sewing machine, the photographic art, tubular and suspension bridges, the telephone, the spectroscope, and the myriad forms of new applications of science to health and domestic comfort, to the arts of peace and war, have alone rendered democracy possible. — J. J. INGALLS.

CASE III. — Questions that cannot be answered by “Yes” or “No” take the falling slide.

Who were there?
I pray you, who is he?
Why do you go away?

CASE IV. — Exclamations and commands take the fall. ing slide.

Farewell, sweet child, farewell!—MACAULAY.

Oh! the side glance of that detested eye
That conscious smile ! that full insulting lip!
It touches every nerve; it makes me mad — BAILLIE.

Then, sing ye birds, sing, sing a joyous song!
And let the young lambs bound
As to the tabor's sound!
We in thought will join your throng,
Ye that pipe and ye that play,
Ye that through your hearts to-day
Feel the gladness of the May!—WoRDsworth.

EXERCISES 65. Practice the following with strong inflection and volume:

Ship ahoy!
Forward the light brigade!
Charge, Chester, charge!
On, Stanley, on!
The foe! They come! They come !
To arms! They come ! The Greek! The Greek

66. Extend the arms horizontally in front; rotate the hands from the wrists without moving the fingers. First start the hands inward and after eight counts reverse them.



IN watching a skillful orator, one notices that on certain sentiments his gestures seek a high plane, while on certain others they seek a low plane. When should a gesture be made upward, and when downward 2 This is governed by definite laws, which are given below. All the different gestures, ranging from that of the hand pointing straight upward to that of the hand pointing straight downward, may be divided into three zones, or planes: The upper gone or plane, the middle gone or plane and the lower gone or plane. These occupy each about one third the distance covered, the middle zone, perhaps, being a little narrower than the other two. The upper gone is used to denote things that are joyous, hopeful, triumphant, patriotic, poetical, spiritual, etc. Examples:

FIG. 52. The planes of gesture.

God bless our country's flag And God be with us, now and ever, God in the roof tree's shade and God on the highway, God in the wind and waves, and God in all our hearts — HENRY WATTERSON.


While the Union lasts, we have high, exciting, gratifying prospects spread out before us, for us and our children. Beyond that I seek not to penetrate the veil. God grant that, in my day, at least, that curtain may not rise! God grant that on my vision never may be opened what lies behind ' When my eyes shall be turned to behold, for the last time, the sun in heaven, may I not see him shining on the broken and dishonored fragments of a once glorious Union; on States dissevered, discordant, belligerent; on a land rent with civil feuds, or drenched, it may be, with fraternal blood | Let their last feeble and lingering glance rather behold the gorgeous ensign of the Republic, now known and honored throughout the earth, still full high advanced, its arms and trophies streaming in their original luster, not a stripe erased or polluted, nor a single star obscured; bearing for its motto, no such miserable interrogatory as, “What is all this worth?” nor those other words of delusion and folly, “Liberty first, and Union afterwards”; but everywhere, spread all over in characters of living light, blazing on all its ample folds, as they float over the sea and over the land, and in every wind under the whole heavens, that other sentiment, dear to every true American heart, “Liberty and Union, now and forever, one and inseparable !” — WEBSTER.

The middle gone is used for narration, description, address, welcome, command, conciliation, etc. It is the zone most generally used for all the relations that a man bears to his fellow-men. Examples:

The time is come, the tyrant points his eager hand this way;
See how his eyes gloat on thy grief, like a kite's upon the prey;
With all his wit, he little deems that, spurned, betrayed, bereft,
Thy father hath, in his despair, one fearful refuge left;
He little deems that in this hand, I clutch what still can save
Thy gentle youth from taunts and blows, the portion of the slave;
Yes, and from nameless evil, that passeth taunt and blow, -
Foul outrage, which thou knowest not, — which thou shalt never know.
Then clasp me round the neck once more, and give me one more kiss ;
And now, my own dear little girl, there is no way but this!

— MACAULAY. “Halt!”— the dust-brown ranks stood fast; “Fire!”— out blazed the rifle blast. — WHITTIER.

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Within our own territory, stretching through many degrees of latitude and longitude, we have the choice of many products and many means of independence. The government is mild. The press is free. Religion is free. Knowledge reaches or may reach every home. What fairer prospect of success could be presented? What means more adequate to accomplish the sublime end? — STORY.

The lower zone or plane, is used for things emphatic, forceful, determined; also for gloom, doubt, hate, revenge, murder, etc. Examples:

I loathe ye in my bosom,
I scorn ye with mine eye,

And I'll taunt ye with my latest breath,
And fight ye till I die 1 — PATTEN.

But you, wretch you could creep through the world unaffected by its various disgraces, its ineffable miseries, its constantly accumulating masses of crime and sorrow; — you could live and enjoy yourself while the noble minded were betrayed, - while the nameless and birthless villains trod on the neck of the brave and long-descended: you could enjoy yourself like a butcher's dog in the shambles, fattening on garbage, while the slaughter of the brave went on around you ! This enjoyment you shall not live to partake of : you shall die, base dog — and that before yon cloud has passed over the sun

EXERCISES 67. Give the following sentences with gestures in the proper planes.

He generously extended the arm of power to ward off the blow.
Thou tempting fiend, avaunt!

I repel the base insinuation!
Aspire to the highest and noblest sentiments.
Prevail in the cause that is dearer than life,
Or be crushed in its ruins to die.

68. Execute the hand with the palm down, the hand with the palm up, and the clenched hand, singly with each hand, and then with both hands, in all the zones, obliquely to the right, in front, and obliquely to the left. Write out the sentiments that occur when you do this, and bring them to class. You may give the words, if you prefer them to the sentiments. Tell where each gesture was made for each set of words.



IT must be evident to the student, from what has gone before, that the voice in speaking is continually taking steps and slides up and down, in various combinations. This is called the Melody of Speech. Two combinations of the slides are given below.

Contrasts. – Wherever there are two terms contrasted, the first takes the rising slide, and the second the falling slide. If there is a choice given between three, the first two take the rising and the last the falling. Examples:

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Will you go to the theater, to the party, or to the beach?

Interrupted quotation. — Often such phrases as “he said,” or “said he with embarrassment,” etc., interrupt a quotation. In such cases let the slides of the interrupting words have the same direction as that on the last preceding word of the quotation. Of course the slides need not be as long. Examples:

“Now, Fred,” said the trapper, “the time is sartinly come for us to show the grit that's in us.”

“How far behind is John Norton?” said the man on the wharf.


Many more laws for the use of the steps and slides could be given, but usually the mind of the student will determine

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