complete the enterprise already so well commenced ; and since our union with England can no longer consist with that liberty and peace which are our chief delight, let us dissolve these fatal ties and conquer forever that good which we already enjoy – an entire and absolute independence. — RICHARD HENRY LEE.


36. Form the three kinds of index hand, first with the right hand then with the left.

37. With the right hand in the first form of the index, point one after the other to the floor, the window, and the ceiling. Do this first far to the right, and then nearly in front of you. Do the same with the left hand. When you use your right hand, stand with your right foot forward; when you use your left, stand with your left foot forward. As you point, say the words, “The floor, the window, the ceiling.” Be sure to strike on floor, win-, ceil-.

38. Pointing to the wall in front of you near the ceiling, with your right hand, first far to the left, then in the middle, and then far to the right, say, “That corner, the middle, and that corner.” Repeat with the left hand, starting at the extreme right. Change your position when you change hands. Strike on that, mid-, and that.




IT is evident to everyone that we use force in speaking, — we exert power in sending words out from the vocal organs. The way we exert this force is not so commonly observed.

In general, there are three ways of exerting force. 1st. We may apply it gradually, smoothly, evenly, and gently. 2d. We may apply it very abruptly, so that the sound seems to burst forth. 3d. We may apply it as we do in our everyday talk, which is neither gradually and smoothly, nor yet abruptly, but between the two.

We apply force gradually, smoothly, gently, evenly, in such sentiments as reverence, feebleness, suppressed fear, awe, etc., and when our moods are finged with sadness. The way force is applied in these sentiments might very well be represented by a gently rolling swell on the sea or a slowly undulating line such as the following. Example:


Evermore all the days are long, and the cheerless skies are gray, Restlessly wander the baffling winds that scatter the blinding spray, And the drifting currents come and go like serpents across my way.

Wearily fades the evening dim, drearily wears the night.

The ghostly mists and the hurrying clouds and the breakers' crests of white

Have blotted the stars from the desolate skies, – have curtained them from my sight. — ROBERT J. BURDETTE.

Oh, give me the spot that I once used to know .
By the side of the placid old River St. Joe
Where the tall grasses nod at the close of the day,
And the sycamore's shadow is slanting away —
Where the whip-poor-will chants from a far distant limb
Just as if the whole business was all made for him.
Oh it's now that my thoughts, flying back on the wings
Of the rail and the die-away song that he sings,
Bring the tears to my eyes that drip off into rhyme,
And I live once again in the old summer time ; -
For my soul it seems caught in old time's under-tow,
And I'm floating away down the River St. Joe.


So let him lie here to-day, and let our people go and bend with solemn thoughtfulness and look upon his face, and read the lessons of his burial. As he paused here on his journey from the Western home and told us what by the help of God he meant to do, so let him pause on his way back to his Western grave and tell us, with a silence more eloquent than words, how bravely, how truly, by the strength of God, he did it. God brought him up as he brought David up, from the sheep folds, to feed Jacob, his people, and Israel, his inheritance. He came up in earnestness and faith, and he goes back in triumph. As he pauses here to-day, and from his cold lips bids us bear witness how he has met the duty that was laid on him, what can we say out of our full hearts but this, - “He fed them with a faithful and true heart, and ruled them prudently with all his power.”

The Shepherd of the People! that old name that the best rulers have ever craved. What ruler ever wore it like this dead President of ours 1 He fed us faithfully and truly. He fed us with counsel when we were in doubt, with inspiration when we sometimes faltered, with caution when we would be rash, with calm, clear, trusted cheerfulness through many an hour when our hearts were dark. He fed hungry souls all over the country with sympathy and consolation. He spread before the whole land feasts of great duty and devotion and patriotism, on which the land grew strong. He fed us with solemn, solid truths. He taught us the sacredness of government, the wickedness of treason. He made our souls glad and vigorous with the love of liberty that was in his. He showed us how to love truth and yet be charitable, – how to hate wrong and all oppression, and yet not treasure one personal injury or insult. He fed all his people, from the highest to the lowest, from the most privileged down to the most enslaved. Best of all, he fed us with a reverent and genuine religion. He spread before us the love and fear of God just in that shape in which we need them most, and out of his faithful service of a higher Master who of us has not taken and eaten and grown strong “He fed them with a faithful and true heart.” Yes, till the last. For at the last, behold him with hand outstretched to feed the South with Mercy, and the North with Charity, and the whole land with peace, when the Lord who had sent him called him, and his work was done! – PHILLIPS BROOKS on The Character of Lincoln.

