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LESSON VIII

EMPHASIS – Continued

SoMETIMEs one idea is contrasted or compared with another, either in the same sentence, or in sentences close together, or even in sentences quite far apart.

THIRD LAW OF EMPHASIS. —When one idea is contrasted or compared with another, the words which bring out the contrasted ideas should be emphasized.

This law covers several cases: First. Contrast where each side of the contrast has one idea. Examples:

NotE. — The first three of these examples also show contrast in the same sentence, the fourth contrast in sentences close together, and the fifth contrast in sentences far apart.

I know of no way of judging the future, but by the past. PATRICK HENRY.

Men should be what they seem. SHAKESPEARE.

She was a Prince's child,
Z but a Viking wild. — LONGFELLOw.

There is no geography in American manhood. There are no sections in American fraternity. The South claims Lincoln, the immortal, for its own. The Morth has no right to reject Stonewall Jackson, the one typical Puritan soldier of the war, for its own. Nor will it!

Turning to the Cyclopædia of American Biography, I find that Webster had all the vices that are supposed to have signalized the Cavalier, and Calhoun all the virtues that are claimed for the Puritan. During twenty years three statesmen of Puritan origin were chosen party leaders of Cavalier Mississippi: Robert J. Walker, born and reared in Pennsylvania; John A. Quitman, born and reared in New York; and Sargent S. Prentiss, born and reared in the good old state of Maine. That sturdy Puritan, John Slidell, never saw Louisiana until he was old enough to vote and to fight: native here, — an alumnus of Columbia College, – but sprung from New England ancestors. Albert Sidney Johnston, the most resplendent of modern Cavaliers, from tip to toe a type of the species, the very rose and expectancy of the young Confederacy, — did not have a drop of Southern blood in his veins; Yankee on both sides of the house, though born in Kentucky a little after his father and mother arrived there from Connecticut. The ambassador who serves our government near the French Republic was a gallant Confederate soldier and is a representative Southern statesman; but he owns the estate in Massachusetts where his father was born, and where his father's fathers lived through many generations. And the Cavaliers, who missed their stirrups, somehow, and got into Yankee saddles 2 The woods were full of them. If Custer was not a Cavalier, Rupert was a Puritan. And Sherwood, and Wadsworth, and Kearny, and McPherson, and their dashing companions and followers | The one typical Puritan soldier of the war, – mark you, was a Southern, and not a Northern, soldier: Stonewall Jackson, of the Virginia line. And, if we should care to pursue the subject further back, what about Ethan Allen and John Stark and Mad Anthony Wayne, Cavaliers each and every one ! Indeed, from Israel Putnam to Buffalo Bill, it seems to me the Puritans have had rather the best of it in turning out Cavaliers. So the least said about the Puritan and the Cavalier, — except as blessed memories or horrid examples, – the better for historic accuracy. — HENRY WATTERSON.

Second. Contrast where each side of the contrast has two ideas.

My fruit is better than gold, yea, than fine gold; and my revenue than choice silver. Proverbs viii. 19.

Better is a dry morsel and quietness therewith, than a house full of sacrifices with strife. Proverbs xvii. I.

Third. Contrast where each side of the contrast has three ideas.

The darkness of might shall not cover thy treason, — the walls of privacy shall not stifle its voice. CICERO, against Catiline.

Thou shalt soon be made aware that I am even more active in providing for the preservation of the state, than thou in plotting its destruction. — CICERO, against Catiline.

WORDS

receSS refutable reparable research resource respite romance reveille sacerdotal seraglio sergeant sirup slake solace squalid squalor taunt tirade toward transition traverse pronunciation zoölogy partner patronage photographer precedence prelate vaccine visor

EXERCISES

27. Starting with the right hand at the side, carry it up and down at the side in the same way that you carried it up and down in front

FIG. 23. Raising the hands FIG. 24. Lowering the in Ex. 28. hands in Ex. 28.

in Ex. 26. Do the same with the left hand and with both hands. Observe the caution on Ex. 26.

28. In this exercise go through the same motion with the hands that you do in Ex. 27, except carry the arm diagonally in front, as shown in Figures 23 and 24. Do the exercise with the right hand and then with the left. Then with both hands.

[graphic]

LESSON IX

EMPHASIS – Continued

IN any of the cases of contrast, one side of the contrast may be implied, that is, it may be taken for granted. without being expressed.

Contrast with one idea : *

This is a free country. (Implying that there are other countries which are not free.)

Contrast with two ideas:

To-day the Union stands not defended by armed force or frowning fortresses. (Implying that in the past the Union has been defended by armed force, etc.)

Contrast with three ideas :

Rest in peace, great Columbus of the heavens, – like him, scorned, persecuted, broken-hearted 1–in other ages, in distant hemispheres, when the votaries of science, with solemn acts of consecration, shall dedicate their stately edifices to the cause of knowledge and truth, thy name shall be mentioned with honor. EDWARD EveRETT, on Galileo.

(Implying that in that age, and that hemisphere, the votaries of religion did not honor his name.)

In addition to the cases of emphasis already mentioned, there is still another. Oftentimes a speaker utters a series of ideas, - or he may repeat the same idea several times, — getting more and more earnest toward the end. This is called climax.

FOURTH LAw of EMPHASIs. – When a speaker utters a series of ideas, or when he repeats the same idea several times, and there is an increasing earnestness toward the end, the important words of each succeeding increase in earnestness should have a corresponding increase of emphasis. Examples:

Let Heaven and MEN and DEVILS, let them ALL,
ALL, ALL, cry shame against me, yet I’ll speak.

— SHAKESPEARE. I came, I SAw, I CONQUERED. — CAESAR.

You think me a fanatic, for you read history not with your eyes, but with your prejudices. But fifty years hence, when Truth gets a hearing, the Muse of history will put Phocion for the Greek, Brutus for the Roman, Hampden for England, Fayette for France, choose WASHINGTON as the bright consummate flower of OUR earlier civilization, then, dipping her pen in the sunlight, will write in the clear blue, ABOVE THEM ALL, the name of the SOLDIER, the STATESMAN, the MARTYR, TOUSSAINT LOUVERTURE.

— WENDELL PHILLIPS.

NoTE. – In this last example the closing words need not be given louder than the others. Emphasis may consist in lowering the voice. We simply need to give them more prominence in SOME way.

EXERCISES

29. Execute the general movement suggested in Ex. 26 horizontally in front on a level with the waist line, using eight counts.

30. Execute the movement of Ex. 29 on a level with the shoulders and above the head.

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