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ETCHING MORALIZED.

Then removing the ground and the wax at a heat,
Cleanse the surface with oil, spermaceti or sweet-

For your hand a performance scarce proper-
So some careful professional person secure,
For the laundress will not be a safe amateur,

To assist you in cleaning the copper.

Thus your etching complete, it remains but to hint
That with certain assistance from paper and print,

Which the proper mechanic will settle,
You may charm all your friends-without any sad tale
Of such perils and ills as beset Lady Sale-

With a fine India Proof of your metal." *

• Thomas Hood's “Etching Moralized,” in New Monthly Magazine, 1843, vol. lxvii. p. 4, and seg.

CHAPTER II.

MISCELLANEOUS CARICATURES AND SUBJECTS OF

CARICATURE, 1800—1811.

PROPOSED METHOD OF ARRANGEMENT.

ALTHOUGH Gillray began his work in 1769,—thirty years before our century commenced, and Rowlandson five years later on, in 1774, their labours were continued some years after 1799, and are so interwoven, so to speak, with the work of their immediate successors, that it is almost impossible in a work dealing with nineteenth century caricaturists to omit all mention of them. In collecting too materials for the present treatise, we necessarily met with many anonymous satires, without signature, initials, or distinguishing style, which may be, and some of which are probably due to artists whose pencils were at work before the century began. Even if equal in all cases to the task of assigning these satires to the particular hands which designed and executed them, we submit that little real service would be rendered to the cause of graphic satire. It appears to us therefore that the most convenient method will be to indicate in this and the following chapters some of the leading topics of caricature during the first thirty years of the century, and to cite in illustration of our subject such of the work of anonymous or other artists, for which no better place can be assigned in other divisions of the work.

The attention of the public during the first fifteen years of the century was mainly directed to the progress and fortunes of the great national enemy, Napoleon Bonaparte. The hatred with which he was regarded in this country can scarcely be appreciated in these days; and in order that the cause of this bitter antipathy may be

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JAMES Gillray.)

1 June 20th, 1789. SHAKSPEARE SACRIFICED, OR THE OFFERING TO AVARICE.

Alderman Boydell, as High Priest within the magic circle, preparing an oblation to Shakspeare ; the demon of Avarice, seated upon the List of Subscribers, hugging his money-bags; Puck on his shoulders blowing bubbles of "immortality" to the promoter of the "Gallery" about to be published. Shakespeare himself, obscured by the Aldermanic fumes. Figures of Shakspearean characters above.

(Face p. 12.

FRENCH OCCUPATION OF EGYPT.

18th BRUMAIRE.

understood, it will be necessary for us to consider Bonaparte's general policy in relation to ourselves.

The close of the century had been signalized in France by the memorable revolution of “the eighteenth Brumaire." The Directory had ceased to exist, and a provisional consular commission, consisting of “Citizens " Sieyes, Ducos, and Bonaparte, was appointed. On the 13th of December, the legislative committees presented the new constitution to the nation, the votes against it being 1,562 as against 3,012,659 in its favour. Bonaparte was nominated first consul for ten, and Cambacères and Lebrun (nominal) second and third consuls for five years.

Although Bonaparte, as soon as he was appointed First Consul, made direct overtures to the king of England with a view to peace, he had himself to thank if his overtures met with no corre. sponding return. To accomplish the revolution of the “ eighteenth Brumaire,” he had found it necessary to quit Egypt. The English knew the French occupation of Egypt was intended as a direct menace to British interests in India. Lord Granville, therefore, in his official reply, without assuming to prescribe a form of government to France, plainly but somewhat illogically intimated that the “restoration of the ancient line of princes, under whom France had enjoyed so many centuries of prosperity, would afford the best possible guarantee for the maintenance of peace between the two countries.” This New Year's greeting on the part of Lord Granville put an end, as might have been expected, to all further communications.

The French, however, had no business in Egypt, and England was resolved at any cost to drive them out of that country. With this object in view, the armament under the command of Sir Ralph Abercrombie effected its disembarkation at Aboukir on the 8th of March, 1801. A severe though indecisive action followed five days afterwards. On the 20th was fought the decisive battle of Alexandria. General Hutchinson, on the death of the English commander, followed up the victory with so much vigour and celerity, that early in the autumn the French army capitulated, on

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