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Observations on marriage
both of difficulty and importance. As to the difficulties, it is
5. The conversion which the Scripture requires, though it hoped that they have been so generally considered in the makes a most essential change in our souls, in reference to Notes
, that few or none of them remain : and, on the sub-God ; and in our works, in reference both to God and man; jects of peculiar importance, much time has been spent, in makes none in our civil state: even if a man is called, i. e. order to impress them on the mind of the Reader. The de- converted in a state of slavery, he does not gain his manulicacy of some of them would not admit of greater plainness; mission in consequence of his conversion ; he stands in the and in a few instances I have been obliged to wrap the mean- same relation both to the state and to his fellows, that he ing in a foreign language.
stood in before; and is not to assume any civil rights or 2. On the important subject of marriage, I have said privileges in consequence of the conversion of his soul what I believe to be true; and scruple not to say, that it is to God. The apostle decides the matter in this chapter, the most useful state in which the human being can be placed ; and orders that every man should abide in the calling whereand consequently that, in which most honour may be brought in he is called. to God. I have listened with much attention, for the better 6. From the 20th, to the 23d verse, the apostle refers to part of half a century, to the arguments against marriage, the state of slavery among the Greeks : and, from what he and in favour of celibacy: and I have had the opportunity says, we find that even among the slaves there were Christian of being acquainted with many who endeavoured to ex-converts ; to whom, though he recommends submission and emplify their own doctrine : but, I have seen an end of all 'contentment, yet he intimates that if they could get their their perfection ; neither the world, nor the church, are un- ! freedom, that they should prefer it; and he strongly charges der any obligations to them : they either married when they , those that were frec, not to become again the slaves of men, could do it to their mind and convenience, or, continuing in ver. 23. from which we learn, that a man might dispose of their celibacy, they lived a comparatively useless life; and his own liberty, which, in a Christian, would be a disgrace died, as they should, unregretted. The doctrine is not only to his redemption by Christ. The word ensuhecos, which we dangerous, but anti-scriptural: and, I hope, I have suf- translate freeman, means properly freedman; one who had ficiently vindicated Paul from being its patron or sup- been a sluve, but had regained his liberty. It is the same as porter.
libertus among the Romans, one who was manumitted. The 3. While I contend for the superior excellence of the manumission was performed three several ways—1. The conmarriage state, I hope I shall not be understood to be the sent of the master, that the slave should have his name enapologist of indiscriminate marriuges---No, many of them tered in the census, or public register of the citizensare blameable in a very high degree. Instead of consulting 2. The slave was led before the prætor, and the magistrate common sense and propriety; childish affections, brutish pas- laid his wand, called vindicta, on his head, and declared him sions, or the love of money, are the motives on which many free—3. By testament or will, the master bequeathing to the of them have been contracted. Such marriages are miser- slave his freedom. able, must be so, and should not be otherwise : and super- The manner in which the second mode of manumission ficial people, looking at these, form an estimate of the state was performed is curious. The prætor, having laid the rod itself; and then indulge themselves in exclaiming against an vindicta upon the slave's head, pronounced these words, ordinance of God; either perverted by themselves, or the Dico eum liberum esse more Quiritum, “ I pronounce him equally foolish persons who are the sulijects of their animad- free, according to the custom of the Romans.” This done, version. That, genuine Christians can never be so useful in he gave the rod to the lictor, or serjeant, who struck the any state as that of marriage, I am fully convinced ; but, to slave with it upon the head, and afterwards, with the hand, be happy, the marriage must be in the Lord. When believers upon the face and back. The head also of the slave was match with unbelievers, generally pars sincera trahitur, the shaven, and a cup given him by his master, as a token of good becomes perverted; and Satan has his triumph when he || freedom; and the notary entered the name of the new freedhas got an immortal soul out of the church of Christ into his man in the public register, with the reasons of his manuown synagogue. But who, among young people, will lay mission : it was customary also to give him another sur. this to heart! And how few, among young men and young women, will not sell their Saviour and his people, for a hus- 7. Among our Saxon ancestors, and also after the conband or a wife!
quest, there was a species of slavery : all the villani were 4. The doctrine of second marriages has been long a sub- || slaves to their respective lords; and each was bound to ject of controversy in the church. The Scriptures, properly serve him in a great variety of ways. There is a profusion understood, have not only nothing against them, but much of curious examples of this in that ancient record, preserved for them. And, in this chapter, St. Paul, in the most in the bishop's auditors' office in the cathedral of Durham, pointed manner, admits of them.
