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some old effigies which remain," like St. Denis, carrying his head in his hand. St. Bennet Biscop is portrayed in a print by Hollar as a bishop, with his two monasteries in the background, and the river Tyne flowing between them. St. Cuthbert has an otter at his side,"originally signifying his residence in the midst of the waters," and afterwards translated into a miracle, and explained to mean that the saint, having swooned by the waterside in the performance of a severe penance, two otters came out of the water and restored him to life and warmth by licking him all over. St. Guihlac bears in his hand a whip. He put especial trust in St. Bartholomew, and, when tormented by demons in the marshes of Lincolnshire, his patron apostle appeared, and chased the foul spirits away with the crack of a whip. St. Ethelreda [Etheldreda ?] is distinguished in the illuminations of the Benedictional of St. Ethelwold simply by a lily, the emblem of her perpetual virginity. Various incidents of her history are carved on the capitals of the great pillars which sustain the lanthorn of Ely cathedral; amongst them her dream, in which she lies asleep between her two virgins Sewerra and Sewenna, whilst behind her a tree has put forth branch and leaf and fruit, which she dreamed had all sprung from her staff stuck in the ground, whereupon she was much comforted, and continued her journey. The legend of St. Boniface has been recently made the subject of a splendid series of twenty frescoes, executed by Professor Hess and his pupils in a church at Munich erected by King Louis of Bavaria in 1835. Mrs. Jameson gives a spirited etching of one of them, which represents the missionary saint embarking at Southampton. They are all executed in a "large, chaste, simple style," and well merit the attention of English travellers. Of a St. Robert, whom Mrs. Jameson does not identify, she tells us that there are fragments of painted glass in Morley church, in Derbyshire, representing five subjects of a legend of Dale Abbey.
"In the first, the Abbot being aggrieved by the trespasses of the game, which had devoured his wheat in the green blade, is seen shooting with a cross.how. In the second, the King's foresters complain of
him, and the King has a label from his mouth on which is written,' Bring ye him before me.' In the third and fourth he is in the presence of the King, who kneels at his feet, and grants him as much land as between sun and sun he shall encircle by a furrow drawn with his plough, to which he is to yoke two stags caught wild from the forest: the inscriptions, 'Go, take them and tame them,' ' Go home and take ground with the plough.' In the fifth compartment he is ploughing with two stags; the inscription is,' Here St. Robert ploweth with them.'"
St. Edmund, the king and martyr, bears, as Mrs. Jameson informs us, an arrow in his hand (as in the diptych at Wilton), and is sometimes accompanied by a grey wolf crouching at his side, in memory of the tradition that an animal of that species was found watching over the saint's severed head at the time of the discovery of his remains. Mrs. Jameson relates the legends of St. Dunstan, but has not met with any historical pictures relating to his life. She gives a reduced transcript of the curious drawing attributed to himself which is in the Bodleian, and was engraved in Hickes's Thesaurus, in which the saint is represented kneeling at the feet of the Saviour. Under St. Edward the Confessor we have a notice of the legendary sculptures at Westminster, and an engraving of the Wilton diptych, in which the Confessor is represented with the Baptist and St. Edmund as the guardians of Richard II. In treating of St. Thomas a Becket Mrs. Jameson relies too implicitly upon Lord Campbell. Mr. J. G. Nichols has shown that he was not slain at the foot of the altar, and that the relics which she Btates were burned were mere fabrications. The proclamation, also, by which the prayers in his name were ordered to be put out of all books, is stated by Mrs. Jameson very inaccurately, probably upon the authority of the same noble historian. She adds,—
"This decree [proclamation?] was so effective in England that the effigies of this once beloved and popular saint vanished at once from every house and oratory. I have never met, nor could ever hear of, any representation of St. Thomas a Becket remaining in our ecclesiastical edifices; and I have seen missals and breviaries in which his portrait had been more or less carefully smeared over and obliterated."—p. 114.
Of the saints of the other monastic orders but few are connected with England. In the choir of Lichfield cathedral, as Mrs. Jameson informs us, we have a representation in stained glass, brought from the abbey of Herenkerode, near Liege, of that fanciful tradition in the life of St. Bernard, the great founder of the Cistercians, that he was nourished by milk from the bosom of the Virgin; and at Alton Towers is a remarkable picture, by Alonzo Cano, of St. Antony of Padua holding the infant Saviour in his arms. The Virgin appears just to have relinquished the child, who looks up, "as if half-frightened," to his mother. "This is one of the finest pictures of the Spanish school now in England, but is too dramatic in the sentiment and treatment to be considered as a religious picture." (p. 300.) Mr. Rogers has the original drawing of a picture by Pesellino, which represents another incident in the life of the same saint. He was preaching at the funeral of a rich man, remarkable for avarice and usury.
