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to look at the papers beforehand, but in case of any absent on an embassy to Pope Boniface VIII., and was prudential afterthought, steps in to correct the blind- condemned to two years' banishment, and to a fine of ness of chance. The proposal for deifying Alferi was 8000 lire; on the non-payment of which he was further received with immediate enthusiasm, the rather because punished by the sequestration of all his property. The it was conjectured there would be no opportunity of republic, however, was not content with this satisfaccarrying it'into effect.
tion, for in 1772 was discovered in the archives at Flo29.
rence a sentence in which Dante is the eleventh of a
list of fifteen condemned in 1302 to be burnt alive; Here Machiavelli's earth relurn'd to whence it rose.
Talis perveniens igne comburatur sic quod morietur. The Stanza liv. line 9.
pretext for this judgment was a proof of unfair barter, The affectation of simplicity in sepulchral inscriptions, extortions, and illicit gains. Baracteriarum iniquarum, which so often leaves us uncertain whether the structure extorsionum, et illicitorum lucrorum,* and with such an before us is an actual depository, or a cenotaph, or a accusation it is not strange that' Dante should have simple memorial not of death but life, has given to the always protested his innocence, and the injustice of his tomb of Machiavelli no information as to the place or fellow-citizens. His appeal tó Florence was accomtime of the birth or death, the age or parentage, of the panied by another to ihe Emperor Henry; and the historian.
death of that sovereign in 1313, was the signal for a TANTO NOMINI NVLLVM PAR ELOGIUM sentence of irrevocable banishment. He had before NICCOLAVS MACHIAVELLI.
lingered near Tuscany with hopes of recall; then traThere seems at least no reason why the name should velled into the north of Italy, where Verona had to boast not have been put above the sentence which alludes of his longest residence; and he finally settled at Rato it.
venna, which was his ordinary but not constant abude It will readily be imagined that the prejudices which until his death. The refusal of the Venetians to grant have passed the name of Machiavelli into an epithet him a public audience, on the part of Guido Novello da proverbial of iniquity exist no longer at Florence. His Polenta, his protector, is said to have been the principal memory was persecuted as his life had been for an at- buried (“in sacra minorum æde”) at Ravenna, in a
cause of this event, which happened in 1321. "He was tachment to liberty incompatible with the new system handsome tomb, which was erected by Guido, restored of despotism, which succeeded the fall of the free governments of Italy. He was put to the torture for by Bernardo Bembo in 1483, prætors that republic being a “libertine,” that is
, for wishing to restore the which had refused to hear him, ayair 1 ostored by Carrepublic of Florence ; and such are the undying efforts dinal Corsi in 1692, and replaced by a more magnificent of those who are interested in the perversion not only sepulchre, constructed in 1780, at the expense of the of the nature of actions, but the meaning of words, that
Cardinal Luigi Valenti Gonzaya. The offence or what was once patriotism, has by degrees come to sig- misfortune of Dante was an attachment to a defeated nify debauch. We have ourselves outlived the vid party, and, as his least favourable biographers allege meaning of “liberality,” which is now another word for against hini, too great a freedom of speech and haughủtreason in one country and for infatuation in all. Il pess of manner. But the next age paid honours almost seerns to have been a strange mistake to accuse the and frequently attempted to recover his body, crowned
divine to the exile. The Florentines, having in vain and to think that the Inquisition would condemn his work the idols of their cathedral. They struck medals, they for such a delinquency. The fact is that Machiavelli, raised statues to him. The cities of Italy, not being as is usual with those against whom no crime can be able to dispute about his own birth, contended for that proved, was suspected of and charged with, atheism of his great poem, and the Florentines thought it for and the first and last most violent opposers of the Prince their honour to prove that he had finished the seventh were both Jesuits, one of whom persuaded the Inquisi, Canto before they drove him from his native city. tion “ benchè fosse tardo," to prohibit the treatise, and Fifty-one years after his death, they endowed a propublic as no better than a fool. The father Possevin sessorial chair for the expounding of his verses, and was proved never to have read the book, and the father Boccaccio was appointed to this patriotic employment. Lucchesini not to have understood it. It is clear, how- The example was imitated by Bologna and Pisa, and ever, that such critics must have objected not to the the commentators, if they performed but little service slavery of the doctrines, but to the supposed tendency to literature, augmented the veneration which beheld of a lesson which shows how distinct are the inierests a sacred or moral allegos: in all the images of his mystic of a monarch from the happiness of mankind. The have been distinguished above those of ordinary men;