A widow may marry commonly known by the name of the Boldon book. This again ; only, let it be in the Lord. And a widower has cer- | record is now printing under the direction of his Majesty's Jainly the same privilege.
commissioners on the public records of the kingdom.
Observations on slavery
8. Among our Saxon ancestors, manumissions were granted
May Christ strike him blind on various accounts—1. A person might, if able, purchase
Who this writing perverts. his own freedom—2. One man might purchase the freedom And he has dedicated her to Christ and St. Peter, in behal! of another-3. Manumissions were granted to procure, by of his mother's soul.” their merit, the salvation of departed souls-4. Persons were 9. When a man was made free, it was either in the church, manumitted also, in order to be consecrated to the service of or at some public meeting; the sheriff of the county took God. These manumissions were usually recorded in some him by the right hand, and proclaimed him a freeman; and koly book, especially in copies of the four Evangelists, | shewed him the open door, and the public highway; intimatwhich, being preserved in the libraries of abbies, &c. were ing that he was free to go whithersoever he pleased, and a continual record ; and might, at all convenient times, be then gave him the arms of a freeman, viz. a spear and a consulted. Several entries of these manumissions exist in a sword. In some cases the man was to pay thirty-pence MS. of the four Evangelists, s. 4. 14. in the library of to his master, of hide money; intimating that he was no Corpus Christi, or Bennet college Cambridge.
longer under restraint, chastisement, or correction. From I shall produce a specimen of one of the several kinds | which it appears, that our ancestors were in the habit of mentioned above, giving the original only of the first; and, jogging their slaves. See the laws of Ina, c. 24. 39. of of the others, verbal translations,
m. the Conqueror, c. 65. and of Hen. I. c. 78.
10. Among the Gentoos, the manumission of a slave was 1. The certificate of a man's having purchased his own as follows:- The slave took a piteher, filled it with water, freedom.
and put therein berenge-drook, (rice that had been cleansed per yputelaþ on busere Epijter bec y Alppig re red hæpp | without boiling,) and flowers of doob, (a kind of small geboht hine selfıe ur æt Ælfrige abb. y eallon hirede . salad,) and taking the pitcher on his shoulder, he stands mið anon punde þar is to gepitner eall re hired on Badan. near his master; the master then puts the pitcher on the Lrijt hive ablende.
slave's head, breaks it so that the water, rice, flowers and be by gegnit apende.
doob, that were in the pitcher, may fall on the slave's body:
when this is done, the master thrice pronounces, I have made - flere is witnessed, in this book of Christ, that Ælfrigthee free : then the slave steps forward a few paces towards the Rei, hath redeemed himself from abbot Ælfsig, and the the East, and then the manumission is complete. See Code whole convent, with one pound. And this is witnessed by l of Gentoo Laws, chap. viii. sec. 2. pag. 160. It is evident the whole convent of Bath.
that the whole of this ceremony is emblematical.-1. The May Christ strike him blind,
pitcher represents the confined servile state of the slave Who this writing perverts."
2. The articles contained in it, his exclusion while in a state
of slavery, from the grand benefits and comforts of lifeThis is a usual execration at the end of these forms: and is 3. The water contained in the pitcher, his exclusion from the in rhyme in the original.
refreshing influences of heaven; for slaves were not per
mitted to take part in the ordinances of religion-4. The 2. Certificate of one having purchased the liberty of clean, unboiled rice; his incapacity to have secular possesanother.
for slaves were not permitted to possess lands either “ Here is witnessed in this book of Christ, that Ædric At- by inheritance or purchase : a slave could sow no seed for ford has redeemed Sægyfa, his daughter, from the Abbot himself, and consequently have no legal claim on support Ælfsig, and from the convent of Bath, to be for ever free, || from this staff of life—5. The doob or salad shut up, his and all her posterity.”