"He chose for his text, 'Where the treasure is, there will the heart be also,' and, instead of praising the dead, denounced him as condemned for his misdeeds to eternal punishment. 'His heart,' he said, 'is buried in his treasure-chest; go, seek it there, and you will find it.' Whereupon the friends and relations going to break open the chest, found there the heart of the miser, amid a heap of ducats; and this miracle was further established when, upon opening the breast of the dead man, they fonnd his heart was gone."—p. 296.
In this running commentary we have collected together explanatory illustrations of some of the most celebrated pictures of monastic saints which chance to be in our own country, and are mentioned by Mrs. Jameson; but in so doing we have given but little idea of her book. Her biographies of these shadowy mythic heroes and heroines, half fact half fable, are very animated and clever, and it is unnecessary that we should commend her criticism upon the works of art which come under her notice. Her book is also full of choice and racy extracts from the legendary stores of Koine—the substitute which the Church of the Middle Ages provided for the purer teaching of the Bible. In the anxiety to de
fend or palliate Koman error which is now-a-days so common, it is asserted that these legends were accepted as poetical fictions, and were no more believed, nor designed to be believed, than the journey of Bunyan's Pilgrim to the celestial city. This seems to be only partly accurate. Bunyan's Pilgrim was put forth from the first " in the similitude of a dream." "As I slept I dreamed a dream," are the words of its opening paragraph; "I dreamed, and behold I saw." Here the writer explained his purpose, and the reader was desired to accept the story as it was intended. Such was also the case with many of the legends of the Church of Rome; for example with the following beautiful Dominican apologue :—
"A certain scholar in the university of Bologna, of no good repute either for his morals or his manners, found himself once (it might have been in a dream) in a certain meadow not far from the city, and there came on a terrible storm; and he fled for refuge until he came to a house, where, finding the door shut, he knocked and entreated shelter. And a voice from within answered, 'I am Justice; I dwell here, and this house is mine ; but, as thou art not just, thou canst not enter in.' The young man turned away sorrowfully, and proceeding further, the rain and the storm beating upon him, he came to another house, and again he knocked and entreated shelter; and a voice from within replied, 'I am Truth; I dwell here, and this bouse is mine; but, as thou lovest not Truth, thou canst not enter here.' And further on he came to another house, and again besought to enter, and a voice from within said, 'I am Peace; I dwell here, and this house is mine; but, as there is no peace for the wicked and those who fear not God, thou canst not enter here.' Then he went on further, being much afflicted and mortified, and he came to another door and knocked timidly, and a voice from within answered,' I am Mercy; I dwell here, and this house is mine; and, if thou wouldst escape from this fearful tempest, repair quickly to the dwelling of the brethren of St. Dominick; that is the only asylum for those who are truly penitent. And the scholar failed not to do as this vision had commanded. He took the habit of the order, and lived henceforth an example of every virtue."—p. 373,
If we allow (which is a good deal) that such stories were no more proposed as subjects for literal belief than the parables of our Lord, or the Pilgrim's Progress, we must insist that very different was intended to be the reception of the marvellous personal incidents and miraculous adventures which were interwoven with the history of the saints themselves. These were accepted, and were designed to be accepted, as facts in hagiography, no less to be believed than the miraculous incidents in the life of the Saviour. It is upon the foundation of these legendary marvels that much of the doctrine and practice of the Church of Rome, especially that large portion of it the worship of the Virgin, has been principally built. Her assumption, coronation, and other similar current articles in the popular faith, are all founded upon legendary lore. So also the multiplied parodies or repetitions in saintly biographies of the actual miracles of the Saviour; for example, the feedings of vast numbers with inadequate supplies of provision, the raising of the dead, the walking on water, the conversion of one substance into another, as water into wine, &c.— all these were intended to be believed, and were believed, just as entirely as the original miracles of which they were the copies. So again the multitudes of legendary miracles which were founded upon the literal rendering of the words of scripture (the great rock on whicli the Church of Rome has made shipwreck of common sense and truth) were just as much believed as the similarly founded miracle of transubstantiation. We have given an example of this kind of miracle in the story of St. Antony of Padua and the miser's heart. Striking instances occur under St. Francis. His stigmata are the result of a mere literal adaptation of the text Gal. iv. 17, " I bear in my body the marks of the Lord Jesus ;" and a literal interpretation of the text " Go ye into all the world and preach the Gospel to every creature" is said to have induced him to go forth as a missionary to the very lowest animals. That he was kind and gentle to all created beings, and had a pet lamb which accompanied him on a visit to Rome, are probably the only foundation of the many stories (some of them extremely beautiful and some singularly silly) which are told in connection with this feature of his character. When he walked in the fields the
