written minute in the council of for the service of the artillery, or Madras, and in terms which shew a sufficient number of those naa full conviction, that, notwith- tive coolies, or porters, who are Standing the affair of Mahie and necessary to all armies in that all other subjects of jealousy cr country, for the purpose of affift. difference, peace might not only ing in the conveyacce both of have been still preserved, but an baggage and provisions. He at advantageous and firm alliance the same time declared, that he concluded between him and the had neither treasures nor cavalry Company, if it had not been for upon which he could found a hope the uptoward measures pursued of making an effeétual resistance. with Bazalet Jung relative to the The nabob's intelligence and adGuntoor circar. From that time vice were both good, but his rootindeed, Hyder held no reserve in ed enmity to Hyder Ally rendeclaring his sentiments with re- dered thein suspected, and probaipect to the government of Ma- bly, not always without reason.

He had long urged the prefidency Although the Nabob of Arcot to an alliance with the Marattas was most sham fully and culpably against Hyder; a proposal, which negligent n every thing that de. if it had been otherwise approved pended upon himself relative to of, the measures pursued on the preparation and defence, yet he other side' of India would have renwas a vigilant watchman with re- dered impracticable. (peat to the presidency, and gave · Towards the close of the year them repeated warnings of the ap- 1779, the prefdency received inproaching danger. He had been telligence from the nabob of the early in advising the wholesome peace concluded between Hyder measure of diawing the troops and the Marattas, with some faint together in the Carnatic, and of sketch of the alliance formed beforming one or two camps in such tween thofe powers and the Nipolitions as would appear the best zam against the English. This was calculated for preterving the com- not at first credited; but by the munications, and for protecting end of the year was too well conthe country in case of invasion. firmed. Although the nature and He stated, in support of his ad- extent of the new confederacy vice, the fuddenness of the irrup. were not exactly known, yet, as tion, if it took place, and the rathings stood, a peace of any sort pidity with which the enemy's between Hyder and the Marattas, horse would overspread the coun- might have been considered as the try; the difficulty and danger fignal of a war with the former. which would, then attend every Though this seemed in some fort attempt to collect the troops, if to be understood at Madras, and they lay scattered in remote quar- that the ruinous consequences of ters; and, what would be icarcely an invasion of the Carnatic were lefs pernicious, the impracticabi- fully displayei in their correfponia lity of procuring, under the gene- dence with Bengal, yet that goral impression of terror, bulocks vernment relied To much upon an (which are generally used in India) accommodation between the other

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presidencies and the Marattas, as' " is right to act in all things with the certain means of averting the “ prudence and foresight." evil, that it perhaps Nackened their 'Notwithstanding these circumendeavours to provide for the stances, it appears by a letter from last extremity in cafe of failure. the president to the court of diThey did not believe that Hyder rectors, in the following month would have ventured upon a war, of February, that all apprehen. if the disputes with the Marattas fions of a war with Hyder was were fettled (an opinion which, then over at the presidency. But however, appears sufficiently pro- a letter which Hyder fent in the blematical); and they perhaps de- following month to v pended too much upon the ac- the president, was con- commodating spirit of the other fidered by Admiral Sir "ou. parties.

Edward Hughes (who commandThe governor of Fort St. George ed the British squadron in the Inhad already employed a private dian feas) as containing such eviperson to convey a letter to and dent testimonies of his hostile dirto open a secret negociation with position, that he thought it his Hyder, hoping by a direct per- duty to dispatch a copy of it home fonal communication, to be able to the secretary of state. This to settle or remove the existing letter contained a short but exdifferences, and at any rate to ac. plicit detail of various causes of quire a real knowledge of his sen- complaint which he had exhibited timents. Hyder's answer to his against that government, from the letter, corresponded with the cold conclufion of the treaty in the and haughty manner in which he year 1769, to the prefent time, treated the bearer of it. He ob- and conveyed in a language and served, that when a friendship, manner, which not only thewed confirmed by a solid treaty, had that those injuries were fresh in fubfifted between the Company and memory, but likewife expressed a him, he imagined it would daily strong sense of their not being yet increase, and not have been broken accounted for. It concludes with through, as he asserted it had been the following expoftulation : on our side. He said, that out of “ When tuch improper conduct consideration for the friendship of « is pursued, what engagements the king of England and the Com- '" will remain inviolate? I leave pany, whom he had considered as “ it to the judgment of you and one, but now thought otherwise, “ your council to determine, on he had not yet taken vengeance: 66 whose part the engagements and He concluded in the following ab- “.promises have been infringed." rupt sentences : " It is no mat- . He expressed himself to the * ter ! But if you, henceforth for. Tame purpore, in a letter of answer

