ページの画像
PDF
ePub

in a duel, and the Countess received Buckingham in her arms, while her husband's blood was yet wet upon the assassin's shirt! Such was the court; the very ambassadorof Morocco, a " civil heathen," as Evelyn styles him, looked grave at the shamelessness enthroned there. The courtiers hoped to deceive heaven as they deluded man, and to obtain salvation by right of their rank. "Tut!" said a gallaut Colonel, as he was going to the gallows, and a pious friend bade him think upon God, —" I don't value dying a rush! and I have no doubt but that God will deal with me like a gentleman!"

How gentlemen lived is shown in the case of " my lord of St. Alban's, now grown so blind that he could not see to take his meat. He has lived a most easy life," says Evelyn, "in plenty even abroad, whilst his Majesty was a sufferer; he has lost immense sums at play, which yet, at about eighty years old, he continues, having one that sits by him to name the spots on the cards." "Following his Majesty this morning," says Evelyn, on another occasion, '' through the gallery, I went with the few who attended him into the Duchess of Portsmouth's dressingroom, within her bedchamber, where she was in her morning loose garment, her maids combing her, newly out of her bed, his Majesty and the gallants standing about her." After enumerating the gorgeous furniture of this woman's apartments, "twice or thrice pulled down and rebuilt to satisfy her prodigal and expensive pleasures," he adds, "surfeiting of this, I went contented home to my poor but quiet villa. "What contentment can there be in the riches and splendour of this world, purchased with vice and dishonour?" On Sunday the 25th January 1684-5, Dr. Dove, it appears^ preached before the King. On the evening of that day, Evelyn saw " such a scene of profuse gaming, and the King in the midst of his three concubines, as he had never before seen, luxurious dallying andprofaneness." On the following Sunday the same scene was repeated. The three concubines, Portsmouth, Cleveland, and Mazarine, reigned triumphant; a French boy stood by, singing love songs, "whilst about twenty of the great courtiers and other dissolute persons were at basset round a large table, a bank of at least 2,000/. in gold before them." .... Six days after, all was in the dust I This was the last Sabbath 6pent by Charles on earth. On the sixth of February the nation was commanded to put on mourning "as for a father." Never in England was there so deadly an enemy to monarchy as this crowned, gilded phantom. What he made

his court, " nasty and stinking,"* in the nostrils of England, he made England itself in the nostrils of the world. The bitterest foes of the Protector now alive regretted the days of the Commonwealth, when the ruler of the people, by whatever means he had attained his position, enforced a virtuous bearing at home, and compelled a wholesome respect for the nation abroad.

The succeeding reign was marked at least by a daring purpose, but the time had gone by for ever when this country could be either led or driven to the end whither James would bring it. Evelyn, in one of his entries during this brief and inglorious reign, surrenders his absolute veneration for the jus divinum, and looking over Europe, as well as at home, sadly writes— "No faith in princes." He held one public office under James, and held it worthily, viz. Commissioner of the Privy Seal; but he never would co-operate with his colleagues when it was required to put the seal to a deed which he deemed unconstitutional, hostile to the Church, or injurious to public liberty. If his faith in princes had been shaken, not so his faith in the Church. He saw her peril, knew her errors, bewailed both; but he was constant in bis belief that she would ultimately triumph, and as firm in maintaining that, even if she foundered in the storm, she was still the nearest in spirit to the church of primitive Christianity, and could not but recover her glory and her greatness when serenity again visited the troubled waters. The continual secessions to Popery affected him little. When Dryden and Mistress Nelly,'" Miss to the late—," attended mass, he very properly thought that Rome had little cause to be proud of her proselytes.