His birth and lio infancy were discovered to Jesuits are re-cstablished in Italy, and tho iast chapter of the Prince may again call forih a particular refuta- the author of the Decameron, his earliest biographer, tion, from those who are employed once more in relates, that his mother was warned in a dream of the moulding the minds of the rising generation, so as to importance of her pregnancy: and it was found, by receive the impressions of despotism. The chapter others, that at ten years of age he had manifested his bears for title, '“ Esortazione a liberare la Italia dai precocious passion for that wisdom or theology, which, Barbari," and concludes with a libertine excitement to
under the name of Beatrice, had been mistaken for á the future redemption of Italy. " Non si deve adunque been recognised as a mere mortal production, and at
substantial mistress. When the Divine Comedy had lasciar passare questa occasione, acciocchè la Italia vegga the distance of two centuries, when criticism and dopo tanto tempo apparire un suo redentore. Ne posso competition had sobered the judgment of Italians, esprimere con Gual imore er fusse ricevuto in tutte quelle Dante was seriously declared 'superior to Homer;f provincie, che hanno patito per queste illuvioni esterne, con and though the preference appeared to some casuists qual sete di vendetta, con che ostinata fede, con che lacrime."an heretical blasphemy worihy of the flames,” the Quali porte se li serrerebeno? Quali popoli li negherebbeno contest was vigorously maintained for nearly fifty la obbedienza ? Quale Italiano li negherebbe l'ossequio ? AD OGNUNO PUZZA QUESTO BARBARO DOMINIO."*
In later times it was made a question which of
ihe Lords of Verona could boast of having patronized 30.
him, ş and the jealous skepticism of one writer would Ungrateful Florence! Dante sleeps afar. not allow Ravenna the undoubted possession of his
Stanza lvii. line 1. bones. Even the critical Tiraboschi was inclined to Dante was born in Florence in the year 1261. He fought in two battles, was fourteen times ambassador, and once prior of the republic. When the party of incorrect the dates of the thiree decrees against Dance are 2. D. 1302,
• Storia della Lett. Ital. tom. . lib. lil. par. 2. p. 448. Tiraboschi in Charles of Anjou triumphed over the Bianchi, he was 1314, and 1316,
t so relates Ficino, but some think his coronation only an a' legory. See Storia, &c. ut sup. p. 453.
: By Varchi in his Ercolano. The controversy continue ! from 1570 • U Principe di Niccolò Machiavelli, &c. con la prefazione e le note isto 1616. See Storia, &c. tom. rii, lib. i.par.ii. p. 1290. niche e politich, di Mr. Annelor de la Houssaye e l'esame e confutazione $ Gio. Jacopo Dionisi Canonico di Veroca. 'Sirie di & reddeti, o. &
. . Cusmopoii 1709.
Set coria, &c. tuin. V. lib i. par. I. p. 24.
believe that the poet had foreseen and foretold one of citizens than the Greek repubücs. Liberiy, botn with the discoveries of Galileo.--Like the great originals of the one and the other, seenis to have been a national, other nations, his popularity has not always maintained not an individual object : and, notwithstanding the the same level. The last age seemed inclined to under- boasted equality before the laws, which an ancient Greek value him as a model and a study; and Bettinelli one writer* considered the great distinctive mark between day rebuked his pupil Mont, for poring over the harsh his countrymen and the barbarians, the mutual rign:s and obsolete exiravagances of the Commedia. The of fellow-citizens seem never to have been the principal present generation, having recovered from the Gallic scope of the old democracies. The world may liavo idolatries of Cesarotti, has returned to the ancient not yet seen an essay by the author of the lialian Re worship, and the Danteggiare of the northern lialians publics, in which the distinction betwven the liberty of is thought even indiscreet by the more moderate former states, and the signification attached to Thai Tuscans.
word by the happier constitution of England, is ingeniThere is still much curious information relative to ously developed. The Italians, however, when they the life and writings of this great poet which has not as had ceased to be free, still looked back with a sigh upon yet been collected even by the Italians; but the cele those times of turbulence, when every citizen might brated Ugo Foscolo meditates to supply this defect, and rise to a share of sovereign power, and have never been it is not to be regretted that this national work has taught fully to appreciate ihe repose of a monarchy. been reserved for one so devoted to his co'ntry and the Sperone Speroni, when Francis Maria Il. Duke of cause of truth.
