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He preaches Christ to the Jews,
who oppose and Blaspheme.
A.M.cir. 1058. A. D. cir. 54. cir.CCVIII.2.
A. M. cir. 4058. Jews that Jesus a. was Christ. || 7 And he departed thence, and en-
6 And when they opposed them-tered into a certain man's house, An. Olyanp. cir.CCVIII.2.
selves, and blasphemed," he shook his named Justus, one that worshipped raiment, and said unto them, * Your blood be God, whose house joined hard to the synaupon your own heads; I am clean : "from gogue. henceforth I will go unto the Gentiles.
8 5 And Crispus, the chief ruler of the syna
* Or, is the Christ.
3 ch. 13. 45. 1 Pet. 4. 4.
10. 14. ch. 13. 51.
cc Neh. 5. 13. Matt.
d Lev. 20. 9, 11, 12. 2 Sam. 1. 16. Ezek. 18. 13. & 33.4.- Ezek. 3. 18,
19. & 33. 9. ch. 20. 26. ch. 13. 46. & 28. 28. 1 Cor. 1. 14.
have seen, c. xvii. 13. that when Paul was obliged to leave matically opposing ; putting themselves in warlike order Berea, because of the persecution raised up against him in against him : so the word implies. that place, that he left Silas and Timotheus behind; to whom And blasphemed] This is precisely the way in which they he afterwards sent word to rejoin him at Athens with all still act. They have no argument sagainst Jesus being the Mese speed. It appears from 1 Thess. iii. 10. that on Timothy's siah; but, having made a covenant with unbelief, as soon as coming to Athens, Paul immediately sent him, and probably they are pressed on this point, they rail and blaspheme. See Silas with him, to comfort and establish the church at Thessa- | the Tela ignea Satanæ, by Wagenseil. lonica. How long they laboured here is uncertain, but they He shook his raiment] This was an action similar to that did not rejoin him till some time after he came to Corinth. of shaking the dust off the feet ; see on Matt. x. 1 t. See a It appears that he was greatly rejoiced at the account which parallel act, and its signification, in Nehem. v. 13; also Timothy brought of the church at Thessalonica; and it must || I SHOOK MY LAP, and said, So shall God snake every nim bare been immediately after this, that he wrote his first epistle FROM HIS House and from his LABOUR; even thus shall he to that church, which is probably the first, in order of time, I be SITAKEN out and EMPTIED.
St. Paul's act on this occa. of all his epistles.
sion seems to have been the same with this of Nehemiah ; Paul was pressed in spirit] ouverteto TW TIYEUuath, or he and with the same signification : and it is likely that he was was constrained by the Spirit of God, in an extraordinary led by a divine impulse to do it: thus signifying the shaking manner, to testify to the Jews, that Jesus was the Christ. In- and emptying out of this disobedient people; which took place stead of 7W Tvedati in the Spirit, 5w noyw, in the word or doc- about sixteen years afterwards. trine, is the reading of ABDE. three others; both the Syriac, Your blood be upon your own heads.] That is, ye alone Coplic, Vulgate, Busil, Chrysostom, and others. Griesbach has are the cause of the destruction that is coming upon yourreceived this reading into the text, and Bp. Pearce thus para- || selves, and upon your country. phrases the verse, “ And when Silas and Timotheus were come I am clean] Kasacos eyw, I am pure or innocent of your from Macedonia, Paul set himself together with them, wholly | death and ruin. I have proposed to you the gospel of Jesus to the word; i.e. he was fully employed now that he had their Christ, the only mean by which ye can be saved ; and ye have assistance in preaching the gospel, called the word, in chap. iv. | utterly rejected it. I shall labour no more with you; and, from 4. xvi. 6, 32. and xvii. 11.-St. Luke seems to have intended || henceforth, will confine my labours to the Gentiles. St. Paul to express here something relating to St. Paul, which was the must refer to the Jews and Gentiles of Corinth particularly ; consequence of the coming of Silas and Timotheus; and that for he preached to the Jews occasionally in other places ; was rather his labouring with them more abundantly in see chap. xix. 8, 9.: and several were brought to the knowpreaching the word, than his being pressed in spirit.” This ledge of the truth. But it seems as if the Jews, from this appears to be the true sense of the word, and that Twaoyou time, systematically opposed the gospel of Christ ; and yet, is the genuine reading, there can be no doubt; ouvelyéto general tenders of this salvation were made to them where which we translate pressed, and which the Vulgate translates ever the apostles came; and when they rejected them, the instabat ; Bp. Pearce thinks should be translated unà cum word was sent to the Gentiles; see chap. xix. 8, 9. illis instabat, be earnestly strove together with them, Twicy Verse 7. And he departed thence] From his former in preaching the word. The true sense is given by Calmet, lodging, or that quarter of the city where he had dwelt bePaul s'employoit à prêcher encore avec plus d'ardeur, Paul fore with Aquila and Priscilla ; and went to lodge with was employed with more ardour in preaching, and testifying Justus, apparently a proselyte of the gate. This person is to the Jews, that Jesus was the Christ. From this time we called Tidus, and Titus Justus, in several MSS. and verhear no more of Silas : probably he died in Macedonia. sions.