When the Revolution was accomplished, perhaps the one thing that most forcibly struck Evelyn was the conduct of James's daughter, Mary, who came into Whitehall, "laughing and jolly," slept in the exqueen's bed, scarcely cold, and next morning went running about the palace in her night-dress. He had himself but recently lost a daughter who was the very jewel of his heart; but happier the father who sees his child coffined at his feet, and finds a mournful pleasure in remembering her virtues and her filial love, than he who lives to see his misfortunes joyfully

* " He [the King] took delight in having a number of little spaniels follow him and lie in his bed-chamber, where he often suffered the bitches to puppy and give suck, which rendered it very offensive, and indeed made thewhole court nasty and stinking." Evelyn, 4th Feb. 1685.

made the ladder of his offspring's greatness. Mary Evelyn was born at Wotton, on an anniversary of her father's birthday, and in the same chamber in which he first drew breath. But he loved her for better reasons than this. She was fair, graceful, and supremely good; she was pious, and day by day gave evidence of the sincerity of her religious devotion. She was generally well-read, was skilled in modern languages, and was an accomplished singer and player. But she was more than this. Her Christianity assumed a practical character. She condescended to those of low estate, and the servants of her father's family walked in the light of their young mistress's instruction. For the fashionable amusements of her time she had no affection. She loved reading, and read aloud with an exquisitely musical voice; and her letters gave evidence of rare ability both for sense and expression. She was not above the innocent pleasures of her age, was mirthful, and that habitually. Her father says that nothing was so pretty as to see her play with little children, whom she would caress and humour with great delight. But gay as she was in spirit, and much as she loved the young, she most cared for the company of grave and sober men, from whom knowledge was to be drawn. She had not only read an abundance of history, but " all the best poets, even Terence, Plautus, Homer, Virgil, Horace, and Ovid;" but, as the mourning father says, all these were but vain trifles to the virtues which adorned her soul. Her love for both parents made her disregard marriage, and that love was so ardently returned that when the now aged couple looked down into the grave of their young daughter they implored God to give them the resignation which they could not feel. She was taken from them by that cruel scourge the small pox, when only in her 19th year. There is no more interesting or touchiog page in the Diary than that in which Evelyn recounts " the little history and imperfect character of my dear child;" we will venture to say that many eyes have wept over it besides those of the agonized and subdued father who penned the mournful record.

The concluding pages of Evelyn's Diary, carried on to February 1705-6, are replete with a sad dignity. The journal of an octogenarian, as might be supposed, is in some measure a journal of death. Day after day, the old familiar faces disappear, the aged fall away, the young are taken, his own hearth is visited, and in every circumstance he traces a sign and a token that he too must prepare for the solemn pathway which leads to those

crystal barriers at which alone a judgment is given that earth cannot gainsay. He could look upon the approaching change with smiling tranquillity. The good old man had long had his eyes hopefully bent on the portals of Heaven, when the irrevocable summons called him to the golden threshold ; and it had no sooner fallen on his eagerly-listening ear, than the pilgrim began to tread the path that leads to eternity from time, rejoicingly obedient.

Considerable pains have been bestowed upon the annotation of this edition; but the notes should have been placed at the bottom of the page. Huddled together at the end of the book, they are neither so useful to the reader, nor do they so certainly secure to the editor the credit to which he is entitled when they are good. The chronology of the Diary is often extremely erroneous. Its rectification would have well rewarded a little editorial attention.

Some neto Facts, and a suggested New Theory, as to the Authorship of Junius; contained in a familiar letter addressed to J. P. Collier, Esq. V.P.S.A. By Sir Fortunatus Dwarris, Knight, B.A.,F.R.S., F.S.A. ilo. 1850. {Privatelyprinted.'] —Sir Fortunatus Dwarris broaches a new theory in reference to the great literary puzzle. It is, that Junius was not a person but a faction; that Sir Philip Francis was the corypheeus of the libellous and insulting band ; and that amongst his coadjutors were Earl Temple, the Earl of Chatham, Lord George Sackville, Edmund, Richard, and William Burke, Colonel Barre, Dyer, Lloyd, and Boyd. This notion seems to have been derived from the late Edward Du Bois, who was a connection of Sir Philip Francis and a friend of Sir Fortunatus Dwarris. Although not without its difficulties, the supposition is ingenious and plausible, and amongst the various Junius speculations well deserves to be registered and considered. It has, at any event, the merit of combining a variety of conflicting claims, every one of them supported with some little evidence. The new facts adduced by Sir Fortunatus are principally two: 1. that "old Counsellor Dayrell of the Midland Circuit, a hanger-on of the Temple family," informed Sir F. Dwarris that he, Dayrell, supplied Junius, through Wilkes, with what Sir F. Dwarris calls, "the bad law and wretched authorities" adduced by him in his attack upon Lord Mansfield; and 2. that in a letter of Richard Burke's "found behind books in the library at Stowe," addressed to Lord Temple, the writer represents himself as having used on a particular occasion certain very pecu-> liar words which occur in one of .1 unius's private letters to Woodfall. "Lord Nugent thinks that the use of this expression conclusively shows Richard Burke to have been Junius." Sir F. Dwarris thinks it "only shews perhaps that he was one of the faction." We do not look upon it as conclusive in favour of either supposition. Sir F. Dwarris is evidently well acquainted with the whole subject, and we do not see why he should have printed this letter privately. His nest impression should be addressed to the public. The matter is one of public interest, and a person so well informed about it as Sir F. Dwarris will be listened to with pleasure.

