St. Paul accommodates himself


to all, for their edification.

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ronis Cæs. 3.

ronis Cæs. 3.

18 What is my reward then? Verily 20 And unto the Jews I became as A.L.C.80% that, when I preach the gospel, Ia Jew, that I might gain the Jews; Annoimp.de Anno Imp.

may make the gospel of Christ with to them that are under the law, as out charge, that I abuse not my power in the under the law, that I might gain them that are gospel

under the law; 19 For though I be free from all men, yet

21 6 To "them that are without law, as have " I made myself servant unto all, e that I without law, (' being not without law to God, might gain the more.

but under the law to Christ,) that I might

« Ch. 10. 33. 2 Cor. 4.5. & 11.7.ch. 7. 31.-ver. 1.- Gal. Acts 16. 3. & 18. 18. & 21. 23, &c. - Gal. 3. 2. Rom. 2. 12, 14.5. 18. Le Matt. 18. 15. 1 Pet. 3. 1.

Ich. 7. 22.

ruptible crown, ver. 25. Or, if I freely preach this gospel Verse 19. For though I be free] Although I am under no without being burthensome to any, I have a special reward ; || obligation to any man; yet I act as if every individual had but, if I do not, I have simply an office to fulfil, into which || a particular property in me; and as if I were the slave of God has put me ; and may fulfil it conscientiously, and claim the public. my privileges at the same time; but then I lose that special Verse 20. Unto the Jews I became as a Jew] In Acts reward, which I have in view by preaching the gospel without xvi. 3. we find that, for the sake of the unconverted Jews, charge to any.

he circumcised Timothy. See the Note there. This, and the 18th verse, have been variously translated : To them that are under the law] To those who considered Sir Norton Knatchbull, and after him Mr. Wakefield, trans- themselves still under obligation to observe its rites and cerelate the two passages thus : For, if I do this willingly, I monies, though they had, in the main, embraced the gospel, have a reward; but if I am entrusted with an office without he became as if under the same obligations; and therefore my consent, what is my reward then ? to make the gospel or purified himself in the temple, as we find related Acts xx. Christ, whilst I preach it, without charge, in not using to the 21-26. where, also, see the Notes. utmost, my privileges in the gospel.

After the first clause, To them that are under the luw, as Others render the passage thus: But if I do it merely be- under the law; the following words ur wy airos UTÒ YOULOY cause I am obliged to it, I only discharge an office that is com- not being myself under the laze, are added by ABCDEFG. mitted to me, ver. 18. For what then shall I be rewarded? several others; the later Syriuc, Sahidic, Armenian, VulIt is for this, that preaching the gospel of Christ, I preach gate, and all the Itala : Cyril, Chrysostom, Damascenus, it freely, and do not insist on a claim which the gospel itself and others : and on this evidence Griesbach has received gives me.

them into the text. Verse 18. That I abuse not my power] I am inclined to think Verse 21. To them that are without law] The Genthat tatayiyooofas is to be understood here, not in the sense tiles who had no written law; though they had the law writof abusing, but of using to the uttermost ; exacting every ten in their hearts : see on Rom. ii. 15. thing that a man can claim by law. How many proofs have Being not without law to God] Instead of Ew to God, we of this in preachers of different denominations, who in- and Xp15w to Christ; the most important MSS. and Versions sist so strongly, and so frequently, on their privileges, as they have sou of God, and Xp1500 of Christ : being not without term them; that the people are tempted to believe they seek the law of God, but under the law of Christ. not their souls' interests, but their secular goods. Such Them that are without law.] Dr. Lightfoot thinks the preachers can do the people no good. But the people who Sadducees may be meant; and that, in certain cases, as far are most liable to think thus of their ministers, are those as the rites and ceremonies of the Jewish religion were conwho are unwilling to grant the common necessaries of life to concerned, he might conform himself to them, not observing those who watch over them in the Lord. For, there are such rites and ceremonies, as it is well known that they disa such people even in the Christian church! If the preachers regarded them: for the Dr. cannot see how the apostle could of the gospel were as parsimonious of the bread of life, as conform himself in any thing to them that were without law, some congregations and Christian societies are of the bread i. e. the heathen. But, 1st, it is not likely that the apostle that perisheth; and if the preacher gave them a spiritual would conform himself to the Sadducees; for, what success nourishment, as base, as mean, and as scanty as the temporal could he expect among a people who denied the resurrection ; support which they afford him, their souls must, without and, consequently, a future world, a day of judgment, and doubt, have nearly a famine of the bread of life.

