An Inquiry Into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations, 第 3 巻
Mundell, Doig, and Stevenson, Edinburgh; Lackington, Allen and Company Cradock and Joy, and T. Hamilton, London; and Wilson and Son, York., 1809
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according advantage afford altogether amount ancient annual army attention authority become body branch Britain called capital carried cent church civil clergy colonies commodities consequence considerable considered consumer continually court cultivation customs debt duties effect employed England equal established Europe exercises expence exportation fall farmer foreign fortune four France frequently fund give greater houses hundred importation imposed improvement increase industry interest justice kind labour land less levied maintain manner manufactures ment merchants millions naturally necessarily necessary never obliged occasion officers ordinary original paid particular payment peace perhaps person pounds present principal probably produce profit proper proportion quantity raise ranks reduced regulated render rent require respect revenue seems shillings society sometimes sort sovereign sufficient supposed thing tion trade whole
260 ページ - The subjects of every state ought to contribute towards the support of the government, as nearly as possible, in proportion to their respective abilities ; that is, in proportion to the revenue which they respectively enjoy under the protection of the state.
194 ページ - In the progress of the division of labour, the emVOL. III. N ployment of the far greater part of those who live by labour, that is, of the great body of the people, comes to be confined to a few very simple operations ; frequently to one or two. But the understandings of the greater part of men are necessarily formed by their ordinary employments.
328 ページ - By necessaries I understand not only the commodities which are indispensably necessary for the support of life, but whatever the custom of the country renders it indecent for creditable people, even of the lowest order, to be without.
261 ページ - The certainty of what each individual ought to pay is, in taxation, a matter of so great importance, that a very considerable degree of inequality, it appears, I believe, from the experience of all nations, is not near so great an evil as a very small degree of uncertainty.
67 ページ - ... the duty of erecting and maintaining certain public works and certain public institutions, which it can never be for the interest of any individual, or small number of individuals, to erect and maintain ; because the profit could never repay the expense to any individual or small number of individuals, though it may frequently do much more than repay it to a great society.
260 ページ - The expense of government to the individuals of a great nation is like the expense of management to the joint tenants of a great estate, who are all obliged to contribute in proportion to their respective interests in the estate. In the observation or neglect of this maxim consists what is called the equality or inequality of taxation.
261 ページ - The tax which each individual is bound to pay ought to be certain, and not arbitrary. The time of payment, the manner of payment, the quantity to be paid, ought all to be clear and plain to the contributor and every other person. (3) Every tax ought to be levied at the time or in the manner in which it is most likely to be convenient for the contributor to pay it.
18 ページ - To hurt in any degree the interest of any one order of citizens, for no other purpose but to promote that of some other, is evidently contrary to that justice and equality of treatment which the sovereign owes to all the different orders of his subjects.
194 ページ - The man whose whole life is spent in performing a few simple operations, of which the effects too are perhaps always the same, or very nearly the same, has no occasion to exert his understanding, or to exercise his invention in finding out expedients for removing difficulties which never occur. He naturally loses, therefore, the habit of such exertion, and generally becomes as stupid and ignorant as it is possible for a human creature to become.