The Lighted Valleys or the closing scenes of the Life of Abby Bolton. By one of her Sisters. With a Preface by her Grandfather, the Rev. William Jay, Bath. 8vo. 1850.—A narrative of the life and lingering passage through the valley of death of a granddaughter of a well known venerable Christian patriarch. Abby Bolton was one of the thirteen children of the Rev. Robert Bolton and Ann Jay, daughter of the Rev. William Jay of Bath. She was born at Henley-upon-Thames in 1827, and died at Pelham Priory, near New York, the present residence of her parents, on the ICth June, 1849.

Annuaire de la Societe (lex Antiquaires de France, 1850. Paris.—Besides the customary lists of members of the Society, notices of the more distinguished members lately deceased, and minutes of the Society's proceedings during the past year, together with an Index to the Transactions of the Academie Celtique, the Annuaire for the present year contains an edition of the several existing Roman Itineraries of Gaul, that is to say, those from the Feutingerian or Theodosian table, those from the Antonine Itineraries, and the Itinerary from Bordeaux to Jerusalem. The first is published in reduced facsimile; the others from the edition of Berlin, 1848, with the various readings of many M SS. To these is added an account of the several Roman milliaries relating to Gaul now known to be in existence, viz. that of Tungres in the national collection of antiquities at Brussels, and those at Autun and Alichamp; together with a Roman inscription relating to the Geography of Gaul found at Nimes. These are all well edited by M. Leon Renier, with brief useful notes and admirable indexes. We desire to direct the attention of English antiquaries to this sensible unpretending publication. A similar edition pf the Itineraries of Britain would be a very

valuable contribution to historical and geographical science.

The History of Ancient Art among the Greeks. Translated from the German of John Winckelmann. By G. Henry Lodge. 8»o. Land.—This is a reprint of an American translation of the second volume of Winckelmann's great work. A single word in commendation of the admirable original is of course unnecessary. The translation is carefully and often elegantly executed; the part here published is complete in itself, and the illustrations are of a very creditable and useful kind—good specimens of Day's excellent lithography. We are delighted to observe and welcome that growing love of art in America of which this work is an evidence.

Phases of Faith; or passages from the history of my creed. By Francis William Newman, formerly Fellow of Balliol College, Oxford. Post Svo. Land. 1850.— This book details a melancholy history. A gentleman brought up in a religious home, and educated at a Christian university, casts off, one by one, the articles of his faith, not only as a Protestant, but even as a Christian. The belief which is at length arrived at, is summed up in these few words—there is a deity who sympathises with individual man. The book before us is an autobiographical detail of the successive steps by which this sad result was arrived at, and, as far as we can judge, it is written with candour. Indeed, one cannot conceive any but a person possessed of a certain amiable candour sitting down to write such a self-condemnatory and humiliatingdctail. The objections to which the dearest articles of our faith were one by one surrendered are so perfectly childish and puerile, have been so often refuted, and are so palpably baseless, that the enumeration of them, with the statement of the way in which they were yielded to, can only excite a profound and sorrowful impression of the mental weakness of the writer. The author is a brother of that Mr. Newman who has lately attained a celebrity so melancholy at Oxford. One brother goes off into infidelity, the other into Romanism. Both are probably the honest victims of that peculiar unhealthy quality of mind which is for ever dwelling upon, and magnifying and distorting mere cobweb difficulties.