all rewards and punishments ? 2. He might among the

All must run in the Christian race


in order to be saved.

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22 * To the weak became I as weak, you.
Anno Imp. Ne.

Anno Imp. Ne
ronis Cæs. 3. that I might gain the weak: "I am 24 Know ye not that they which ronis Cas. 3.
made all things to all men, that I might by all run in a race run all, but one receiveth the

prize ? So


23 And this 1 do for the gospel's sake, that 25 And every man that striveth for the mas-

means save some.

ye may obtain.

2 Rom. 15. 1. 2 Cor. 11. 29,vb ch. 10. 33.--- Rom. ll. 14. ch.

7. 16.

• Gal. 2. 2. & 5.7. Phil. 2. 16. & 3. 14. 2 Tim. 4.7. Hebr. 12. 1.-

Eph. 6. 12. 1 Tim. 6. 12. 2 Tim. 2. 5. & 4. 7.

heathen, appear as if he were not a Jew, and discourse with of tooro this, TravTA all things, (I do all things for the gos-
them on the great principles of that eternal law, the out- || pel's sake,) is the reading of ABCDEFG. several others,
lines of which had been written in their hearts; in order to the Coptic, Æthiopic, Vulgate, Itala, Armenian, and Sa.
shew them the necessity of embracing that gospel, which was hidic: the two latter reading TAUTA TAYTA, all these things.
the power of God unto salvation, to every one that be- Several of the Fathers have the same reading ; and there

is much reason to believe it to be genuine.
Verse 22. To the weak became I as weak] Those who That I might be partaker thereof with you.] That I might
were conscientiously scrupulous, even in respect to lawful attain to the reward of eternal life, which it sets before me;

and this is in all probability the meaning of To evayyadov,
I am madde all things to all men] I assumed every shape | which we translate the gospel ; and which should be ren.
and form consistent with innocency and perfect integrity ; dered here, prize or reward: this is a frequent meaning of the
giving up my own will, my own way, my own ease, my own original word, as may be seen in my Preface to St. Mat-
pleasure, and my own profit, that I might save the souls of thew : I do all this for the sake of the prize, that I may pare
all. Let those who plead for the system of accommodation, | take of it with you.
on the example of St. Paul, attend to the end he had in Verse 24. They which run in a race, run all It is suf.
view ; and the manner in which he pursued that end. It | ficiently evident that the apostle alludes to the athletic
was not to get money, influence or honour, but to save exercises in the games, which were celebrated every fifth
SOULS! It was not to get ease, but to increase his labours. I year on the isthmus, narrow neck of land, which joins
It was not to save his life, but rather that it should be a the Peloponnesus, or Morea, to the main land; and were
sacrifice for the good of immortal souls !

thence termed the Isthmian Games. The exercises were
A parallel saying to this of St. Paul, has been quoted from running, wrestling, boxing, throwing the discus, or quoit,
Achilles Tatius, lib. v. cap. xix. where Clitophon says, on 8c. to the three first of these the apostle especially alludes.
having received a letter from Leucippe, TOUTOIS EYTUXW7, But one receiveth the prize.?] The apostle places the
παντα εγινομην, όμου, ανεφλεγομην, ωχριων, εθαυμαζον, Christian race in contrast to the Isthmian games; in theum,
yrasouv, syaipov, nxhou.yy. “When I read the contents, I only one received the prize, though all ran: in this, if
decame all things at once : I was inflamed; I grew pale; 1 || all run, all will receive the prize : therefore, be says, so
was struck with wonder ; I doubted; I rejoiced ; I became run that ye may oblain. Be as much in earnest to get to
sad.” The same form of speech is frequent among Greek heaven as the others are to gain their prize : and, although
writers. I think this casts some light on the apostle's only one of them can win, all of you may obtain.