Verse 6. When they opposed] ArTITAT COLLEYwy, syste- Verse 8. Crispus the chief ruler of the synagogue] This
Paul is comforted
by a divine vision.
A. D. cir. 54.
An. Olymp. cir.CCVIII...
gogue, believed on the Lord with all) on thee to hurt thee: for I have much A. M. cir. 4058An. Olymp. his house ; and many of the Corin- people in this city. thians hearing, believed and were
11 And he continued there a year baptized.
and six months, teaching the word of God among 9 I Then · spake the Lord to Paul in the them. night by a vision, Be not afraid, but speak, and 12 I And when Gallio was the de- A.M.cir.4059. hold not thy peace :
puty of Achaia, the Jews made in
cir.CCVIII.3. 10 For I am with thee, and no man shall set | surrection with one accord against
A. D. cir. 55.
a Ch. 23. 11.
• Jer. 1. 18, 19. Matt. 28. 20.
c Gr. sat there.
person held an office of considerable consequence; and there
Verse 12. IVhen Gallio was the deputy of Achaia] The fore his conversion to Christianity must have been very gall- || Romans, comprehended under the name of Achaia, all that ing to the Jews. It belonged to the chief, or ruler of the part of Greece which lay between Thessaly and the southernsynagogue, to preside in all the assemblies, interpret the most coasts of Peloponnesus. Pausanias, in Attic. vii. 16. law, decide concerning things lawful and unlawful, punish says, that the Romans were accustomed to send a governor into the refractory, excommunicate the rebellious, solemnize mar- that country, and that they called him the governor of Achaia, riages, and issue divorces. It is likely, that on the conver- not of Greece; because the Achæuns, when they subdued sion of Crispus, Sosthenes was chosen to succeed him. Greece, were the leaders in all the Grecian affairs : see also
Many of the Corinthians] Those to whom the sacred || Suetonius, in his life of Claudius, cap. xxv. and Dio Cassius, historian refers, were probably Gentiles; and were the fruits || 1x. 24. Edit. Reimari. of the apostle's labours, after he had ceased to preach among Deputy] Ανθυπατευοντος, serving the office of Ανθυπατος, the Jews.
or deputy: see the note on chap. xiii. ver. 7. Verse 9. Then spake the Lord to Paul by night in a vi- Gallio] This deputy, or proconsul, was eldest brother to sion] It is likely that Paul was at this time much discou- | the celebrated Lucius Annæus Seneca, the Stoic philosopher, raged by the violent opposition of the Jews, and probably preceptor of Nero, and who is so well known among the was in danger of his life; see ver. 10: and might have been learned by his works. The name of Gallio was at first entertaining serious thoughts of ceasing to preach, or leav- Marcus Annæus Novatus ; but, having been adopted in the ing Corinth. To prevent this, and comfort him, God was family of Gallio, he took the name of Lucius Junius Gallio. pleased to give him this vision.