being without relish for that state of being, which was ren
dered insupportable to him by his thraldom-6. The break3. Certificate of redemption, in behalf of one departed. ing of the pitcher, his manumission and enjoyment of liberty: “« Here is witnessed in this book of Christ, that Ælfric being as free to go whithersoever he would, as the water Scot, and Ægelric Scot, are manumitted for the soul of was to run, being now disengaged from the piteher-7. The Abbot Ælfsig, to perpetual liberty. This was done with || shedding of the water, rice, flowers, &c. over his body, his the testimony of the whole convent.”
privilege of enjoying and possessing every heavenly and
earthly good-8. His stepping totoards the East, his acknow4. Certificate of persons manumitted to be devoted to the ledgment to the Supreme Being, the fountain of light and service of God.
life, (of whom the sun was the emblem,) for his enlarge< Here is witnessed in this book of Christ, that John bought ment; and his eagerness to possess the light and comfort of Gunnilda the daughter of Thurkill, from Goda, widow of that nero state of happiness into which he was not brought, Leafenath, with half a pound. With the testimony of the in consequence of his manumission. whole onvent.
11. The description that Dr. John Taylor gives, in his
Observations on the state
and condition of slaves.
Elements of Civil Law, of the state of slaves among the dence, punished at the discretion of their lord, and eren put ancients, will nearly suit with their state among our ances- to death by his authority. They were laid under sereral tors; though scarcely as bad as their state in the West other civil incapacities, too tedious to mention." Indies. “ They were held among the Romans--pro nullis When all this is considered, we may at once see the horripro mortuis—pro quadrupedibus-for no men—for dead men ble evil of slavery; and wonder at the grace which could --for beasts : nay, were in a much worse state than any render them happy and contented in this situation : see the cattle whatever. They had no head in the state, no name, preceding chapter, verses 20, 21, and 22. And yet we need no tribe or register. They were not capable of being in- | not be surprised that the apostle should say to those who jured; nor could they take by purchase or descent: had no were free, or freed, Ye are bought with a price; do not beheirs, and could make no will. Exclusive of what was called come slaves of men. their peculium, whatever they acquired was their master's : 12. I have entered the more particularly into this subject, they could neither plead nor be pleaded; but were entirely because it, or allusions to it, are frequently occurring in the excluded from all civil concerns: were not entitled to the New Testament; and I speak of it here once for all. And, rights of matrimony, and therefore had no relief in case of to conclude, I here register my testimony against the unadultery : nor were they proper objects of cognation nor principled, inhuman, anti-christian, and diabolic Slave Trade, affinity. They might be sold, transferred, or pawned, like with all its authors, promoters, abettors, and sacrilegious other goods or personal estate ; for goods they were, and gains; as well as against the Great Devil, the father of it such were they esteemed. They might be tortured for evi- , and them. .
CHAPTER VIII. The question of the Corinthians concerning meats offered to idols, and the apostle's preface to his instructions on that
head, 1–3. The nature of idolatry, 4,5. Of genuine worship, 6. Some ate of the animals that had been offered to idols, knowingly, and so defiled their conscience, 7. Neither eating nor abstinence in themselves, recommend us to God, 8. But no man should use his Christian liberty so as to put a stumbling-block before a brother, 9, 10. If he act otherwise, he may be the means of a brother's destruction, 11. Those who act so as to wound the tender conscience of a brother, sin against Christ, 12. The apostle's resolution on this head, 13.
* as touching things of- || Knowledge puffeth ur, but charity A. ML.4060.
fered unto idols, we know | edifieth. Apno Imp.Ne
Anno Imp. Neronis Cas. 3. that all have v knowledge.
2 And if any man think that he ronis Cæs. 3.
A. M. 4060.
A. D. 56. A. U, C. 809.
A. U. C. 809.
• Acts 15. 20, 29. ch. 10. 19.
b Rom. 14. 14, 22.
• Rom. 14. 3, 10.
d ch. 13. 8, 9, 12. Gal. 6. 3. 1 Tim. 6. 4.
NOTES ON CHAP. VIII.
