appears to be well read in the native medical literature, from which he has given many valuable extracts, accompanied by useful particulars with respect to the present medical staff, as well as the local accomodations, &c. This book is enlivened by some agreeable general information, and cannot fail to be acceptable to the invalid, and to the "few English families " which are found as residents in almost every place noticed by the author.


THE Akchjbolooical INSTITUTE.

The annual meeting of the Archaeological Institute has been held with great success within the walls of the University of Oxford. It was opened in the Sheldonian Theatre on the morning of Tuesday the 18th of June, when the Vice-Chancellor, Dr. l'lumptre, in the absence of the Right

Hon. Sidney Herbert, President of the previous year (whose unavoidable absence was announced by the Provost of Oriel), introduced the Marquess of Northampton, President elect. A very eloquent discourse on the study of Archeology was then read by Charles Newton, esq. M.A., Student of Christ Church, and an officer in the


son John was made Lord of Ireland. John, when king, held councils here in the 5th, 8th, and 15th years of his reign. The last was the immediate preliminary movement to his treaty with the Barons on Runnymede. In all, John visited Oxford in nine different years of his reign, and passed here forty-five days, which may be deemed a considerable proportion of his restless and vagrant life. Various councils were held at Oxford by King Henry III. and in his 42d year (1258) the Barons here exacted those memorable Provisions which greatly advanced the cause of national liberty.

Wm. Sidney Gibson, esq. F.S.A. read a very elaborate memoir on Richard de Bury, Bishop of Durham, and Lord Chancellor in the reign of Edward III. He was one of the most earnest book-collectors of the middle ages, as represented in his interesting treatise, entitled "Philobiblos." He bequeathed his library to Durham college at Oxford, but no catalogue of his books is known to be extant. His intercourse with Petrarch at the Papal court was fully discussed by Mr. Gibson, as well as other particulars of his history; he omitted to refer to his fine episcopal seal, engraved in the Archseologia (vol. xxvii. p. 401), and which is one of the most beautiful in the Durham series.

The attention of this Section was finally directed to a very interesting discourse by Edwin Guest, esq. F.R.S. on the Earthworks which formed the boundaries of the Belgic Settlements in Britain, and on those which were made after the treaty of Mons Badonicus. It was in continuation of his views propounded at the Salisbury meeting last year, and of which we gave some account in our Magazine for Oct. 1849, p. 405. The continuous lines of earth-works which cross the country in various directions are either—1. British roads; 2. Roman roads; or 3. Boundary lines. It was Sir R. C. Hoare's discovery that the ditches with two mounds were not boundary lines, but roads of communication between British villages ; they were worn down into hollows by the traffic of a dense population, and may be compared with the hollow lanes of Devonshire and the Channel Islands. Mr. Guest considered the more important lines of ditches provided with mounds on one side only, as the boundaries of ancient tribes. They were not exactly military lines of defence, like the wall of Hadrian, which was furnished with castella, defended by a body of 15,000 men, and provided with ready means of communication by a parallel military road; but they were lines of demarcation, fixing the boundaries of territory.

Such was Offa's Dyke between the Dee and the Wye; and such were the ditches of the Belgae. Stukeley counted four of these ditches. 1. Combe Bank, south of Blandford; 2. Bokerley Dyke, south of Salisbury ; 3. the ditch immediately north of Old Sarum ; and 4. Wansdyke. Warton increased their number to seven, and seems to have included in that number the Grimsdyke south of Salisbury, the Old Ditch on Salisbury Plain, and another ditch in the vale of Pewsey. Mr. Guest placed on his map only three successive lines of boundary. When the Belgse first settled in the vales of the Stour and Frome their territory seems to have been bounded by Combe Bank and Bokerley Dyke as parts of one and the same boundary; Vindogladia was their capital, and Badbury near Blandford their fortress. When they had conquered the rich vales, which unite at Salisbury, the Old Ditch became their boundary, and Old Sarum their capital. Their third and latest boundary was Wansdyke. There is a very remarkable passage of Csesar in which he speaks of a Belgic chieftain named Divitiacus, "rex totius Gallia; potentissimus," who "magna; partis harum regionum (». e. Gallia; Belgicte) et Britannia imperium obtinuit." The phrase Britannia; imperium probably meant nothing more than a supremacy over the civilised portions of the island, or, in other words, over the districts occupied by the lielgic. Stukeley surmised that Divitiacus was the chief who advanced the Belgic frontier as far as Wansdyke. It is a very remarkable fact thot this boundary line approaches within a few miles of the temple of Abury, but leaves it to the north, and approaches close to but does not include Bath. Mr. Guest suggested that on the settlement of the boundary line the Dobuni may have insisted on the retention of their great temple and their hot baths. And this led him to a very important conjecture on the age of Stonehenge: viz. that the Belgse, having excluded themselves from the great national temple of Abury, built Stonehenge under the government of Divitiacus about the year 100 A.c. The huge stones forming the trilithons came from the vale of Pewsey, which was just within the last Belgic boundary. Mr. Guest insisted that the Grimsdyke south of Salisbury and the ditch north of Old Sarum were not Belgic earthworks, but boundary lines made by the Welsh after the treaty of the Mons Badonicus.