lle, and Annæus Mela his brother, father of the poet Lucan, Be not afraid.] That this comfort and assurance were shared in the disgrace of their brother Seneca ; and by this necessary, himself shews us in his first epistle to these Co- tyrant, Nero, whose early years were so promising, the three rinthians, chap. ii. 3; I was with you in weakness, and in brothers were put to death ; see Tacitus, Annal. lib. xv. 70. fear, and in much trembling.
and xvi. 17. It was to this Gallio that Seneca dedicates his Verse 10. No man shall.set on thee] Kel ou ELS ET16r,TETAI | book De Ira. Seneca describes him as a man of the most 501, no man shall be permitted to lay violent hands upon thee. || amiable mind and manners : “ Quem nemo non parum amat, It is very likely that the Jews had conspired his death ; and etiam qui amare plus non potest ; nemo mortalium uni tam his preservation was an act of the especial interposition of di- || dulcis est, quam hic omnibus : cum interim tanta naturalis vine Providence.
boni vis est, uti artem simulationemque non redoleat :” vide I have much people in this city.] Ev 77 Tonet taltn, in this Senec. Præfat. ad Natural. Quæst. 4. He was of the sweetest very city, there are many here who have not resisted my Spirit, || disposition, assable to all, and beloved by every man. and consequently are now under its teachings, and are ready to Statius, Sylvar. lib. ii. 7. ver. 30. ode on the birth-day of embrace my gospel as soon as thou shalt declare it unto them. || Lucan, says not a little in his favour, in a very few words: Verse 11. He continued there a year and six months ]
Lucanum potes imputare terris ; He was now confident that he was under the especial protec
Hoc plus quam Senecam dedisse mundo, tion of God; and therefore continued teaching the word,
Aut dulcem generasse Gallionem." TOY1070v, the doctrine of God. It is very likely that it was You may consider Nature as having made greater efforts during his stay here that he wrote his first epistle to the in producing Lucan; than it has done in producing Seneca, Thessalonians, and the second not long after; and some or even the amiable Gallio. think that the epistle to the Galatians was written during his And brought him to the judgment seat] They had no stay at Corinth.
power to punish any person in the Roman provinces; and
He is brought before
the judgment seat of Gallio.
A. D. cir. 55.
A. M. cir. 4059. Paul, and brought him to the judg- 15 But if it be a question of words A. M. cir.4059. An. Olymp. ment seat,
and names, and of your law, look ye An. Olymp. 13 Saying, This fellow persuadeth to it; for I will be no judge of such
cir. CCVIII.3. men to worship God contrary to the law.
matters. 14 And when Paul was now about to open his 16 And he drave them from the judgment seat. mouth, Gallio said unto the Jews, “If it were 17 Then all the Greeks took Sosthenes, the a matter of wrong or wicked lewdness, O yechief ruler of the synagogue, and beat him beJews, reason would that I should bear with fore the judgment seat. And Gallio cared for you :
none of those things.
therefore were obliged to bring their complaint before the “ The Roman laws give religious liberty to Jews and Greeks; Roman governor.
The powers that be are ordained of but if controversies arise among you on these subjects, de, God :-Had the Jews possessed the power here, Paul had cide them among yourselves, or dispute about them as much as been put to death!
you please.” A better answer could not be given by man; Verse 13. Persuadeth men to worship God contrary to and it was highly becoming the acknowledged meekness, the luw.] This accusation was very insidious. The Jews gentleness, and benevolence of this amiable man.
