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same thing, we hesitate not to adopt it. after suffering by its means a long We mean, that hereditary succession series of internal commotions, erased appears to us essential to the existence at length from the list of independent of legal and limited monarchy. This states. If these dissensions do not lead form of government is altogether inde- to the domination of a foreign power, pendent of the personal character and they can scarcely fail to pave the way qualities of the prince. Any extraordi- for military ascendancy, that power to nary degree, indeed, of activity and po- whose fatal predominance a popular pularity on his part is not only unneces- state is continually exposed. We are sary, butis directly contrary to the spirit aware, that the case of the United of such a government. These dispo- States is quoted, in which a temporary sitions would inevitably prompt efforts and removeable magistrate has perto enlarge his prerogative, and would formed the executive functions in a favour success in this pernicious un sufficiently respectable manner, and dertaking. The hereditary monarch, without any tumultuary canvas. Amelike others fixed by birth in any high rica, however, is in a very different fortune, is likely to be a man of easy state of society from any European temper, indolent habits, without much country, and above all from Britain. vigour in action, disposed to enjoy life, She has a smaller population dispersed and more anxious to preserve what he over four or five times the extent of has, than to acquire more. He may, territory; no immense fortunes, no no doubt, be occasionally acted upon overgrown capitals, no masses of poor by the natural desire of power, and of and corrupted populace. In such a gaining his ends ; but whenever he en. society, a much lighter pressure of counters any serious opposition, will power will restrain the tumultuary seldom put all to hazard, rather than principles, than amid the crowded yield. Inheriting a fixed and great cities of Europe. America, besides, place, he is more desirous to preserve has never yet been involved in any than to extend it. He, on the con- protracted war, which could form a trary, who rises from an inferior station veteran standing army, or a comman. to supreme power, is active, restless, der of high name and popularity.. enterprizing; the habit of acquiring Yet unless the era be really come, renders him still dissatisfied, while when men are finally to beat their spears there is yet a higher place to be ob- into pruning-hooks, these can scarcetained. Such a prince would be much ly fail to arise ; and already, indeed, less disposed to confine himself within America has only been prevented from the limits of prerogative, and submit engaging in a long war, by the want to the controul of a popular assembly. of an enemy with whom she could hope A more serious evil still exists in the to contend. Such an enemy, and such dissensions which must be generated a chief once formed, could only, we among those who contend for so bril- conceive, be kept down to their proliant å prize. Europe has had full per place by the weight of a hereditary opportunity to observe the tendencies executive head; otherwise they could of elective monarchy. She has seen scarcely fail to become the ruling one of her most powerful kingdoms, power in the state.

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The war of independence was carried on by militia, for even those considered as regular soldiers, were enlisted for so short a time as to come really under that description; besides, that the nation stood then much lower still as to wealth and population.

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If there be any truth in these views fallacious. We conceive it undeniable of the subject, we leave the popular wri, that expediency, the tendency to proters to consider, how far the studied mote the welfare of the society, must obloquy and derision which they con. be the main part of the merits of tinually throw on every thing connect- any representative system. It may ed with royalty, is or is not conducive not then appear very illiberal to assert, to the true interests of freedom. A as a leading principle of expediency, tendency to the vices of self-indulgence that the administration should be chiefis certainly an evil to which heredi. ly in the hands of the most enlightened tary princes, like others unfortunately and best informed part of the commusurrounded with too ample means of nity. The interest of all the orders gratification, are liable. There have of society is so linked together, that no doubt been brilliant exceptions; and, scarcely one of them, if they know after all, these vices have been more gross well what they are doing, will injure and conspicuous in individuals raised the rest. Do we not see how Russia to the throne from a private station. has flourished under a despotic governStill they are prevalent failings of he- ment, because that government has reditary princes, and, in point of ex. imported, and as yet chiefly monopo. ample, have certainly a pernicious in lized the knowledge of more improved Auence. Although, therefore, in a he countries? We would never compare reditary limited monarchy, the general the Russian people to one, a large proand salutary rule be, to abstain from the portion of which are qualified to exerperson of the monarch, yet we should cise a free voice in public deliberations. not be sorry on such points to see the Still, being such as it is, who can doubt application of a little "grave rebuke," that, with a different government, it which, if it could not be expected to would have been a century back in ci. fall with much weight on the quarter vilization ? England, more happy, pos. towards which it was pointed, might sesses a large body of citizens, who are yet tend to preserve unaltered, in the capable of the salutary and ennobling minds of the nation, the distinctions of exercise of deliberating for the public right and wrong. This, however, weal. Still, if we consider cultivation ought, we conceive, to be done with of mind, as a requisite for the exercise an anxious care to avoid throwing con- of political functions, we must at pretempt on the

person and office of the sent in Britain, as in every other coundistinguished individual thus animad- try, restrict them to a minority. We verted on, not, as usual, for the express are not among those who would for purpose of producing that effect. ever doom to ignorance, as well as