Verse 25. Is temperate in all things.] All those who
That I might by all means save some.

ne.] On this clause contended in these exercises, went through a long state and
there are some very important readings found in the MSS. series of painful preparations. To this exact discipline
and Versions. Instead of TaytWS T1905 Owow, that I might | Epictetus refers, cap. 35. E NELS OAutio vixy601 ;
by all means save some ; παντας σωσω that I might save all, | ευτακτειν, αναγκοτροφειν, απεχεσθαι πεμματων, γυμναζεσθαι
is the reading of DEFG. Syriac, Vulgate, Æthiopic, all pos avxysmy sy wą terayuer, sy nauuari, sy boys hung
the Hala, and several of the Fathers. This reading Bishop ψυχρoν πινειν, μη οινον ως ετυχεν απλως, ως ιατρούς παραδε-
Pearce prefers, because it is more agreeable to St. Paul's δωκεναι σεαυτον το επιςατη ειτα εις τον αγωνα παρερχεσθαι
meaning here, and exactly agrees with what he says chap. x. **T*** “Do you wish to gain the prize at the Olympic
33. and makes his design more extensive and noble. Wake- Games ?--Consider the requisite preparations, and the con-
field also prefers this reading.

sequences: You must observe a striet regimen ; must live ou
Verse 23. And this I do for the gnspel's sake] Instead food which you dislike ; you must abstain from all delicacies ;

As c'

Qualifications of those who contend


in the Isthmian games.


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A. M. 4060. tery is temperate in all things. Now

26 I therefore so run, not as unALUSOO they do it to obtain a corruptible i certainly; so fight I, not as one that Ano, o SP: Anno Imp.

Anno Imp. Necrown; but we 'an incorruptible. beateth the air:

ronis Cæs. 9.

ronis Cæs. S.

• 2 Tim. 4. 8. James 1.12. 1 Pet. 1. 4. & 5. 4. Rev. 2. 10. & 3. 11.

1 2 Tim. 2.5.

must exercise yourself at the necessary and prescribed timestators were fixed on those who ran in these races; and to both in heat and in cold; you must drink nothing cooling; gain the applause of the multitude, they stretched every take no wine as fornierly : in a word, you must put yourself nerve : the apostle knew that the eyes of all were fixed upon under the directions of a pugilist, as you would under those him-1. His false brethren waited for his halting-2. The of a physician; and afterwards enter the lists. Here you persecuting Jews and Gentiles longed for his downfall-may get your arm broken, your foot put out of joint, be 3. The church of Christ looked on him with anxiety-4. And obliged to swallow mouthfuls of dust, to receive many he acted in all things as under the immediate eye of God. stripes; and, after all, be conquered.” Thus we find, that Not as one that beateth the air] Kypke observes, that these suffered much hardships in order to conquer ; and yet there are three ways in which persons were said aspa debelv, were uncertain of the victory.

to beat the air. 1. When in practising for the combat, they'

threw their arms and legs about in different ways, thus pracHorace speaks of it in nearly the same way

tising the attitudes of offence and defence. This was termed Qui studet optatam cursu contingere metam,

Guia payta fighting with a shadow. To this Virgil alludes Multa tulit fecitque puer : sudavit et alsit,

when representing Dures swinging bis arms about, when he Abstinuit Venere et Baccho. De Arte Poet. ver.412. rose to challenge a competitor in the boxing match :

A youth who hopes the Olympic prize to gain,
All arts must try, and every

toil sustain;
Th' extremes of heat and cold must often prove;
And shun the weakening joys of wine and love.


Talis prima Dares caput altum in prælia tollit,
Ostenditque humeros latos, alternaque jactat
Brachia protendens, et verberat ictibus auras.