The Architectural Section assembled in the great room of the Oxford Architectural Society in Holywell Street, under the presidency of the Principal of Brazenose, Dr. Harrington: and three papers were read :—

1. On Dorchester church, Oxfordshire, by E. A. Freeman, esq.

2. On the construction of Timber Houses existing in Berkshire, by the Rev. James Clutterbuck.

3. On the manor-house of Mere in Somersetshire (built by the abbot of Glastonbury in the 14 th century), by Alexander Nesbitt, esq.

The Early And Medieval Section met in the Writing School. W.W.Wynne, esq. (President of the Cambrian Archaeological Association) presided.

The first communication was by Edward Hawkins, esq. F.R.S. of the British Museum, on a remarkable collection of gold ornaments, recently purchased by the Trustees of the British Museum, from the collection of Mr. Brumell. They were discovered some years since in the county of Durham, with a large hoard of Roman coins, and they are of especial interest as an accession to the list of objects connected with the worship of the Dere Matres found in England. All the smaller objects, including 280 silver coins, the latest of which was of Antoninus Pius, were found in a silver porringer. They consisted of two gold chains fastened by wheel-shaped ornaments, and about ten inches from it a crescent-shaped ornament. A third gold chain similarly fastened had a gold bead on each link, but no crescent. There were three gold rings set with coarsely engraved stones; one with the inscription Matrvm Cocoae stamped upon it; a fifth of thick gold wire, the ends being reverted and terminating in heads of serpents; a silver ring exactly the same as this last. There were also three small silver spoons ; and upon the vessel was a flat silver plate, by some considered a cover, but more probably a mirror. The handle of the vessel was much ornamented, and had an inscription in gold letters, Matr. Eab. Dvuit. i. e. Fabius Dubitatus to the Matres or Dere Matres. A chain similar to the first described, with the wheel-shaped ornament and crescent, was found near Llandovery in Caermarthenshire (see last Archreol. Journal). The inscriptions show clearly that two of these objects were connected with the worship of the Dene Matres; it was therefore supposed that the rest might have been, and antiquaries were urged to be very minute in their recording of the several articles which might be found together, as clues were by that means preserved to link together other objects found elsewhere, and to explain the object and use for which they were made. A few slight notices were made of the worship Gknt. Mag. Vol. XXXIV,

of the Dese Matres, and intimating how the crescent, the wheel, and the serpent might not improbably be emblematical of their peculiar influences.

This memoir was followed by others—

On the classification of Arrow-heads of Flint and Bronze, by G. Du Noyer, esq. of Dublin. This paper forms a sequel to the author's valuable suggestions on the Classification of Bronze Celts, read at the Norwich meeting. (Archseol. Journ. vol. iv. pp. 1, 327.)

An Account of the opening of Bishop Fox's tomb in Winchester Cathedral, Jan. 28, 1820, by the late Dr. Nott. The ledger-stone covering the grave of that prelate had fallen in, during the removal of accumulated rubbish at the back of the altar-screen. Several curious fragments, portions of sculptured stone, elaborately painted, the remains probably of a reredorse or shrine, were found in the tomb. The coffin was of wood ; on each side lay the broken wands of the officers who had attended the obsequies :. the remains were found clad in the pontifical vestments; the mitre, apparently of velvet, upon the head, the hands covered by gloves, but no ring was found, which caused a suspicion that the tomb had been opened previously. The crosier was of wood, elegantly carved; on the feet were the episcopal caligcp, and between them a small leaden box, with the initials R. F. containing a parchment scroll, recording the date of the Bishop's death and interment, Oct. 5, 1528. These curious details had been communicated by Dr. Nott to the President of Corpus Christi college, founded by Bishop Fox; as also a drawing of the crosier discovered in the grave.

Notice of a Book of Prayers belonging to Jane Wriothesley, Countess of Southampton, by the Rev. H. O. Coxe. The volume described, which is in the Bodleian Library (marked Laud. Latin MS. i.), may be regarded as a devotional album, with autographs of distinguished friends. Among these are "Margaret Dowglas," the granddaughter of Henry VII. and grandmother of James I., Queen Mary of EngUnd when princess, Katharine Purr, and others. The peculiarity of this volume is that the entries are rhythmical: as in this of Katherine Parr: Madame, althowe I have differed writtyuge

in your booke, I am no lesse your trend then you do looke.