Rovere proposed the question, " which was preferable, 31.
the republic or the principality--the periect and nos
durable, or the less perfect and not so liable to change, Like Scipio, buried by the upbraiding shore;
replied, " that our happiness is to be measured by its Thy factions, in their worse than civil war, quality, not by its duration; and that he preferred to Proscrive, &c.
live for one day like a man, than for a hundred years Stanza lvii lines 2, 3, and 4. like a brute, a stock, or a stone.' This was thought, The elder Scipio Africanus had a tomb if he was not and called, a magnificent answer, down to the last days buried at Liternum, whither he had retired to voluntary of Italian servitude: banishment. This tomb was near the sea-shore, and
32. the story of an inscription upon it, Ingrata Patria,
And the croin having given a name to a modern tower, is,
if not true,
Which Petrarch's laureate brow supremely wore an agreeable fiction. If he was not buried, he certainly saved there.*
Upon a far and foreign soil haul groun.
Stanza lvii, lines 6, 7, and 8. In cosi angusta e solitaria villa
The Florentines did not take the opportunity of PeEra 'l grand' uomo che d'Africa s'appella
trarch's short visit to their city in 1350 to revoke the Percbe prima col ferro al vivo aprilla. Ingratitude is generally supposed the vice peculiar had been banished shortly after the exile of Dante. His
decree which confiscated the property of his father, who to republics; and it seems to be forgotten that for one crown did not dazzle them ; but when in the next year instance of popular inconstancy, we have a hundred examples of the fall of courtly favourites. Besides, a shey were in want of his assistance in the formation of people have ofien repented—a monarch seldom or never. Boccaccio, was seni to Padua to entreat the laureate
their university, they repented of their injustice, and Leaving apart many familiar proofs of this fact, a short to conclude his wanderings in the bosom of his native story may show the difference between even an aristo- country, where he might finish his immortal Africa, and cracy and the multitude. Vettor Pisani, having been defeated in 1354 at Porto- enjoy with his recovered possessions, the esteem of all
classes of his fellow-citizens. They gave him the option longo, and many years afterwards in the more decisive action of Pola, by the Genoese, was recalled by the expound: they called him the glory of his country, who
of the book and the science he might condescend to Venetian government, and thrown into chains. The Avvogadori proposed to behead him, but the supreme that if there was any thing unpleasing in their letter,
was dear, and would be dearer to them; and they added, tribunal was content with the sentence of imprisonment. he ought to return among them, were it only to corWhilst Pisani was suffering this usmerited disgrace, rect their style.f Petrarch seemed at first to listen to Chioza, in the vicinity of the capital, I was by the assist the flattery and to the entreaties of his friend, but he did ance of the Signor of Parua, delivered into the hands not return to Florence, and preferred a pilgrimage to of Pietro Doria. At the intelligence of that disaster, the tomb of Laura and the shades of Vaucluse the great bell of St. Mark's tower tolled to arms, and
33. the people and the soldiery of the galleys were summoned to the repulse of the approaching enemy; but
Boccaccio to his parent earth bequeathed they protested they would not move a step, unless
His dust. Pisani were liberated and placed at their head. The
Stanza lviii. lines 1 and 2. great council was instantly assembled; the prisoner Boccaccio was buried in the church of St. Michael was called before them, and the Doge, Andrea Conta- and St. James, at Certaldo, a small town in the Valrini, informed him of the demands of the people and the delsa, which was by some supposed the place of his necessities of the state, whose only hope of safety was birth. There he passed the latter part of his life in a reposed on his efforts, and who implored him to forget course of laborious study, which shortened his existence, the indignities he had endured in her service. "I have and there might his ashes have been secure, if not of submitted," replied the magnanimous republican, “I honour, at least of repose. But the “hyæna bigots" of have submitted to your deliberations without complaint : Certaldo tore up the tombstone of Boccaccio, and ejecte I have supported patiently the pains of imprisonment, ed it from the holy precincts of St. Michael and St. for they were inflicted at your command: this is no James. The occasion, and, it may be hoped, the excuse, time to inquire whether I deserved them—the good of of this ejectment was the making of a new floor for tho the republic may have seemed to require it, and that church; but the fact is, that the tombstone was taken which the republic resolves is always resolved wisely. up and thrown aside at the bottom of the building. Behold me ready to lay down my life for the preserva- Ignorance may share the sin with bigotry: It would tion of my country.” Pisani was appointed generalis- be painful to relate such an exception to the devotion simo, and by his exertions, in conjunction with those of of the Italians for their great names, could it not be Carlo Zeno, the Venetians soon recovered the ascend- accompanied by a trait more honourably conformable ency over their maritime rivals. The Italian communities were no less unjust to their • The Greek boasted that he was covópos. See the ast chapter of the to the general character of the nation. The principal old age he wrote a letter entreating his friend to dis person of the district, the last branch of the house of courage the reading of the Decameron, for the sake of Medicis, afforded that protection to the memory of the modesty, and for the sake of the author, who would not insulted dead which her best ancestors had dispensed have an apologist always at hand to słate in his excuse upon all cotemporary merit. The Marchioness Lenzoni that he wrote it when young, and at the command of rescued the tombstone of Boccaccio from the neglect in his superiors.* It is neither the licentiousness of the which it had sometime lain, and found for it an honour writer, nor the evil propensities of the reader, which able elevation in her own mansion. She has done have given to the Decameron alone, of all the works of more: the house in which the poet lived has been as Boccaccio, a perpetual popularity. The establishmere little respected as his tomb, and is falling to ruin over of a new and delightful dialect couferred an immortality the head of one indifferent to the name of its former on the works in which it was first fixed. The sonnets tenant. It consists of two or three little chambers, and of Petrarch were, for the same reason, fated to survive a low tower, on which Cosmo II. affixed an inscription. his self-admired Africa, the "favourite of kings." The This house she has taken measures to purchase, and invariable traits of nature and feeling with which thos proposes to devole to it that care and consideration novels, as well as the verses, abound, have doubtless which are attached to the cradle and to the roof of been the chief source of the foreign celebrity of both genius.