Æn. v. ver. 375.

These quotations shew the propriety of the apostle's words: Thus, glorying in his strength, in open view Every man that striveth for the mastery, TAYTA EYUPATEUETAI His arms around the towering Dares threw; is temperate, or continent, in all things.

Stalk'd high, and laid his brawny shoulders bare, They do it to obtain a corruptible crown] The crown won And dealt his whistling blows in empty air. Pitt. by the victor in the Olympian games, was made of the wild olide; in the Pythiun games, of laurel; in the Nemean2. Sometimes boxers were to aim blows at their adversaries games, of parsley; and in the Isthmian games, of the pine. which they did not intend to take place; and which the These were all corruptible, for they began to wither as soon others were obliged to exert themselves to prevent as much as they were separated from the trees, or plucked out of the as if they had been really intended; and, by these means, earth. In opposition to these, the apostle says, he contended some dexterous pugilists vanquished their adversaries by mere for an incorruptible crown; the heavenly inheritance. He fatigue, without giving them a single blow. 3. Pugilists sought not worldly honour; but that honour which comes were said to beat the air when having to contend with a from God.

nimble adversary, who, by running from side to side, stoopVerse 26. I therefore so run, not as uncertainly] In the ing, and various contortions of the body, eluded the blows foot-course in those games, how many soever ran, only one of his antagonist; who spent his strength on the air, fre. could have the prize, however strenuously they might exert quently missing his aim, and sometimes overturning himself, themselves; therefore, all ran uncertainly; but it was in attempting to hit his adversary, when this, by his agility, widely different in the Christian course ; if every one ran as had been able to elude the blow. We have an example of he ought, each would receive the prize.

this in Virgil's account of the boxing match between Entellus The word arnaws, which we translate uncertainly, has and Dares, so well told Æneid. v. ver. 426, &c. and which other meanings. 1. It signifies ignorantly; I do not run will give us a proper view of the subject to which the like one ignorant of what he is about; or of the laws of apostle alludes :-riz. boxing at the Isthmian games. the course: I know that there is an eternal life ; I know the way that leads to it; and I know and feel the power of it. Constitit in digitos extemplo arrectus uterque, 2. It signifies without observation; the eyes of all the spec- Brachiaque ad superas interritus extulit auras.


St. Paul's method of securing


final perseverance

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27 But I keep under my body, I have preached to others, I myself A M., 1960. . bring it into

into subjection : should be a cast-away. lest that by any means, when I

A.U.C. 809. Anno Imp. Ne ronis Cæs. 3.

a Rom. 8. 13. Col. 3. 5.

. Rom. 6. 18, 19.

c Jer. 6. 30. 2 Cor. 13. 5, 6.

Abduxêre retro longè capita ardua ab ictu ;
Immiscentque manus manibus, pugnamque lacessunt.
Ille, [Dares] pedum melior motu, fretusque juventa;
Hic, [Entellus] membris et mole calens; sed tarda trementi
Genua labant, vustos quatit ager anhelitus artus.
Multa viri nequicquam inter se vulnera jactant,
Multa cavo lateri ingeminant, et pectore vasto
Dant sonitus ; erratque aures et tempora circum
Crebra manus ; duro crepitant sub vulnere malæ.
Stat gravis Entellus, nisuque immotus codem,
Corpore tela modò atque oculis vigilantibus exit.
Ille, velut celsam oppugnat qui molibus urbem,
Aut montana sedet circum castella sub armis ;
Nunc hos, nunc illos aditus, omnemque pererrat
Arte locum, et variis assultibus irritus urget.
Ostendit dextram insurgens Entellus, et altè
Extulit: ille ictum venientem à vertice velox
Prævidit, celerique elapsus corpore cessit.
Entellus vires IN VENTUM EFFUDIT; ct ultro
Ipse gravis, graviterque ad terram pondere vasto
Concidit : ut quondam cava concidit, aut Erymantho,
Aut Idâ in magnâ, radicibus eruta pinus.-
Consurgunt studiis Teucri et Trinacria pubes ;
It clamor cælo : primusque accurrit Acestes,
Æquævumque ab humo miseruns attollit amicum.
At non tardatus casu, neque territus heros,
Acrior ad pugnam redit, ac vim suscitat iru:
Tum pudor incendit vires, et conscia virtus;
Præcipitemque Daren ardens agit æquore toto;
Nunc dextrâ ingeminans ictus, nunc ille sinistra.
Nec mora, nec requies: quàm multá grandine nimbi