He conhad permission by the Romans to worship their own God included that the state had no right to controul any man's retheir own way; this the laws allowed. The Roman worship' ligious opinion; that was between the object of his worship was also established by the law. The Jews probably in- and his own conscience; and therefore he was not authorised tended to accuse Paul. of acting contrary to both laws. “He to intermeddle with subjects of this nature, which the law is not a Jew, for he does not admit of circumcision ; he is left to every man's private judgment. Ilad all the rulers of not a gentile, for he preaches against the worship of the gods. the people in every country, acted as this sensible and beneHe is setting up a worship of his own, in opposition to all volent Roman; laws against liberty of conscience, concerning laws; and persuading many people to join with him : he is' religious persecution, would not be found to be, as they now therefore a most dangerous man, and should be put to are, blots and disgraces on the statute-books of almost all death."
the civilized nations of Europe. Verse 14. Paul was now about to open his mouth] He Verse 16. And he drave them from the judgment seat.] was about to enter on his defence; but Gallio perceiving that Ile saw that their accusation was both frivolous and vexatious, the prosecution was through envy and malice, would not and he ordered them to depart, and the assembly to disperse. put Paul to any further trouble, but determined the matter | The word atriotev, which we translate he drare, does not as follows.
signify here any act of violence on the part of Gallio If it were a matter of wrong] Aarma, of injustice; any or the Roman officers; but simply an authoritative dismisthing contrary to the rights of the subject.
sion. Or wickell lewdness] Pagious7TUL TOY7,50%, destructive, Verse 17. Then all the Greeks took Sosthenes] As this mischief. (See the note on chap. xiii. 10. where the word is man is termed the chief ruler of the synagogue, it is proexplained.) Something by which the subject is grievously bable that he had lately succeeded Crispus in that office, see wronged; were it any crime against society, or against the ver. 8. ; and that he was known either to have embraced
Christianity, or to have favoured the cause of St. Paul. He Reason would that I should bear with you.] Kata doyor is supposed to be the same person whom St. Paul associates kynvermour Uswy, according to reason, or the merit of the with himself in the first epistle to the Corinthians, chap. i. 1. case, I should patiently hear you.
Crispus might have been removed from his presidency in the Verse 15. But if it be u question of words] IIepidoyou, synagogue as soon as the Jews found he had embraced Chrisconcerning doctrine, und names, whether the person called tianity, and Sosthenes appointed in his place. And as he Jesus be the person you call the Messiuh. And of your lui, seems to have speedily embraced the same doctrine, the Jews any particular nicety concerning that law which is peculiar, would be the more enraged, and their malice be directed to yourselves-- Look ye to it; settle the business among strongly against him, when they found that the proconsul yourselves; the Roman government does not medd'e with would not support them in their opposition to Paul. such matters; and I will not take upon me to decide in a case But why should the Greeks beat Sosthenes? I have in that does not concern my office. As if he had said, the above note proceeded on the supposition, that this out.
Remarks on the conduct of Gallio
towards Paul and the JCW8.
A. M. cir.1959. 18 I And Paul after this tarried there into Syria, and with him Priscilla and A.M.cir. 1958.
An. Olymp. yet a good while ; and then took his Aquila; having shorn his head in An. Olymp. cir.CCVI/1.3. leave of the brethren, and sailed thence "Cenchrea: for he had a vow.
2 Nomb. 6. 18. ch. 21. 24.
rage was committed by the Jews; and my reason for it is see it, which is not quite evident, that he well knew that this : 'O. 'ENA,ves, the Greeks, is omitted by AB. two of the this could rise to no serious amount; and the Lictors, and oldest and most authentic MSS. in the world: they are other minor officers, were there in sufficient force to prevent omitted also by the Coptic and Vulgate, Chrysostom and any serious riot; and it was their business to see that the Bede. Instead of ‘O. 'Erayves, three MSS. one of the eleventh public peace was not broken; besides, as a heathen, he and two of the thirteenth century, have lol!!, the Jews; might have no objection to permit this people to pursue a and it is much more likely that the Jews' beat one of their line of conduct by which they were sure to bring themselves own rulers, through envy at his conversion, than that the and their religion into contempt. These wicked Jews could Greeks should do so; unless we allow, which is very pro- not disprove the apostle's doctrine, either by argument or bable, (if 'En.dyYes, Greeks, be the true reading,) that these scripture; and they had recourse to manual logic, which was . Hellenes were Jews, born in a Greek country, and speaking an indisputable proof of the badness of their own cause, and the Greek language.