getting all treaties and engage. which he had written a short time “ments of the Company, still are before to Bombay, relative to some « intent on breaking with me, English gentlemen who had been " what advantage can attend writ. imprisoned in his dominions, and 6 ing to you? - You are ac- whom he released upon the appli*6 quainted with every thing; it cativo of that presidency, he in

formed formed them; after stating his and he was so deeply in arrear to complaints, that he had given his officers and troops, that all orders to his officers to oppose by discipline and order had long been arms any future encroachment on at an end, and mutiny and desere his territories, by the government tion everywhere prevailed in his of Madras; but, as there were no army. His cavalry, in particular, differences between him and Bom- were totally ruined. They debay, he declared, that his resent. serted, that is to say, they marched ments thould fall only on those who off at noon-day with their horses #ere the authors of injustice and arms by whole regiments,

Such were the indications of the His best regiment of horse was, in future storin. As the summer ad- these circumstances, recovered and vanced, every thing was in motion brought back by the generosity in Hyder's doininions. Large bo- and public spirit of a British milidies of his troops were assembled tary officer, who advanced his on the borders of the Carnatic, whole fortune for the payment of particularly in the neigbourhood their arrears. This gentleman beof those gauts, or difficult palles ing afterwards obliged to return through the mountains, which af- to England for the recovery of his · ford the only means to an army health, was exceedingly distresled of penetrating into that country; for the money, which he had so great magazines were formed, ar- applied, until it was advanced on tillery, and all the equipments of the nabob's account, by the go. war brought forward; Hyder him- vernment of Madras. self advanced from his capital of On the other side, the governStringapatam to the frontiers; and ment of Madras had a gallant and the moft evident marks were dif- well-disciplined army, amounting played on all hands of the ap- to something about 30,000 effecproaching danger.

tive men ; and had been lately In this state of things, the means reinforced by the arrival of Lord, of defcace provided by the go- Macleod, with a new raifed regi. vernment of Madras and the ment of a thousand men froin Nabob-of Arcot, in order to pre- England. But this force, which serve the Carnatic, were not by would have been so considerable any means fo abundant as might in its effect, if collceted and act. have been desired. It is necessary ing in a body, was rendered weak however to relate the filuation of and inert, by its being broken both

into small parties, dispersed at That prince, through the ill great distances, whether in quar. government of his affairs, and a ters, garrisons, or upon various dilipation of his treasures (for detached services. A considerable

which it is difficult to account) party, but much more so with - was in debt to all the world; to respect to the nature and value of

the Company, to his army, and to the troops than their number, were, individuals. He borrowed from in this season of danger, sent to all who would lend, and never assist Geir. Goddard in the Guze. paid. His garrisons were without rat war. The application from itores, ammunition, or provisions; Bengal for this reinforcement,

were, were, however, too urgent not to support as well as their own. be complied with. Others were His plea of inability and poverty, in garrison on the Malabar coast; though treated as too incompreand a very valuable detachment henable to be credited, brought out was in the Guntoor circar, under much severe reproof from the prethe conduct of Col. Baillie. Those fident, relative to the unaccountable immediately in the Carnatic were ill conduct which could poflibly dispersed in the manner we have be- produce such a state of his affairs. fore observed. A scarcity of money The presidency seemed however ufually fupcrinduces every other to have given no farther credit to want. This misfortune now pre- the various intelligence received, vailed; and the troops were gene- than was necellary for making it rally destitute of all those necella- the ground of their remonstrances. ries and means which could enable All accounts of Hyder's designs, them to take the field.