sheep and the lambs, knowing their benefactor, thronged around him. Hares and rabbits nestled in his bosom, and of birds he was the universal favourite:
"A lark brought her brood of nestlings to his cell to be fed from his hand: he saw that the strongest of these nestlings tyrannised over the others, pecking at them, and taking more than his due share of the food; whereupon the good saint rebuked the creature, saying, 'Thou unjust and insatiable! thou shalt die miserably, and the greediest animals shall refuse to eat thy flesh.' And so it happened, for the creature drowned itself through its impetuosity in drinking, and when it was thrown to the cats they would not touch it. . . On his return from Syria, in passing through the Venetian lsgune, vast numbers of birds were singing, and he said to his companion, 'Our sisters, the birds, are praising their Creator, let us sing with them,' and he began the sacred service. But the warbling of the birds interrupted them, therefore Saint Francis said to them, ' Be silent, till we also bare praised God,' and they ceased their song, and did not resume it till he had given them permission. .. On another occasion, preaching nt Alvtano, he could not male himself heard for the chirping of the swallows, which were at that time building their nests; pausing, therefore, in bis sermon, he said, 'My sisters, you have talked enough; it is time that I should have my turn. Be silent, and listen to the word of God!' And they were silent immediately. . . On another occasion, as he was sitting with his disciple Leo, be felt himself penetrated with joy and consolation by the song of the nightingale, and he desired his friend Leo to raise bu voice and sing the praises of God in company with the bird. But Leo excused himself by reason of tr^bad voice; upon which Francis himself tfNpjn to sing, and when he stopped the nightilgale took up his strain, and thus they sang»lternatelv, until the night was fur adv^1' a. Francis was obliged to stop, forTN^* failed. Then he confessed that the IuTTc^S bird had vanquished him; he called it to him, thanked it for its song, and gave it the remainder of his bread; and having bestowed his blessing upon it, the creature flew away. . . A grasshopper [?] was wont to sit and sing on a fig-tree near the cell of the man of God, and oftentimes by her singing she excited him also to sing the praises of the Creator; and one day he called her to him, and she flew upon his hand, and Francis said to her, 'Sine my sister, and praise the Lord thy Creator.' So she began her song immediately, nor
ceased until at the father's command she flew back to her own place; and she remained eight days there, coming and singing at his behest. At length the man of God said to his disciples, ' Let us dismiss our sister; enough that she has cheered us with her song, and excited us to the praise of God these eight days.' So, being permitted, she immediately flew away, and was seen no more."
These, and all similar stories of personal incident and adventure, seem to have been propounded to serious belief, and we have no doubt that they were, and in some places still are, believed, and taught that they may be believed.
Of the common emblems of monastic profession Mrs. Jameson enumerates—the glory, as belonging peculiarly to a canonized saint and not to the preparatory grade of beato; the dragon or demon at the feet, as indicative of the victory of faith over the world and sin; the hind or stag, as the emblem of solitude; wild beasts at the feet of a saint, as indicative of the founding of a monastery and consequent clearing of a wilderness; the crucifix in the hand, significant of a preacher; the lily, as the emblem of chastity; the standard with the cross, the general symbol of triumphant Christianity; the flaming heart, as the emblem of divine love. The crown of thorns indicates suffering for Christ's sake; the palm, the meed of martyrdom; the lamb, the attribute of meekness, with especial reference to the quality of St. Francis to which we have just alluded; the
fish, the emblem of baptism; the crown, significant of royal birth; a seraph distinguishes saint3 of the seraphic order; a sun on the breast indicates the light of wisdom; a star, the divine attestation of peculiar sanctity, derived from the star in the east; a booh in the hand is given to preachers, authors, and missionaries; a dove, the emblem of inspiration; an open booh often indicates the founder of an order; a scourge, self-inflicted penance; roses are generally allusive to the saint's name, as St. Rosalia, several Sts. Rosa, &c.; a mitre and pastoral staff are borne by abbots as well as bishops; the pastoral staff only by abbesses. Slaves with their chains broken, beggars, children, &c. at the feet of a saint express beneficence, or some special branch of charity. In a picture by Sassetta of the date of 1444, engraved by Mrs. Jameson, St. Francis is represented treading pride, gluttony, and heresy under his feet, the last being represented by a printingpress!