De la Decadence de I'Angleterre, par Ledru Rollin. Paris. 1850. 2 torn. Svo. The Decline of England, by Ledru Rollin, vol. i. London. Svo. Churton. — Ignorance of England, and an utter inability to understand our national peculiarities and institutions, is a part of the French character. To this quality of ignorance — always useful in writing a book — M. Ledru Rollin adds a very competent amount of hatred, called into action by the circumstance, that, having sought shelter in this country against the just indignation of his fellow-countrymen, we have given him what he sought, but have not entertained him with so much honour as he considers himself entitled to have received at our hands. His book is just the composition which might be expected from the guidance of two such qualities. Its blunders and misrepresentations are utterly inconceivable. Building upon obsolete authorities, on the veracious statements of the Black-Book, and on the violent tirades of party politicians in the last century, he represents us, politically, as a nation in a state of ail-but slavery, ground to the earth by a hard aristocracy which has engrossed to itself the Church, the law, the land, the universities—every thing. We have no freedom of the press; the people do not return the house of commons; they do not serve on juries; they have not the power of assembling in pub

lic meetings; the Habeas Corpus Act is a delusion! In delineating our social condition, the author has taken the recent letters published in the " Morning Chronicle,'' descriptive of the condition of certain classes of our metropolitan population, as a representation of our national status. Culling the most piquant passages, he has put them forth as a sample of our whole condition ; the conclusion being, that we want a revolution, like that of Paris in February 1848, to set us free and give us happiness.

Mr. Churton has provided a cheap translation for those who desire to read such perilous stuff. Those who do so should beware of doing France the injustice of supposing that M. Ledru Rollin speaks the general voice of his countrymen. He stands alone, a foolish, impetuous, virulent man, proscribed by his own countrymen. Intelligent men all over the world will reject the conclusions of his firebrand book, as unanimously as his countrymen have rejected himself from the high authority to which he was raised by one of the accidents of an accidental revolution.

LITERARY AND SCIENTIFIC INTELLIGENCE.

UNIVERSITY OF OXFORD.

The new examination statute has at length been accepted by Convocation in all its essential parts. It will partially affect some present students, and all undergraduates matriculated in Lent term, 1850, or subsequently, will come under its provisions unavoidably. Its more important provisions are as follow :—

1. Undergraduates must present themselves for Responsions on the new system in their third, fifth, or seventh term, or else in their fourth or sixth term, according as they shall have entered in Lent and Act, or in Michaelmas and Easter terms. Those who enter in the former two terms may go up earlier and later, and have one more opportunity of going up within the standing prescribed by the statute, than those who enter in the latter two terms. For Responsions they must offer one Greek and one Latin book, or portions of such books, somewhat less, if they please, than is at present required: two books of Euclid, and arithmetic, probably to the extraction of the cube root; or, in lien of arithmetic, algebra. The same piece of English prose to be translated into Latin will be set to the candidates, and all will have the same grammatical questions on paper.

2. They will have to pass the first

public examination before the Moderators; those entered in Lent or Act terms, in their eighth, tenth, or twelfth term; those entered in Easter or Michaelmas terms, in their ninth or eleventh term of standing. Those, however, who have entered in Lent term, 1850, will not be able to pass that examination before Easter term, 1852, in their tenth term, this being the first occasion on which it will be held. Those who enter in Easter and Act terms, 1850, will also be able to go up in Easter, 1852, being their ninth and eighth terms of standing respectively.

To pass this examination, ordinary candidates must offer one Latin and one Greek book (other than those offered up at responsions), one of which must be a poet and the other an orator; the four Gospels in Greek; and either logic or three books of Euclid and algebra. They will have a piece of English to translate into Latin (the same for all); a paper of syntactical questions, and probably some other papers.