and of the movements of his forces, Whether it proceeded from a were not only slighted, but at the Mhame of expoling his ill conduet, last, and when he had actually peor from some ftrange pride or jea- netrated into the Carnatic, the lousy, no account could be ob- first intelligence of the invasion tained from the nabob, either now was treated with the highest conor for some years back, though tenipt at Madras; so that the carnestly urged by the presidency, burning of Conjeveram, four days of his military establiment, or after his entering the country, and the state or number of his troops, the arrival of some of his horie It was, however, known, that the in the neighbourhood of Madras, wfual eftablisbient of his ariny were the first evidences of danger at fome former periods, was about that were admitted. 35,000 men: a number which, Two members, however, of the if only in tolerable condition, that, council had repeatedly endeajoined to the Company's forces, voured to awaken the majority to would have fecured the Carnatic a sense of the common danger; against any invasion. But indeed, and particularly to collect the the behaviour of the officers and troops and adopt other measures troops, rendered their number of of preparation, necessary to the little consequence. It is to be ob- defence and protection of the ferved, that upon the repeated in- country. Another member of the telligence which the nabob con- council, but not of the felect comveyed of Hyder's deligns or move- mittee, in a minute which he dements, he was as constantly urged livered a few days after the invaand warned by the prefidency to lion, declared, without reserve, be prepared for the worst that could That they had been long aphappen; not only by having his proaching to that unhappy state army, forts, and garrisons, well at which they were now arrived ; fupplied and in good condition, that private mismanagement, and but by discharging the large debts not public calamity, had brought and arrears which he owed to the them to the brink of destruction; Company, and thereby enabling that Hyder had long treated them them to act with vigour in his with reglect and insult; that he


had for several months been af. The two gentlemen of the le. sembling a large army on the lect committee, whom we have frontiers, while his vakeel (or re- before mentioned (Mr. Johnson fident) was allowed to remain at and Mr. Smith) strongly opposed Madras, to give him daily intelli- and protested against the act of gence of the effect his motions had suspension, which they represented upon that government, which re- as irregular, violent, and unjust. mained inactive, and had neither They declared that the repre. resolution to question him about fentation made by Mr. Sadlier, his intentions, or wisdom to pro- agreed in many particulars with vide against the danger. That their own sentiments; that this they had suffered their troops to would fully appear from their remain scattered in different parts former remonstrances upon the of the country without stores or indolence and negligence' which gans; that their garrisons were not prevailed in that government with put in a state of defence ; that no respect to preparation and defence. pains were taken to replenish an In protesting against the violence empty treasury; and that their of the measure of luspension, they want of exertion on the imminence declared their apprehension, that of danger was equal to their want the terror of the example was calof timely precaution. .. culated to overawe the members of

These severe strictures on the administration from a free decla. conduct of government, accom- ration of their sentiments; they panied by many others not less so, supported their imputation of inexcited the warmest refentment justice, on the ground that no speof the presidency. They pro- cific charge was brought against nounced Mr. Sadlier's observations Mr. Sadlier, and that he was not to be illiberal reflections on the heard in his defence; and they conduct and measures of govern- ventured to intimate a suspicion, ment, and the whole minute to be that private resentment more than an inflammatory declamation, which public utility had caused the se. they attributed either to a shame verity exercised against that gentleful weakness, or to the most un man. worthy motives; and laying hoid Charges of negleet, with respect of some expreffions which they to the garrisons, ftores, and the confrued into a design of towing state of the army tor taking the dilaffc&tion among the people at field, by no means diffimilar, though large, and others which called in delivered in softer language to question the authority of the selee those brought by Mr. Sadlier, were committee, they made thein the afterwards delivered in council by grounds of a vote for fufpending the commander of the forces himthat gentleman from his feat in the self. In the mean time Hyder Council, as well as from the Com- Ally openly treated the conduct pany's service in general. Nor and councils of the government of did the matter tost there ; but was Madras with superlative contempt. followed by a challenge from the He publicly declared his detercommander in chief of the forces mination to ruin the Carnatic, and in the Carnatic.

to chastise the Englih. De tid

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