We apply force very suddenly and abruptly in great earnestness, joy, defiance, alarm, anger, etc. Example:

Fight, Gentlemen of England! fight, bold yeomen!
Draw, archers, draw your arrows to the head:
Spur your proud horses hard, and ride in blood;
Amaze the welkin with your broken staves.
A thousand hearts are great within my bosom.
Advance our standards, set upon our foes!
Our ancient word of courage, fair Saint George,
Inspire us with the spleen of fiery dragons!
Upon them! Victory sits on our helms.

And then, besides his irreproachable character, he had what is half the power of a popular orator, he had a majestic presence. A little O'Connell would have been no O'Connell at all. In youth he had the brow of a Jupiter and the stature of Apollo. Sydney Smith says of Lord John Russell's five feet, when he went down to Yorkshire after the Reform Bill had passed, the stalwart hunters of Yorkshire exclaimed, “What, that little shrimp, he carry the Reform Bill!” “No, No!” said Smith, “he was a large man, but the labors of the bill shrunk him.” I remember the story Russell tells of Webster; when a year or two before his death, the Whig party thought of dissolution, Webster came home from Washington and went down to Faneuil Hall to protest, and four thousand of his fellow Whigs came out; drawing himself up to his loftiest proportion, his brow charged with thunder, before the listening thousands, he said, “Gentlemen, I am a Whig, a Massachusetts Whig, a Faneuil Hall Whig, a constitutional Whig, a revolutionary Whig. If you break up the Whig party, sir, where am I to go?” And, says Lowell, “We all held our breath, thinking where he could go. But if he had been five feet three, we should have said, “‘Who cares where you go?’” Well, O'Connell had all that; and true nature seemed to be speaking all over him. It would have been a pleasure even to look at him if he had not spoken at all, and all you thought of was a greyhound. And then he had what so few American speakers have, a voice that sounded the gamut. I heard him once in Exeter Hall say, “Americans, I send my voice careering across the Atlantic like a thunderstorm, to tell the slave holders of the Carolinas that God's thunderbolts are hot, and to remind the negro that the dawn of his redemption is drawing near,” and I seemed to hear his voice reverberating and reëchoing back to Boston from the Rocky Mountains.

— WENDELL PHILLIPs, on Daniel O'Connell.

The third method of applying force scarcely needs illustration. It is that which we use in our ordinary thoughts and feelings, for narration, patriotism, gladness, etc. Example:

It is now forty years since I first saw and heard Abraham Lincoln, but the impression which he left on my mind is ineffaceable. After his great successes in the West, he came to New York to make a political address. He appeared in every sense of the word like one of the plain people among whom he loved to be counted. At first sight, there was nothing impressing and imposing about him. His clothes hung awkwardly on his giant frame. His seamed and rugged features bore the furrows of hardship and struggle. As he talked to me before the meeting, he seemed ill at ease, with that sort of apprehension which a young man might feel before presenting himself to a new and strange audience, whose critical disposition he dreaded. — JOSEPH H. CHOATE.


39. Give the following words with a gently swelling utterance, and then allow them to die away.

lone moan roar gloaming foaming roaming break cold gray StoneS Sea twilight Star call

40. Give the following words in an utterance that breaks forth all at Once.

back dog go pull Cannon tack down peace turn strike false blasphemer

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