The next particular in which a toil, that portion of the society which change is still more pointedly and ear. subsists by manual labour. We see Destly demanded, is the state of the no obstacle to their attaining one day pational representation. The system a considerable extent of intellectual called for by the mass of the people is, culture ; we have no doubt of their do. and always must be, one and the same ing so ; but we expect it, like all the -universal suffrage. The fact is, this great processes of nature, to take place system is so natural and plausible, that only gradually, and after the lapse of we ought not too much to blame raw ages. Knowledge, it is true, is beginpoliticians for deeming it the best. In ning to dawn on all the dark corners of theory it seems to be so ; but in poli- the earth. Multitudes who never read tical affairs, first views are extremely before, read now, and are making use

VOL. XI. PART 1.

B

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of their newly acquired facalty, by de. blind passion of the numerous classes
voting themselves to political discussion to whom their sheets are addressed.
and inquiry. But, though we see much All things then considered, we scarce-
to make this class of persons suppose ly hesitate to conclude, that the mea-
themselves fit for the task of legisla. sure of knowledge and politicalinquiry
tion, we see very little to make them newly diffused among the less enlighte
really fit. This early dawn, shewing on. ened orders, is, for the present, rather
ly the dim erroneous surfaces of things, a disqualification than otherwise for
is more deceitful than even the dark. the exercise of any high political func-
ness which it has begun to dispel. One tions. The discussion of such sub-
feature which invariably accompanies jects, if conducted at least in a some-
the decisions of unexperienced intellect what different style from the present,
on any new subject, is an unbounded may give, indeed, a certain enlarge-
confidence in its own hasty decisions. ment to their mind, and may lead ul-
Thus no one judges himself fitted, timately to farther improvements. Let
without a long previous apprentice- the mechanic decide the fate of em-
ship, to manufacture a loaf of bread, pires over his pot of ale ; but let him
or a web of clotk-most useful opera. not yet seek, by his decision, to regu.
tions, and demanding, we believe, a late the destinies of the world.
greater share of intellectual exertion Upon the grounds now stated, we
than is commonly supposed ; yet they may be enabled to form an opinion as
can scarcely be supposed so very much to the expediency of general suffrage.
easier than the task of giving laws to

Its evident and inevitable tendency nations, that the latter may be taken must be to throw the whole power up at once without pains or study. It into the hands of the uninstructed seems now supposed, not only that classes ; of those whose education and the legislator, like the poet, is born, habits disqualify them for forming an but that while a select few only are opinion on those high and complicated bora poets, all are born legislators. questions submitted to legislative disUnfortunately there is no science in cussion. Those better qualified, by which first appearances are so decei- leisure and education, for the task, ving as in politics and political econo- must be so far completely outnumber my; nor any class of measures which ed, that their voice would have scarceso often terminate in the direct con- ly any weight in the decision. The trary of their obvious and apparent multitude, indeed, will, by several irtendency. The consequence is, that resistible causes, be prevented from the unexperienced politician not only chusing representatives from among is very uncertain of being in the right, themselves; but they will easily find in but has many chances of being in the another class, proper organs, who wil} wrong.

His

eager zeal too for these court their favour by adopting and inlittle-pondered opinions, and his infu- ftaming all their passions and prejuriate rage against all who in any shape dices. The councils of the nation, dissent from them, preclude all prospect dictated from the ale-house and the of an

an error once committed being ever smithy, could scarcely fail to bear retrieved. Far less are his eyes ever some stamp of the scenes amidst which likely to be opened by the political they originated. The opulent classes, oracles to whose responses he listens ; indeed, find sometimes à remedy, by and who, as already observed, know keeping the labouring population in their trade too well not to use all their such a state of depression and depend. arts to inflame, instead of calming every ence as may entirely deprive them of