1" E intorno alla magnifica risposta," &c. Serassi Vita del Treno, • Vitam Literni egit sine desiderio urbis. See T. Liv. Hist. lib. xxxviii. lib. ill. pag. 149. tom. ii. edit. 2. Bergamo. Livy reports that some said he was buried at Liternum, others at Rome. " Accingiti innoltre, se ci è iecito ancor l'esortarti, a compire l'immor. db.cap. iv.
dispiaccia, ciddlebb' essere un altro motivo ad esaudire i deerderj della tus Svo note 8, page 62.
pairia." Storia della Lell. Ital. tom. v. par. i. lib. i. pag. 76.
first book of Dionysius of Halicarnassus.
tal tua Africa ...Se ti avviene d'incontrare nel nodro stile cona che ti
+ Trionfo della Castita.
authors; but Boccaccio, as a man, is no more to be This is not the place to undertake the defence of estimated by that work, than Petrarch is to be regarded Boccaccio; but the man who exhausted his little in no other' light ihan as the lover of Laura. Even, patrimony in the acquirement of learning, who was however, had the father of the Tuscan prose been among the first, if not the first, to allure the science known only as the author of the Decameron, a consiand the poetry of Greece to the bosom of Italy ;-who derate writer would have been cautious to pronounce a not only invented a new style, but founded, or certainly sentence irreconcilable with the unerring voice of many fixed, a new language; who, besides the esteem of every ages and nations. An irrevocable value has never pulite court of Europe, was thought worthy of employ- been stamped upon any work solely recommended by ment by the predominant republic of his own country, impurity. and, what is more, of the friendship of Petrarch, who The true source of the outcry against Boccaccio, lived the life of a philosopher and a freeman, and who which began at a very early period, was the choice of died in the pursuit of knowledge,-such a man might his scandalous personages in the cloisters as well as the have found more consideration than he has met with courts; but the princes only laughed at the gallant adfrom the priest of Certaldo, and from a late English ventures so unjustly charged upon queen Theodelinda, traveller, who strikes off his portrait as an odious, con- whilst the priesthood cried shame upon the debauches lempuble, licentious writer, whose impure remains drawn from the convent and the hermitage; and most should be suffered to rot without a record.* That probably for the opposite reason, namely, that the picEnglish traveller, unfortunately for those who have to iure was faithful to the life. Two of the novels are deplore the loss of a very amiable person, is beyond all allowed to be facts usefully turned into tales, to deride criticism; but the mortality which did not protect Boc-the canonization of rogues and laymen. Ser Ciappe caccio from Mr. Eustace, must not defend Mr. Eustace letto and Marcellinus are cited with applause even by from the impartial judgment of his successors.-Death the docent Muratori.f The great Arnaud, as he is may canonize his virtues, not his errors; and it may quoted in Bayle, states, that a new edition of the novels be modestly pronounced that he transgressed, not only was proposed, of which the expurgation consisted in as an author, but as a man, when he evoked the shade omitting the words “ monk" and " nun,” and tacking the of Boccaccio in company with that of Aretine, amidst immoralities to other names. The literary history of the sepulchres of Santa Croce, merely to dismiss it Italy particularizes no such edition; but it was not long with indignity. As far as respects
before the whole of Europe had but one opinion of the "* Il flagello de' Principi,
Decameron; and the absolution of the author seems to II divin Pietro Aretino,
have been a point settled at least a hundred years ago. is is of little import what censure is passed upon a
« On se feroii siffler si l'on prétendoit convaincre Boc coxcomb who owes his present existence to the above cace de n'avoir pas été honnête homme, puis qu'il a fail
So said one of the best men, and perburlesque character given to him by the poet whose e Decameron." amber has preserved many other grubs and worms:
haps the best critic, that ever lives—the very martyr but to classify Boccaccio with such a person, and 10 to impartiality:1 But as this information, that in the excommunicaie his very ashes, must of itself make us beginning of the last century one would have been doubt of the qualification of the classical tourist for hooted ai for pretending that Boccaccio was not a good writing upon Italian, or, indeed, upon any other litera- man, may seem to come from one of those enemies who ture; for ignorance on one point may incapacitate an are to be suspected, even when they make us a present author merely for that particular topic, but subjection of truth, a more acceptable contrast with the proscripto a professional prejudice must render him an unsafe tion of the body, soul, and muse of Boccaccio may be director on all occasions. Any perversion and injustice found in a few words from the virtuous, the patriotic may be made what is vulgarly called “a case of con- cotemporary, who thought one of the tales of this impuro science," and this poor excuse is all that can be offered writer worthy a Latin version from his own pen.'" 1 for the priest of Certaldo, or the author of the Classical have remarked elsewhere," says Petrarch, writing to Tour. "It would have answered the purpose to confine Boccaccio, " that the book itself has been worried by cer. the censure to the novels of Boccaccio, and gratitude tain dogs, but stoutly defended by your staff and voica to that source which supplied the muse of Dryden with Nor was ! astonished, for I have had proof of the vigour ber last and most harmonious numbers might perhaps commodating incapable race of mortals who, whatever they
of your mind, and I know you have fallen on that unachave restricted that censure to the onjectionable qualities of the hundred lales. At any raie the repentance
either like not, or know nol, or cannot do, are sure to of Boccaccio might have arrested his exhumation, and reprehend in others; and on those occasions only put on a it should have been recollected and told, that in his show of learning and eloquence, but otherwise are entirely
• Classical Tour, cap. ix, vol. I. p. 355. edit. 31 " Or Boccaccio, the * " Non enim ubique est, qui in escusationem meam consurgens aky modern Petronius, we say nothing; the abuse of genius is more odio. Jurenis scripsit, et majoris coactus imperio." The letter was addressed and more contemptible than its absence; and it importa little where the to Maghinard of Cavalcanti, marshal of the kingilom of Sicily. See Tiraimpure remains of a licentious author are consigneri io their kindred dust, boschi, storia, &c. tom. v. par. il. lib. iii, pag. 525. ed. Ven. 1795. For the same reason the traveller may pass unnoticed the tomb of the Dissertazioni sopra le antichita Italiane. Diss. Iviii. p. 253. tom. ill. malignant Aretino."
edit. Milan, 1751. This dubitus phrase is hardly enough to save the tourist from the sig. : Eclaircissement, &c. &c. p. 638. edit. Basle, 1741, in the Supplement picion of another blender respecting the burial.place of Aretine, whose to Bayle's Dictionary. iomb was in the church of St. Luke al Venice, and gave rise to the $" Animadverti alicubi librum ipsum annum dentibus lacessiuum, tuo la cous controveray of which some notice is cakes in Bayle. Now the ramen baeulo egregiè du&que voce defensam. Nec miratus sum : nam et Words of Mr. Fustace would lead 08 to think the tomt was at Florence, vires ingenii tui novi, et scio experts enses homium genus insolecie et or at least was to be somewhere recognised. Whether the inscription so ignavu:n, qui quicquid visi vel nolunt vel nesciunt, vel non possunt, mach ci apued was ever written on the tomb cannot now he decider, for aliis rare bencint: al lorem.desiet argiti, sed elingos su reliqua." of net rial of this author has disappeared from the church of St. Luke.l... Epist, Joan. Boccatio. Oppo, tuni. 1. p. 510. erlit. Basil.
It is satisfactory to find that all the priesthood do not man in his dominions. Yet that excellent prince him. resemble those of Certaldo, and that one of them who self had no other notion of a national assembly, than of did not possess the bones of Boccaccio would not lose a body to represent the wants and wishes, noi tho will, the opportunity of raising a cenotaph to his memory of the people. Bevius, canon of Padua, at the beginning of the sixteenth
35. century, erected at Arqua, opposite to the tomb of the Laureate, a tablet, in which he associated Boccaccio to
An earthquake reeld unheededly away. the equal honours of Dante and of Petrarch.