the strength of that of their opponents. And Gallio cared for none of those things.] Kai ouder But in consequence of this conduct Gallio has been reTOUTWY TV Tanz..con EET.8%. And Gullio did not concern him- presented as man perfectly careless and unconcerned self, did not intermeddle with any of these things. As he about religion in general; and therefore has been considered found that it was a business that concerned their own reli- as a proper type, or representative, of even professed Chris. gion; and that the contention was among themselves; and tians, who are not decided in their religious opinions or conthat they were abusing one of their own sect only, he did duct. As a hea then, Gallio certainly was careless about not choose to interfere. He, like the rest of the Romans, both Judaism and Christianity. The latter he had probably considered the Jews a most despicable people, and worthy never heard of but by the cause now before his judgmentof no regard : and their present conduct had no tendency to seat; and, from any thing he could see of the other, through cause him to form a different opinion of them, from that the medium of its professors, he certainly could entertain no which he and his countrymen had previously entertained. favourable opinion of it: therefore, in neither case was he It is not very likely, however, that Gallio saw this outrage; to blame. But the words, cared for none of these things, are for, though it was before the judgment seat, it probably did both misunderstood and misapplied : we have already seen not take place till Gallio had left the court; and, though he that they only mean that he would not intermeddle in a conmight be told of it, he left the matter to the Lictors, and troversy which did not belong to his province; and sufficient would not interfere.
reasons have been alledged why he should act as he did. It The conduct of Gallio has been, in this case, greatly cen is granted that many preachers take this for a text, and sured; and I think with manisest injustice. In the business | preach useful sermons for the conviction of the undecided brought before his tribunal, no man could have followed a and lukewarm; and it is to be deplored that there are so more prudent or equitable course. His whole conduct many undecided and careless people in the world; and es. shewed that it was his opinion, that the civil magistrate had || pecially in reference to what concerns their eternal interests. nothing to do with religious opinions, or the concerns of con- But is it not to be lamented also, that there should be science, in matters where the safety of the state was not im- preachers of God's holy word, who attempt to explain passplicated. lle therefore refused to make the subject a mat- ages of scripture, which they do not understand ? for he ter of legal discussion. Nay, he went much farther; he who preaches on Gallio cared for none of those things, in the would not even interfere to prevent either the Jews or the way in which the passage has, through mismanagement, been apostles from making proselytes. Though the complaint popularly understood, either does not understand it; or he against the apostles was, that they were teaching men to wilfully perverts the meaning. zcorship God contrary to the law ; see the note on ver. 15. Verse 18. And Paul-tarried there yet a good while] The yet, even in this case, he did not think it right to exert the persecuting Jews plainly saw, from the manner in which the secular power to restrain the free discussion and teaching of proconsul had conducted this business, that they could have matters which concerned the rights of conscience in things no hope of raising a state persecution against the apostles ; pertaining to the worship of the gods. As to his not pre
As to his not pre-ind the laws provided so amply for the personal safety of venting the tumult which took place, we may say, if he did | every Roman citizen, that they were afraid to proceed any
Paul preaches at Ephesus,
and purposes to go to Jerusalem.
A. D. cir. 56.
A.M.cir. 4060. A. D. cir. 56.
An. Olymp. left them there : but he himself en- 21 But bade them farewel, saying, "I An. Olymp. cir.CCVIII.4. tered into the synagogue, and rea- must by all means keep this feast that cir.CCVIII.4. soned with the Jews.
cometh in Jerusalem: but I will return again unto 20 When they desired him to tarry longer you, if God will. And he sailed from Ephesus.
a Ch. 19. 21. & 20. 16.
b 1 Cor. 4. 19. Hebr. 6. 3. Jam. 4. 15.
farther in their violence. It could not be unknown, that Ephesus was, at the time in which St. Paul visited it, one Paul was possessed of the right of Roman citizenship; and of the most flourishing cities of Asia Minor. It was situated therefore his person was sacred, as long as he did nothing in that part anciently called Ionia, but now Natolia ; it contrary to the laws.
