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FIG. 13. Position of the hands at FIG. 15. “Reaching" in Ex. 22, showthe beginning of Ex. 22. ing also the faults of straight wrists and doubled-up fingers.
LESS ON VI
PRONUNCIATION IN SENTENCES
WHAT has been said in the last two lessons in regard to pronunciation might be enough if we talked by single words. In our everyday use of language, however, we talk by sentences, and this requires us to give attention to some things that we might not need to think about if we used only single words.
First. — In certain abrupt sounds, like AE, p, t, etc., there is a faint sound heard at the end of the letter, — really a little puff of breath. This is called the vocule. In reading or speaking sentences, do not sound this vocule too distinctly. Do not say, He kept-til his hat-fit upon a hook-kit.
Second. — It oftens happens that in reading or speaking one word ends with the same sound with which the next word begins, as
The student took his book and went to the board.
In cases of this kind, pronounce the sentence just as if there were only one letter in place of the two. To pronounce them both leads people to think you are over nice. Third. – In English there are certain letters which have the same position of the mouth, but different sounds, as b and p. When two of these come together, use only one position of the mouth. In the sentence,
He did no harm,
one position between did and no is all that is necessary. If two positions are used, it sounds as if one were trying to attract attention to himself.
Under this topic it may be well for the student to consider carefully the following paragraph, taken from the preface of the New International Dictionary.
STYLES OF SPEAKING SUITED TO VARIOUS OCCASIONS
“The fact that there are several styles of speaking, any one of which may properly be adopted according to circumstances, further complicates the task of producing a pronouncing dictionary. Professional speakers, – actors, clergymen, orators, – in effort to impart great clearness and carrying power to their words, cultivate a style of enunciation that would be considered artificial, pedantic, or affected, if used in ordinary conversation. Dr. Johnson long ago recognized a double standard, for he says in the grammar prefixed to his dictionary, “They (the writers of English grammar) seem not sufficiently to have considered, that of English, as of all living tongues, there is a double pronunciation, one cursory and colloquial, the other regular and solemn.” There are, in reality, several varieties of speaking style, the differences in which are largely dependent upon the rate of utterance. The most formal speech is that used in public oratory, in the acting of certain parts upon the stage, or upon the most solemn occasions. Training in this style, in which weight is given to nearly every syllable, belongs to the teaching of oratory or elocution. For ordinary public speaking, reading aloud, and careful conversation, a style may be employed which makes the unaccented syllables lighter, allowing the vowels contained in them to turn more often toward the neutral vowel sound, & in ov'?r, or, as in the case of unaccented & in added, toward the sound of i in pin. Whatever standard is taken as a model, it should be remembered that the ordinary speech of cultured people is not slovenly, if colloquial weakening is not carried too far. The difference between the pronunciation of a word when taken alone and as it occurs in a sentence should also be carefully kept in mind; thus and considered alone is and, but in such a combination as bread and butter, it is ordinarily weakened to 'nd, or even to 'm ; a in the phrase for a day becomes à (sô'fa), etc.” Fourth. — The accent of words in sentences is not always the same as when they are considered alone. The accent is often changed to show contrast, as,
Man is mortal, God is im'mortal.
Immortal, of course, is generally pronounced im mort'al.
Er'pression depends upon im'pression.
CAUTION. — Sometimes a verb and an adjective are spelled the same way. Be careful to pronounce each correctly. They are not the same word, and each should have its own pronunciation. Example: adjective, – perfect; verb, -perfect'. This also occurs with nouns and verbs. Example: noun, – con'trast; verb, - contrast'. Likewise with nouns and adjectives. Example: adjective, – compact; noun, – compact.
Properly mark, accent, and divide into syllables, the following words:
disputable ennui exhibit finale divan enervate exile financier dolorous envelope exquisite finance drama equipage falcon forehead emendation exemplary February fortnight glamour gladiolus gondola granary gratis handsome hearth hiccough
23. With both hands in front of you, place the fingers of the left hand to the palm of the right, the forearm and the fingers being in a horizon
tal line and forming a right angle with the right forearm and hand. See Figure 17. Now, without bending the fingers, carry the hand to the position shown in Figure 18. From this position lower the hand
until it stands as in Figure 19. Repeat this movement eight times. Do the same with the other hand.