Stanza lxiii. linen, " And such was their mutual animosity, 80 intent were
they upon the battle, that the earthquake, which overthrer IV hat is her pyramid of precious stones ?
in great part many of the cities of Italy, which turned the Stanza lx. line 1.
course of rapid streams, poured back the sea upon the Our veneration for the Medici begins with Cosmo and rivers, and tore down the very mountains, was not fell by expires with his grandson ; that stream is pure only at one of the combatants." * Such is the description of the source; and it is in search of some memorial of the Livy. It may be doubted whether modern tactics virtuous republicans of the family that we visit the would admit of such an abstraction. church of Si. Lorenzo at Florence. The tawdry, glaring, The site of the battle of Thrasimene is not to be mis unfinished chapel in that church, designed for the mau- taken. The traveller from the village under Cortona soleum of the Dukes of Tuscany, set round with crowns to Casa di Piano, the next stage on the way to Rome, and coffins, gives birth to no emotions but those of has for the first two or three miles, around him, but contempt for the lavish vanity of a race of despots, more particularly to the right, that flat land which whilst the pavement slab, simply inscribed to the Father Hannibal laid waste in order to induce the Consu. of his Country, reconciles us to the name of Medici.* Flaminins to move from Arezzo. On his left, and in It was very natural for Corinnat to suppose that the front of him, is a ridge of hills bending down towards statue raised to the Duke of Urbino in the capella de' the lake of 'Thrasimene, called by Livy “ montes Cordepositi was intended for his great namesake; but the tonenses," and now named the Gualandra. These hills magnificent Lorenzo is only the sharer of a coffin half he approaches at Ossaja, a village which the itineranes hidden in a niche of the sacristy. The decay of Tus pretend to have been so denominated from the bones cany dates from the sovereignty of the Medici. Of ine found there: but there have been no bones found there, sepulchral peace which succeeded to the establishment and the battle was fought on the other side of the hill. of the reigning families in Italy, our own Sidney has From Ossaja the road begins to rise a little, but does given us a glowing, but a faithful picture. “Notwith- not pass into the roots of the mountains until the sixiystanding all the seditions of Florence, and other cities of seventh milestone from Florence. The ascent thence Tuscany, the horrid factions of Guelphs and Ghibelins, is not steep but perpetual, and continues for twenty Neri and Bianchi, nobles and commons, they continued minutes. The lake is soon seen below on the righi, populous, strong, and exceeding rich; but in the space with Borghetto, a round tower close upon the water; of less than a hundred and fifty years, the peaceable and the undulating bills partially covered with wood, reign of the Medices is thought to have destroyed nine among which the road winds, sink by degrees into the parts in ten of the people of that province. Among marshes near to this tower. Lower ihan the road, down other things it is remarkable, that when Philip the to the right amidst these woody hillocks, Hannibal Second ci Spain gave Sienna to the Duke of Florence, placed his horse,t in the jaws of or rather above the his embassador then at Rome sent him word, that he pass, which was between the lake and the present road, had given away more than 650,000 subjects; and it is and most probably close to Borghetto, just under the not believed there are now 20,000 souls inhabiting that lowest of the “lumuli."I On a summit to the left, above city and territory. Pisa, Pistoia, Arezzo, Cortona, and the road, is an old circular ruin which the peasants call other towns, that were then good and populous, are in the Tower of Hannibal the Carthagenian." Arrived the like proportion diminished, and Florence more than at the highest point of the road, the traveller has a partial any. When that city had been long troubled with sedi- view of the fatal plain, which opens fully upon him as he tions, tumults, and wars, for the most part unprosperous, descends the Gualandra. He soon finds himself in a vale they still retained such strength, that when Charles VIII. enclosed to the left and in front and behind him by tho of France, being admitted as a friend with his whole Gualandra hills, bending round in a segment larger than army, which soon after conquered the kingdom of Na- a semicircle, and runnii. down at each end to the lake, ples, thought to master them, the people, taking arms, which obliques to the right and forms the chord of this struck such a terror into him, that he was glad to depari mountain arc. The position cannot be guessed at from upon such conditions as they thought fit to impose. the plains of Cortona, nor appears to be so completely Machiavel reports, that in that time Florence alone, enclosed unless to one who is fairly within the hills. with the Val d'Arno, a small territory belonging to that It then, indeed, appears “a place made as it were on city, could, in a few hours, by the sound of a bell, bring purpose for a snare," locus insidiis natus. “ Borghetto together 135,000 well-armed men ; whereas now that is then found to stand in a narrow miarshy pass close to city, with all the others in that province, are brought to the hill and to the lake, whilst there is