abounded with the most eminent orators, philosophers, &c. It is probable that at this time Paul staid, on the whole, in the world; and was adorned with the most splendid buildat Corinth, about two years.
ings. Here was that famous temple of Diana, reputed one of Haring shorn his head in Cenchrea] But who was it that the seven wonders of the world. This city is now under the shore his head ? Paul or Aquila.? Some think the latter, dominion of the Turks, and is in a state of almost entire who had bound himself by the Nazarite vow, probably be- ruin. The temple of Minerva, which had long served as a fore he became a Christian; and, being under that row, his Christian church, is now so completely ruined, that its site conscience would not permit him to disregard it. There is cannot be easily determined ; though some ruins of the walls nothing in the text that absolutely obliges us to understand are still standing, with five or six marble columns forty feet this action as belonging to St. Paul. It seems to have been in length and seven in diameter, all of one piece. It still has the act of Aquila alone; and therefore both Paul and Pris- a good harbour, and is about forty miles from Smyrna. In cilla are mentioned before Aquila ; and it is natural to refer | Chandler's Travels in Asia Minor, some curious information the vow to the latter. Yet there are certainly some weighty is given concerning this once eminent city. His account reasons why the vow should be referred to St. Paul, and not concludes thus: “ The Ephesians are now a few Greek peato Aquila ; and interpreters are greatly divided on the sub-sants, living in extreme wretchedness, dependence, and inject. Chrysostom, Isidore of Serille, Grotius, Hammond, sensibility : the representatives of an illustrious people, and Zegerus, Erasmus, Baronius, Pearce, Wesley, and others, inhabiting the wrecks of their greatness : some beneath the refer the vow to Aquila.–Jerom, Augustin, Bede, Calmet, vaults of the Stadium, once the crouded scene of their diDodd, Rosenmuller, and others, refer it to St. Paul. Each versiops : and some live by the abrupt precipice, in the se. party has its strong reasons the matter is doubtful--the pulchres which received the ashes of their ancestors. Such bare letter of the text determines nothing : yet I cannot are the preseut citizens of Ephesus ; and such is the condi. help leaning to the latter opinion. Perhaps it was from tion to which that renowned city has been gradually re. feeling the difficulty of deciding which was under the vow, duced. Its streets are obscured and overgrown: a herd of that the Æthiopic, and two Latin versions, instead of xalça- goats was driven to it for shelter from the sun at noon ;, and HLEVOS, having shaved, in the singular, appear to have read a noisy flight of crows, from the quarries, seemed to insult KEILZUEVO), they shaved; and thus put both Paul and Aquila its silence. We heard the partridge call in the area of the under the vow.
theatre, and of the Stadium. The glorious pomp of its Cenchrea—this was a port on the east side of the Isthmus | heathen worship is no longer remembered ; and Christianity, of Corinth, opposite to the Lecheum, which was the other which was there nursed by apostles, and fostered by general port on the west. And it is likely that it was at Cenchreacouncils until it increased to fulness of stature, barely lingers that St. Paul took shipping for Syria, as it would be more on, in an existence hardly visible.” Travels in Asia Minor, convenient for him, and a shorter passage, to embark at Cen- | p. 130. Reader! this city was once the capital of Asia chrea, in order to go by the Ægean sea to Syria ; than to Minor; and its ruins alone prove that it has existed: and in embark at the Lecheum, and sail down into the Mediter- it was one of those seven churches, to which a letter was ranean.
expressly dictated by Jesus Christ himself! Ephesus is pro, Verse 19. He came to Ephesus] where it appears he spent | perly no more ! and the church of Ephesus is blotted out of but one sabbath. It is supposed that Paul left Aquila and the map of Christianity. Be silent, and adore. Priscilla at this place, and that he went on alone to Jeru- Verse 21. I must-keep this feast] Most likely the salem; for it is certain that they were at Ephesus when || pass-over, at which he wished to attend for the purpose of Apollos arrived there. See verses 24, and 26.
seeing many of his friends; and having the most favourable