Culminibus crepitant ; sic densis ictibus heros
Creber utrâque manu pulsat versatque Darcta.

A storm of strokes well meant, with fury flies,
And errs about their temples, ears, and

eyes: Nor always errs; for oft the gauntlet draws A sweeping stroke along the crackling jaws.

Hoary with age, Entellus stands his ground; But with his warping body wards the wound; His head and watchful eye keep even pace, While Dares traverses, and shifts his place; And like a captain who beleaguers round Some strong built castle, on a rising ground; Views all the approaches, with observing eyes, This, and that other part, in vain he tries; And more on industry than force relies. With hands on high, Entellus threats the foe; But Dares watch'd the motion from below, And slipp'd aside, and shun’d the long descending blow. Entellus wastes his forces on the wind; And thus deluded of the stroke designed, Ileadlong, and heavy fell: his ample breast, And weighty limbs, his ancient mother press'd. So falls a hollow pine, that long had stood On Ida's height, or Erymanthus' wood.Dauntless he rose, and to the fight returned, With shame his cheeks, his eyes with fury burn'd: Disdain and conscious virtue fir'd his breast, And, with redoubled force, his foe he press'd; He lays on loads with either hand amain, And headlong drives the Trojan o'er the plain, Nor stops, nor stays; nor rest, nor breath allows ; But storms of strokes descend about his brows; A rattling tempest, and a hail of blows.


Both on the tiptoe stand, at full extent;
Their arms aloft, their bodies inly bent;
Their heads from aiming blows, they bear afar,
With clashing gauntlets then provoke the war.
One [Dares) on his youth and pliant limbs relies;
One [Entellus] on his sinews, and his giant size.
The last is stiff with age, his motions slow;
He heaves for breath, he staggers to and fro.
Yet equal in success, they ward, they strike;
Their ways are different, but their art alike.
Before, behind, the blows are dealt; around
Their hollow sides, the rattling thumps resound.

To such a combat as this the apostle most manifestly alludes : and, in the above description, the Reader will see the full force and meaning of the words, so fight I, not as one that beateth the air : I have a real and a deadly foe; and, as I fight not only for my honour but for my life, I aim every blow well, and do execution with each. No

man, who had not seen such a fight, could have given such a description as that above : and we may fairly presume that when Virgil was in Greece, he saw such a contest at the Isthmian games; and therefore was enabled to paint from nature.

Homer has the same image of missing the foe and beating the air, when describing Achilles attempting to kill Hector;

General observations


on the preceding chapter.

who, by his agility and skill, (Poeticè by Apollo,) eluded | He who does nothing for the cause of God and religion, and the blow:

yet obliges the church to support him, and minister to his Τρις μεν επειτ' επορουσε ποδαρκης διος Αχιλλεύς

idleness, irregularities, luxury, avarice and ambition, is a

monster, for whom human language has not yet got a name. Εγχει χαλκειω, τρις δ ηερα τυψε βαθειαν

ILIAD. lib. xx. ver. 445.