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the exercise of their free will in voting. constitution from taking root in the Such a system, we believe, is carried nation, and in paralyzing, at a critical on to a certain extent in England, and moment, any efforts for its preservato a much greater among the landed tion. We do not then wish the sway proprietors of Ireland. It is a remedy, of the lower orders, in the national however, still worse than the disease, councils, to be increased, but neither being attended with the deepest de- do we desire that what they have pression, intellectual and economical, should be taken from them. There both to the persons endowed with this may appear room even for a certain vain privilege, and to the nation in ge- degree of local adjustment between the neral.

places which have lost their populaFrom the whole of these considera. tion, and those which have gained a retions we are led to believe, that there markable accession. A town has not is nothing clamant in the state of Bri- perhaps very much reason to complain tish representation, and that it is very of non-representation, if others, placed fairly calculated to embody the sense in the same situation, and having the of the respectable and intelligent part same interests with itself, are represent, of the nation. We should hesitate, in ed. But there appears to be a class of fact, in wishing to see it reformed up- newly-formed manufacturing establishon any systematic and theoretical prin- ments, which stand almost by themciple, even the most accordant with selves, and have no means to secure a our own general views. There appear guardian of their interests in the nato exist in the present system useful tional assembly. However apocryphal anomalies, which it would be absurd the authority may appear to many of to introduce deliberately, but which, our readers, we should perhaps strongbeing there, ought to remain. Thusly object to the very moderate and raalthough we consider a certain measure tional plan laid down in a late number of property, as in the present state of of the Edinburgh Review. The views society, naturally connected with the now given, however, would obviously information and intelligence requisite involve a dissent from the idea, that for the due exercise of elective func- the principle of such alteration should tions

, we doubt the expediency of a be the reduction of the power of the rigid and total exclusion, even of the crown, still less the extension of the lowest ranks. It is probably expedient elective franchise to the less educated that the multitude, though in a par- and informed classes. Amply suffitial and irregular manner, should have cient, in this last respect, appears to some organs in the House, who may have been done by the fall in the va. plead their cause, and compensate for lue of money, which has reduced althe smallness of their numbers by their most to nothing the original freehold zeal, and the large body by which they qualification of two pounds a-year. are backed. By their orations, even At the same time, those who view though noisy and turbulent, they may things on the whole as well, and reforce into view those interests of their gard with alarm any

sudden and exconstituents, which might otherwise be tensive change, may yet concur in the overlooked ; their clamour may even correction of striking and palpable serve as a substitute for more perilous abuses, on single and special grounds, external tumults. It may be questioned, without any shock to the general syswhether the want of this might not tem. have its effect in preventing the French

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CHAPTER II.

OPENING OF PARLIAMENT.

Speech of the Prince Regent.--Attack on his Royal Highness.- Proceedings in

Parliament upon this subject.-Debates on the Address in the House of Lords - In the House of Commons.

The first event by which the year was territory of Algiers, and to the renundistinguished was the meeting of par- ciation by its government of the prac. liament. The session proved a very tice of Christian slavery. I am perbusy one, and marked by the vehe- suaded that you will be duly sensible mence of its political conflicts. The of the importance of an arrangement meeting took place on the 28th Janu. so interesting to humanity, and reflectary. The views and intentions of go- ing, from the manner in which it has vernment were as usual announced by been accomplished, such signal honour the speech from the throne, which it to the British nation. In India, the will therefore, we conceive, be satis- refusal of the government of Nepaul factory to give at full length. to ratify a treaty of peace which had

« My Lords and Gentlemen, been signed by its plenipotentiaries, It is with deep regret that I am occasioned a renewal of military opeobliged to announce to you, that no rations. The judicious arrangements alteration has occurred in the state of of the governor-general, seconded by his Majesty's lamented indisposition. the bravery and perseverance of his I continue to receive from foreign Majesty's forces, and of those of the powers the strongest assurances of East India Company, brought the their friendly disposition towards this campaign to a speedy and successful country, and of their earnest desire to issue ; and peace has been finally estamaintain the general tranquillity. The blished upon the just and honourable hostilities to which I was compelled to terms of the original treaty." resort, in vindication of the honour of “Gentlemen of the House of Commons, the country against the government of I have directed the estimates for the Algiers, have been attended with the current year to be laid before you. most complete success. The splendid They have been formed upon a full achievements of his Majesty's fleet, in consideration of all the present circonjunction with a squadron of the cumstances of the country, with an King of the Netherlands, uuder the anxious desire to make every reduction gallant and able conduct of Admiral in our establishments which the safety Viscount Exmouth, led to the imme. of the empire and sound policy allow. diate and unconditional liberation of I recommend the state of the public all Christian captives then within the income and expenditure to your early

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