Candidates for classical honours will have to bring up the four Gospels; the great writers of antiquity, poets and orators specially, Homer, Virgil, Cicero, Demosthenes being recommended by name; logic, if they wish to be in the first division of honours; otherwise Euclid and algebra. They will have passages from their Greek and Latin authors to translate into English prose. They will also be allowed to exhibit proficiency in verse composition. Critical and other papers will be set; and, translations into Latin and Greek. It is supposed that four Latin and four Greek books will be an ample list.

Candidates for mathematical honours will bring up pure mathematics.

The names of all who pass are to be printed at the end of the class-paper at both examinations.

3. They will have to pass their final examination in two schools. Necessarily, in the school of Literal Humaniores in their thirteenth term at the earliest; and, if candidates for honours, in their eighteenth at the latest. Those who enter in Lent and Act may go up in their fourteenth, sixteenth, and eighteenth terms; those who enter in Easter and Michaelmas, in their thirteenth, fifteenth, and seventeenth. Honours are not to be awarded to those who shall have exceeded their eighteenth term. The subjects for passmen are the four Gospels, the Acts of the Apostles, Sacred History; the subjects of the books of the New and Old Testament, Evidences, and the Articles; One philosopher and one historian, Greek or Latin, but not books brought up at responsions. There will be no translation into Latin; but papers of questious will be set, and passages from the books brought up for translation into English. —Classmen may take up one or more of the apostolical epistles and ecclesiastical history, and must take up logic if they aim at a first or second class. The Greek and Latin languages, ancient history, chronology, geography, rhetoric, poetics, politics, ethics, will be brought up as under the present system; and these subjects may be illustrated by modern writers.

All must pass in one of three other schools, but not necessarily in the same term as they pass in the first school.

1st. The mathematical. Minimum, six books of Euclid, or the first part of algebra. For honours, pure and mixed mathematics.

2nd. Natural science. Minimum, the principles of two of these three parts of natural philosophy, namely, mechanical philosophy, chemistry, physiology; and an acquaintance with some one branch of science falling under mechanical philosophy.—Candidates for honours will require a knowledge of the principles of these three parts of science.

3rd. Law and History. Minimum, English history from the Conquest to the end of Henry VII.'s reign, or from the

accession of Henry VIII. to that of George I. And either Blackstone on Real Property for those who take up the earlier portion of English history, or Blackstone on Personal Property and the Rights of Persons for those who take up the latter portion of English history; or in lieu of Blackstone the Institutes of Justinian.

Candidates for honours may bring up, besides what is expected from ordinary candidates, Adam Smith on the Wealth of Nations; Modern History to any extent before the year 1793; International Law; and must bring up Civil Law.

The best text books will doubtless, as regards the new schools, be recommended publicly by the University Professors, whose sphere of usefulness will, it is hoped, be much enlarged by the intended changes.

Those who are acquainted with the present system will observe that the chief alteration consists in the substitution of three separate examinations for the two now used, and the introduction of new subjects in the final examination for honours. The present period for the " Responsions in the Parvise"—some of our readers may be interested to hear that this old name is still preserved—is anticipated in order to admit the new and intermediate examination at the end of the second year. The opportunity for the display of scholarship and criticism will be at the second examination. In the final examination for honours, as it is at present constituted, there are two schools, one for the mathematical sciences; the other for a mixture of subjects, including the classical languages and criticism, ancient history, moral philosophy, and logic, under which latter heads metaphysics and the history of philosophy are introduced. Most of these subjects, so far as they can be entered into in an academical course, are now to be disposed of at the second examination. By this change, a place is found for the new subjects of recognised study, namely, natural science, the rudiments of the civil or the common law, and modern history, the last, we are sorry to see, confined to the periods above stated. Political economy, the study of which is of paramount importance in the present day to all who have a voice in public affairs— in other words to all educated Englishmen —is also introduced; but we trust the examiners and students will not confine their questions and their reading to Adam Smith. We congratulate Oxford on a change, which, inasmuch as it has been carried through mainly by the exertions of those who are at present engaged in the active work of education there, is to honourable to the University. We

« 前へ次へ »