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Yonder clump of trees.
That strip of woods that borders the field.
From this house over to that one.
I will heap up this sand into a little mound.
Blessings on thee, little man,
Barefoot boy with cheek of tan!— WHITTIER.

Pause, I entreat you; consider for a moment what reasons you can give to your fellow sufferers in this calamity that it will bring upon us. What reasons can you give to the nations of the earth to justify it 2 They will be the calm and deliberate judges in this case; and to what cause or overt act can you point on which to rest the plea of justification? What right has the North assailed? What interest of the South has been invaded ? What justice has been denied ? And what claim founded upon justice and right has been withheld? Can you today name one governmental act of wrong deliberately and purposely done by the Government at Washington of which the South has a right to complain P – A. H. STEPHENS, in Plea Against Secession.

THE OPEN HAND WITH PALM UP

Just opposite to the open hand with palm down, and in many cases, opposite to it in meaning, is the open hand with palm up. This hand is formed by turning the hand so that the palm is up, and allowing the forefinger to drop below the middle finger, at the same time letting the whole hand droop slightly from the wrist.

CAUTION No. 1. — Be sure to get the fingers fully unrolled. Do not have them bent in toward the palm. - Avoid, however, the extreme of having FIG. 35. The proper form the hand flat. (See Fig. 36.)

of a gesture with the palm CAUTION No. 2. — Do not get a

of the hand up. “cup" hand; that is, do not get too deep a palm, -open the palm part of the hand farther. (See Fig. 38.)

[graphic]

FIG. 36. Fingers not un- FIG. 37. Fingers plas- FIG. 38. The “cup" rolled. tered together. hand.

FIG. 39. Thumb allowed FIG. 40. Fingers spread. to fall in toward the palm.

Some common faults in the formation of the hand with palm up.

[graphic]
[graphic]

CAUTION No. 3. — Do not let the thumb fall in toward the palm. Keep it out to the side. (See Fig. 39.)

CAUTION No. 4. — Do not plaster the fingers, nor yet spread them. (See Figs. 37 and 40.)

CAUTION No. 5. — Do not forget the stroke. Every

gesture must have a stroke. Let there be a slight unrolling of the fingers as the stroke is made.

CAUTION No. 6. – When one gesture follows close upon, another, it is not necessary to recover the hand fully each

FIG. 41. “Reaching” for a gesture FIG. 42. A correct use of the gesture

with the palm up — a common fault. with the palm up — the body erect and a bend in the arm at both the elbow and wrist.

time. It may just be given little succeeding strokes on the following emphatic words by an impulse from the elbow.

[graphic]

CAUTION No. 7. — The palm should neither be horizontal nor vertical, but about halfway between, – at an angle of about 45°.

CAUTION No. 8. —Do not allow the gesture to pull you forward, as shown in Figure 41. Keep erect, as in Figure 42, and remember to keep a bend at the elbow and also at the wrist.

This gesture is used in asking, giving, receiving, welcoming, asserting, revealing, explaining; also in humility, concession, and the like. Examples:

Give it to me.

Take it.

Let me ask, then, what is the chief business of war 2 It is to destroy human life; to mangle the limbs; to gnash and hew the body; to plunge the sword into the heart of a fellow creature; to strew the earth with bleeding frames, and to trample them under foot with horses' hoofs. It is to batter down and burn cities; to turn fruitful fields into deserts; to level the cottage of the peasant and the magnificent abode of opulence; to scourge nations with famine; to multiply widows and orphans. – CHANNING.

EXERCISES

41. Give the hand, palm up, with the right hand toward the floor, the window, and the ceiling, first far to the right and then nearly in front of you. Stand with the right foot forward for this. Say the words, “The floor, the window, and the ceiling,” as you make the gestures.

42. Give the hand, palm up, with the left hand toward the floor, the window, and the ceiling, first far to the left and then nearly in front of . you. Stand with the left foot forward for this. Say the words as in Ex. 41.

43. Execute Ex. 41 with the hand, palm down.

44 Execute Ex. 42 with the hand, palm down.

45. Try the hand, palm up and palm down, in all sorts of positions and directions. Say the words that arise in your mind when you make some of these gestures.

LESS ON XX

MORE SUGGESTIONS ABOUT ACTUAL SPEAKING

As you sit on the platform. – If you are seated on the platform before beginning your speech, – which is generally the best plan, for then you become rather used to the audience before you speak, -it is well to be careful not to sit in a slouchy manner. Do not be too prim, but do not be slovenly. As it comes nearer your turn to speak, be sure to get your feet in one of the easy positions for speaking.

Addressing the chairman. — When the chairman has announced your subject and has called your name, he will generally turn toward you. As he turns, rise to your full height and make a little nod, saying aloud, or partially aloud, the words, “Mr. Chairman.” As you make the nod, incline the body just a trifle from the waist. Be careful not to make too formal a bow out of this. Just make a respectful nod.

Getting forward to your audience. — After you have addressed the chair, walk easily to the front part of the platform, gradually shortening your steps, and slowing them down, until you drop easily into one of the ordinary speaking positions. Wait until your audience gets quiet before you begin. Do not make a bow to the audience unless you are very well known and a general favorite and the applause is very much prolonged. Stand still till you have perfect quiet. This will help your audience hear your first words, which are often important, and it will also enable you to get a little more at ease.

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