no other outlet such despicable weakness, emptiness, poverty, and at the opposite turn of the mountains than through the baseness, that they can neither resist the oppressions of little town of Passignano, which is pushed into the water their own prince, nor defiend him or themselves if they by the foot of a high rocky acclivity."s. There is a were assaulted by a foreign enemy. The people are woody eminence branching down from the mountains dispersed or destroyed, and the best families sent to into the upper end of the plain nearer t) the side of seek habitations in Venice, Genoa, Rome, Naples, and Passignano, and on this stands a white village called Lucca. This is not the effect of war or pestilence; Torre. Polybius seems to allude to this eminence as they enjoy a perfect peace, and suffer no oiher plague the one on which Hannibal encamped and drew out his than the government they are under."I From ihe heavy-armed Africans and Spaniards in a conspicuous us u. per Cosmo down to the imbecile Gaston, we look position.|| From this spot he despatched his Balearic in vain for any of those unmixed qualities which should raise a patriot to the command of nis fellow-citizens. Tho Grand Dukes, and particularly the third Cosmo, eum lerre modum qui inultarum urbium Italiæ magnas partes prostravit
“Tantusque fuit arelor animorum, adro intentus pugnæ auimus, ut had operated so entire a change in the Tuscan character, avertitque cursi rapido amnes. mare Huminibus invexit, montes lapua that the candid Florentines, in excuse for some imper- ingenti proruit, nemo pugnantium senserit." ... Tit. I.iv. lib. xxii.cap. factions in the philanthropic system of Leopold, are "Equites ad ipsas fauces saltus tumulis apie tegentibus locat." T obliged to confess that the sovereign was the only liberal Livii
, lit xxii.cap. iv.
Η Τον μέν κατά προσωπον της πορείας λογον αυτός καταλάβετε • Chamus Melic, Decreto Publico. Pater Patriæ.
τος Λίβυος, και τοις Ιβηνας, έχουν επ' αυτού κατεστιατοπάυν • Corinne, liv, xviii, cap. iii vol. iii. pace 24.
Hist, libiii. cap. 3. The account in Pois be is not so easily recoue les 1 Od Government, chap. ii. sect. xxvi. 198. 2.8. edit. 1751. Sidney is, he will present arretraners in that in Live: he talks of lills to in Agether with Locke 44. Hondry, or er bir. Hone's " despicable right and left of the pass it: valley; but sheta Flaminins eternal le lo
I'U'hi maxime montes Coronenses Thrasimenue subit." Ibid.
the lake at the right of both.
and light-armed troops round through the Gualandra enemy, and shows you the gate still called Porta dh heights to the right, so as to arrive unseen and form an Annibale
. It is hardly worth while to remark that a ambush amung the broken acclivities which the road French travel writer
, well known by the name of the now passes, and to be ready to act upon the left tank President Deputy, saw Tlırasimene in the lake of Bol.. and above the enemy, whilst the horse shut up the pass sena, which lay conveniently on his way from Sienna behind. Flaminius came to the lake near Borghetro atto Rome. sunset; and, without sending any spies before him,
36. marched through the pass the nexi morning before the jay had quite broken, so that he perceived nothing of
But thou, Chitumnus.
Stanza lxvi. line 1. the horse and light troops above and about him, and saw only the heavy-arnied Carthaginians in front on
No book of travels has omitted to expatiale on the the hill of Torre. The consul began to draw out his temple of the Clitumnus, between Foligno and Spoleto, arıny in the flat, and in the mean time the horse in and no site, or scenery even in Italy, is more worthy arabush occupied the pass behind him at Borghetto.
a description. For an account of the dilapidation of Thus the Romans were completely inclosed, having his temple, the reader is referred to Historical Illustra the lake on the right, the main army on the hill of Torre Lions of ihe Fourth Canto of Childe Harold. in front, the Gualandra lalis filled with the light-armed
37. on their left flank, and being prevented from receding Charming the cye urth dread,-a matchless cataract. by the cavalry, who, the farther they advanced, stopped
Stanza lxxi. line 9. up all the ouilets in the rear. A fog rising from the lake now spread itself over the army of the consul, but different periods; once from the summit of the precipice,
I saw the “ Cascata del marmore” of Terni twice, at the high lands were in the sunshine, and all the different and again from the valley below. The lower view is corps in ambush looked uswards the hill of Torre for far to be preferred, if the traveller has time for one the order of attack. Hannibal gave the signal, and only; but in any point of view, either from above or moved down from his post on the height. At the same below, it is worth all the cascades and torrents of moment all his troops on the eminences behind and in Switzerland put together the Staubach, Reichenbach, the flank of Flaminius, rushed forwards as it were with Pisse Vache, fall of Arpenaz, &c. are rills in comparaone accord into the plain. The Romans, who were tive appearance of the fall of Schaffhausen I cannot forming their array in the mist, suddenly heard the speak, not yet having seen it. shouts of the enemy among them, on every side, and before they could fall into their ranks, or draw their
39. swords, or see by whom they were allacked, felt at
An iris sits amidst the infernal surge. once that they were surrounded and lost.