This volume is an admirable sequel and companion to Mrs. Jameson's former work upon Sacred and Legendary Art. She has enriched our literature with three books as instructive as they are interesting and beautiful. They are most attractive to antiquaries and artists, and contain a fund of information applicable to all inquiries into the history, the theology, and the manners and customs of the pa3t. We trust that her labours will reap a rich reward.
At peep of day, when in her crimson pride
Where Phoebus' coach with radiant course must glide,
Blessing that God whose bounty did bestow
Such beauties on the earthly things below.
These sweet lines, and many more of the same flow and fancy, were written by Thomas Lodge considerably more than 250 years ago, in a poem "in commendation of a solitary life;" and avoiding, as we have done now, and intend to do hereafter, certain uncouthnesses of antique spelling, it is obvious that, for the grace and facility of the verse, and for the beauty and simplicity of the sentiment, the lines might have been written yesterday— if, indeed, any of our living " babes of memory" could equal the ease, purity, and piety of Lodge.
In the present, and in one or two subsequent, papers we propose to direct attention to him and to his numerous productions, especially in the department of poetry; for, although there have been several brief and scattered notices of Lodge and his works, nobody has attempted to go at all at large into his merits, and to fix, with anything like precision, the place he is entitled to occupy among the writers of the Elizabethan era. He was a dramatist some years before Shakspere (according to our best means of knowledge) visited the metropolis; and for about a quarter of a century, he continued to put forth poems, satirical tracts, and romances, for his own subsistence, and for the instruction and amusement of his contemporaries. Of course, every reader is aware that Lodge was the author of the charming story of which Shakspere so freely and so largely availed himself in his "As you like it."
Nevertheless, in spite of his high claims, up to this moment no accurate list even, of his numerous publications, has been prepared or printed; and the first thing we shall endeavour will be, with some necessary detail (for which we hope to be praised rather than pardoned), and with some bibliographical correctness (hitherto little regarded), to lay before the reader a catalogue (as far as it can be made out) of the pieces in prose and verse that he from time to time delivered to the press. They all range within the
period from 1580 to 1614, the last being his translation of Seneca, of which we happen to have the very copy Lodge presented to his contemporary, Thomas Dekker, a fact recorded by the latter upon the book itself. In the succeeding enumeration we proceed chronologically, and we shall follow the title of each production by the statement in brackets where a copy is to be found, with such other particulars as, if not necessary, are at least convenient.
1. A Defence of Stage-Plays; in answer to Stephen Gosson's "School of Abuse." 8vo.
[Gosson's "School of Abuse" came out in 1579, and Lodge, then a writer for the stage, and perhaps an actor also, immediately prepared a reply to Gosson. This reply must have been printed in 1580, but it was suppressed, as Lodge himself tells us, by authority. Nevertheless, two mutilated copies have come down to us, and one, if not both, are in the library of the late Mr. Miller.]
2. An Alarum against Usurers, containing tryed Experiences against Worldly Abuses, &c. Hereunto are annexed the delectable Historic of Forbonius and Prisceria, with the lamentable Complaint of Truth over England. Written by Thomas Lodge, of Lincolnes Inne, Gentleman, &c. London, 1584. 4to.
[There was, therefore, so far as we know, an interval of four years between Lodge's Reply to Gosson and the publication of the Alarum against Usurers; and in this interval Lodge (perhaps to avoid the abuse of Gosson that he was " a vagrant person,") procured himself to be entered of an Inn of Court. Lowndes ^Bibl. Man. 1149) miscalls the tale introduced by Lodge "the Historie of Tribonius and Prisseria." There is a copy of this rare work among Tanner's books at Oxford.]
3. Scillaes Metamorphosis, entcrlaced with the unfortunate Love of Glaucus. Whereunto is annexed the delectable Discourse of the Discontented Satyre, &c. By Thomas Lodge, of Lincolnes Inn, Gentleman. London, 1589. 4to.