Kalcryn the Quene, KP. Mr. Coxe illustrated this volume by others which partially resemble it, such as the MS. once the property of Lady Jane Grey, in the British Museum, that of Mary in the Bodleian, the book of Hora; in the possession of Mr. Maskell, St. 2B


The afternoon of this day was agreeably spent in visiting the Temporary Museum, formed in the Taylor Building j the College Plate, which was exhibited in the halls of All Souls, Corpus Cliristi, and Queen's; and the more ordinary objects of curiosity in the University. The large assemblage of charters and seals preserved In the Treasury of Balliol college were exhibited to those who were interested in such matters.

At six o'clock the public dinner took place in the Town Hall, at which about 350 ladies and gentlemen were present. The Marquess of Northampton was in the chair; the chief toasts were responded to by the Vice-Chancellor, the Mayor, Sir Charles Anderson, the Principal of Brazenose, Mr. Hallam, the Waiden of New College, and Professor Waagen. In the evening the Rev. William Sewell, in his capacity of President of the Architectural Society of Oxford, entertained a party of more than 700 in the hall, quadrangle, and gardens of" Exeter college, which were furnished and illuminated with much taste and splendour for the occasion.

Thursday, June 20. No sectional meetings were held this morning, which was devoted to an excursion to the church at Dorchester and the church and hospital at Ewehne. The latter (the most distant) place was visited first. The Rev. Dr. Jacobson, who is Rector of Ewelme in connection with his office of Regius Professor of Divinity, met the archaeologists in the church, and afterwards entertained them on the lawn of his parsonage house. At Dorchester the chief architectural points of interest in the church were explained by Mr. Freeman, and the monuments, stained glass, and brasses by the Rev. John Baron. Afterwards a collection was made, to continue the repairs, which amounted to more than 17/. A portion of the party then proceeded on foot to the entrenchment called the Dyke Hills, where excavations had been made j but the only relics discovered were some pieces of Roman pottery. On the road back the Norman church of Sandford was inspected.

At an evening meeting in the Town Hall, an important subject was introduced, by a letter from D. Wilson, esq. Secretary to the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, on the losses sustained by archaeological science by the present state of the law of Treasure Trove: upon which it is proposed to make some representation to the legislature. (See the proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries in our last Magazine, p. 76.) This was followed by a discourse given by C. Winston, esq. on the Art of Glass Painting, and on the Ancient Glass remaining in Oxford,

Friday, June 21. All the Sections met this morning. In the Historical SecTion the first paper was read by John Gough Nichols, esq. F.S.A. on the descent of the Earldom of Oxford. This earldom continued for more than five centuries and a half in the family of Vere, of which there were twenty Earls in male succession, from Aubrey the first Earl, created by Henry II., to Aubrey the twentieth and last, who died in the reign of queen Anne. The first Earl was previously, by marriage, count of Guisnes in Normandy: his father, also Aubrey, was chamberlain to Henry I.; and his grandfather, the first Aubrey de Vere in England, appears as a tenant in chief in Domesday book. But the comes Albertcus of that record was a different person, and his family has never been ascertained. The Earls of Oxford were hereditary chamberlains of England until the attainder of Robert the ninth Earl, the unworthy favourite of King Richard the Second, who hadadvanced him to the extraordinary dignity of Duke of Ireland. The office of lord great chamberlain was restored to John the 13th Earl, upon the accession of King Henry VII. whom he had materially helped to the throne ; but on the decease of Henry the 18th Earl in 1625, it fell to coheirs, from whom it has descended to the present Marquess Cholmondeley and Lord Willoughby d'Eresby, who now hold the office conjointly, and exercise it in alternate reigns. Mr. Nichols further noticed some other points connected with the descent of the dignity, with the most eminent junior branches of the family, and with their heraldic insignia; and exhibited impressions of the seals of seven of the Earls. After the extinction of the Veres the title of Earl of Oxford and Mortimer was conferred by queen Anne on her prime minister Sir Robert Harley, whose descendant the sixth Earl is now the last male survivor of his race.

A communication was read from Sir Thomas Phillipps, Bart, containing some biographical notices of Walter Map, archdeacon of Oxford. Its principal object was to prove that it was not Walter Mapes who gave Geoffrey of Monmouth the Historia Britonum, as asserted by Leland, Bale, and Pits; but another Walter the archdeacon long prior to him.

There were also read, Memorials of Sir Robert Dudley, son of the Earl of Leicester, by the Rev. Vaughan Thomas, B.D.; and a history of Exeter Castle, by the Rev. Dr. Oliver.

In the Architectural Section were read—

1. Biographical Notices of John Carter, F.S.A. by John Britton, esq. F.S.A. ThU memoir has been published entire in The

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