Stanza Lxxii. line 3. There are iwo little rivulets which run from the Gua
of the time, place, and qualities of this kind of iris landra into the lake. The traveller crosses the first of the reader may have seen a short account in a note to these at about a mile after he comes into the plain, and Manfred. The fall looks so much like "the hell of this divides the Tuscan from the Papal territories. The waters" that Addison thought the descent alluded to by second, about a quarter of a mile further on, is called the gulf in which Alecto plunged into the infernal re"the bloody rivulet," and the peasants point out an open gions. It is singular enough ihat two of the finest casspot to the left between the “Sanguinetto" and the hills, cades in Europe should be artificial—this of the Veling, which they say, was the principal scene of slaughter. and the one at Tivoli. The traveller is strongly recomThe other part of the plain is covered with thick set mended to trace the Velino, at least as high as the litto olive-trees in corn grounds, and is nowhere quite level lake called Pie' di Lup. The Reatine territory was except near the edge of the lake. It is, indeed, most the Italian Tempe,* and the ancient naturalist, among probable, that the battle was fought near this end of the other beautiful varieties, remarked the daily rainbowg valley, for the six thousand Romans, who, at the begin- of the lake Velinus. A scholar of great name has ning of the action, broke through the enemy, escaped to devoted a treatise to this district alone. I the summit of an eminence which must have been in
39. this quarter, otherwise they would have had to traverse the whole plain and to pierce through the main army
The thundering lauwine. of Hannibal.
Stanza lxxiii. line 5. The Romans fought desperately for three hours, but In the greater part of Switzerland the avalanches are the death of Flaminius was the signal for a general known by the name of lauwine. dispersion. The Carthaginian horse then burst in upon
40. the fugitives, and the lake, the marsh about Borgheito,
I abhorr'd bui chiefly the plain of the Sanguinetto and the passes of the Gualandra, were strewed with dead. Near some
Too much, to conquer for the proet's sake, old walls on a bleak ridge to the left above the rivulet
The drill'd dull lesson, forced down word by word. many human bones have been repeatedly found, and
Stanza lxxv. lines 6, 7, and 8. this has confirmed the pretensions and the name of the
These stanzas may probably remind the reader of * stream of blood."
Ensign Northerton's remarks: “D-n Homo," &.. Every district of Italy has its hero. In the north but the reasons for our dislike are not exactly the same. some painter is the usual genius of the place, and the ! wish to express that we become tired of the task beforeign Julio Romano more than divides Mantua with fore we can comprehend the beauty; that we learn by her native Virgil.t To the south we hear of Roman rote before we can get by heart; that the freshness is names. Near Thrasimene tradition is still faithful to worn away, and the future pleasure and aavantage the fame of an enemy, and Hannibal the Carthaginian deadened and destroyed, by the didactic anticipation, is the only ancient name remembered on the banks of at an age when we can neither feel nor understand the the Perugian lake. Flaminius is unknown; but the power of compositions which it requires an acquaintance postillions on that road have been taught to show the with life, as well as Latin and Greek, to relish, or to very spot where Il Console Romano was slain. Of all reason upon. For the same reason we never can be who fought and fell in the battle of Thrasimene, the aware of the fulness of some of the finest passages of historian himself has, besides the generals and Mahar-Shakspeare, (“To be, or not to be," for instance) from bal, preserved indeed only a single name.
the habit of having them hammered into us at eight take the Carthaginian again on the same road to Rome. years old, as an exercise not of mind but of memory: The antiquary, that is, the hostler, of the posthouse at so that when we are old enough to enjoy them, the tasto Spoleto, iells you that his town repulsed the victorious
• “ Realini me ad sua Tempe duxerunt." Cicer. epist. ad Attic. IV. • " A tergo et super capot decepere insidir." T. Liv. &c.
"In eodem lacu nullo nor dle apparere arcus." Plin. Hist. Nat ene side the image and figure of Virgil. Zecca d'Italia, pl. xvii. 1.6... lib. 1. cap. Ixii. Vorage clans le Milanais, &c. par. A. Z. Millin. tom. i. pag. 294. Paris, 1 Ald. Manul.ce neatkan ube agroque, ap. Saliengre, Theaurun
1 Ajout the middle of the Xilth century the coins of Mantun bore on
i. p. 773.