2. Those who refuse the labourer his hire, are condemned

by God, and by good men. How liberal are many to public Thrice struck Pelides with indignant heart,

places of amusement, or to some popular charity, where their Thrice, in impassive air, he plunged the dart. Pope. I names are sure to be published abroad ; while the man who

watches over their souls, is fed with the most parsimonious Verse 27. But I keep under my body, &c.] This is an hand! Will not God abate this pride, and reprove this hardallusion not only to boxers, but also to wrestlers in the same heartedness? games; as we may learn from the word uTWT15W, which sig- 3. As the husbandman plows and sows in hope, and the nifies to hit in the eyes ; and Ecuadaywywo, which signifies to || God of Providence makes him a partaker of his hope ; let trip, and give the antagonist a fall, and then keep him down the upright preachers of God's word take example and enwhen he was down; and, having obliged him to acknowledge couragement by him. Let them labour in hope; God will himself conquered, make him a sluve. The apostle considers not permit them to spend their strength for nought. Though his body as an enemy with which he must contend; he must much of their seed, through the fault of the bad ground, mortify it by self-denial, abstinence, and severe labour; it may be unfruitful; yet some will spring up unto eternal life. must be the slave of his soul, and not the soul the slave of 4. St. Paul became all things to all men, that he might the body; which, in all unregenerate men, is the case. gain all. This was not the effect of a fickle or man-pleasing

Lest-having preached to others] The word xypučas, disposition; no man was ever of a more firm or decided which we translate huving preached, refers to the office of character than St. Paul : but, whenever he could, with a the xmpug, or herald at these games, whose business it was to good conscience, yield so as to please his neighbour, for his proclaim the conditions of the games, display the prizes, | good to edification, he did so; and his yielding disposition exhort the combatants, excite the emulation of those who was a proof of the greatness of his soul. The unyielding were to contend, declare the terms of each contest, pro- || and obstinate mind, is always a little mind : a want of true nounce the name of the victors, and put the crown on their greatness always produces obstinacy and peevishness. Such heads. See my observations on this office in the Notes at the || a person as St. Paul is a blessing wherever he goes : on the end of Matth. ii.

contrary, the obstinate, hoggish man, is either a general Should be a cast-away.] The word adoriuos signifies such curse, or a general cross : and if a preacher of the gospel, a person as the Beacsutki, or judges of the games, reject as his is a burthensome ministry. Reader, let me ask thee a not having deserved the prize. So Paul himself might be re- question : If there be no gentleness in thy manners, is there jected by the Great Judge; and, to prevent this, he run, he any in thy heart? If there be little of Christ without, can contended, he denied himself, and brought his body into sub- there be much of Christ within ? jection to his spirit, and had his spirit governed by the Spirit 5. A few general observations on the Grecian Games may of God. Had this heavenly man lived in our days, he would, || serve to recapitulate the subject in the four last verses. by a certain class of people, have been deemed a legalist; a 1. The Isthmian games were celebrated among the Corinpeople who widely differ from the practice of the apostle; for thians; and therefore the apostle addresses them, ver. 24. they are conformed to the world, and they feed themselves KNOW ye not, &c. without fear.

2. Of the five games there used, the apostle speaks only On the various important subjects in this chapter I have of three, running, ver. 23. they which run in a race; and already spoken in great detail ; not, indeed, all that might | ver. 26. I therefore so run, not as uncertainly. WRESTLING, be said, but as much as is necessary. A few general ob- ver. 25. every man that striveth; o aywwi boulevos, he who servations will serve to recapitulate and impress what has wrestleth. Boxing, ver. 26, 27. so fight I, not as one that been already said.

beateth the air; GuTW TIUXTEUW, so fist I, so I hit ; but I keep

my body under ; UTWTiağw, I hit in the eye, I make the face 1. St. Paul contends that a preacher of the gospel has a black and blue. right to his support : and he has proved this from the law, 3. He who won the race by running, was to observe the from the gospel, and from the common sense and consent of || laws of racing; keeping within the white line, which marked men. If a man who does not labour, takes his maintenance | out the path or compass in which they ran; and he was also to from the church of God, it is not only a domestic theft, but outrun the rest, and to come first to the goal : otherwise, he a sacrilege. He that gives up his time to this labour, has a ran uncertainly, ver. 24, 26. and was adoxipos, one to whom right to the support of himself and family : he who takes the prize could not be judged by the judges of the games, more than is sufficient for this purpose, is a covetous hireling. 4. The athletic combatants, or wrestlers, observed a set


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