Eliyahu, Triglandus has extracted the following deci. Verse 1. As touching things offered unto idols] This sions, which will throw light upon this subject. " It is unwas another subject on which the Corinthians had asked the lawful to receive any benefit from any kind of heathen worapostle's advice : and we shall understand the whole of this ship ; or from any thing that has been offered to an idol.”— chapter the better, when we consider one fact, viz. That there “ It is unlawful to buy or sell an idol ; and if, by accident, had long subsisted a controversy between the Kurcites and any such thing shall come into thy power, thou shalt derive the Traditionists, how far it was lawful to derive any benefit no emolument from it.”_" The animals that are destined or advantage from things used by the Gentiles. The Karciïtes and prepared for the worship of idols, are universally prowere a sect of the Jews who scrupulously held to the letter hibited ; and particularly those which bear the mark of the of the Sacred Writings ; taking this alone for their direc- | idol. This should be maintained against the opinion of the tory.
The Traditionists were those who followed the voice Traditionists, who think they may lawfully use these kinds of of the elders ; interpreting the Divine testimonies by their animals, provided they be not marked with the sign of the decisions. From a work of the Karaïtes, entitled Addereth | idols.” Thus far the Karuïtes; and here we see one strong Of ealing thing's
offered to idols.
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knoweth any thing, he knoweth no- 4 As concerning therefore the eatAU. C. 809: thing yet as he ought to know. Anno Imp.
ing of those things that are of- A. U.C. Og 3 But if any man love God, « the fered in sacrifice unto idols, we same is known of him.
know that an idol is nothing in the world,
Anno Imp. Ve ronis Cas 3.
ronis Cas. 3.
a Exod. 33. 12, 17. Nah. 1. 7. Matt. 7. 23. Gal. 4. 9. 2 Tim. 2. 19.
Isai. 41. 24. ch. 10. 19.
point of difference between these two sects. The Karaïtes however the words may be understood as to their origin, totally objected to every thing used in idolatrous services : they contain a general truth, as they relate to Christians of the Traditionists, as the Talmud shews, did generally the those times, and may be thus paraphrased : “ All we who same; but it appears that they scrupled not to use any ani- are converted to God, by Christ, have sufficient knowledge mal employed in idolatrous worship, provided they did not concerning idols and idol worship; and we know also the see the sign of the idol on it. Now, the sign of the idol liberty which we have through the gospel, not being bound must be that placed on the animal previously to its being sa- by Jewish laws, rites, ceremonies, &c. but many carry crificed; such as gilded horns and hoofs, consecrated fillets, their knowledge in this liberty too far, and do what is gurlands, &c. And, as after it had been sacrificed, and its neither seemly nor convenient, and thus give offence to flesh exposed for sale in the shambles, it could bear none of others.” these signs, we may take it for granted that the Jews might Knowledge puffeth up, but charily edisieth.] This know. think it lawful to buy and eat this flesh: this the Kararle ledge is very nearly allied to pride ; it pufieth up the mind would most solemnly scruple. It may be just necessary to with vain conceit, makes those who have it bold and rasli, state here, that it was customary, after the blood and life of ' and renders them careless of the consciences of others. And an animal had been offered in sacrifice to an idol, to sell the this knowledge boasted of by the Corinthians, led them to flesh in the market indiscriminately, with that of other ani- contemn others; for so the word quouiñ is understood by mals, which had not been sacrificed ; but merely killed for some eminent critics.
Even the less scrupulous Jews, knowing that Verse 2. He knoweth nothing yet, &c.] The person who any particular flesh had been thus offered would abhor the acts in this rash unfeeling way, from the general knowledge use of it: and, as those who lived among the Gentiles as the which he has of the vanity of idolatry, and the liberty Jews at Corinth, must know that this was a common case ; which the gospel affords from Jewish rites; with all his hence they would be generally scrupulous ; and those of knowledge, does not know this, that though the first and them that were converted to Christianity, would have their greatest commandment says, Thou shalt love the Lord thy scruples increased, and be as rigid on this point as the God with all thy heurt, &c. yet the second is like unto it, Karaïtes themselves. On the other hand, those of the Gen- Thou shalt lore thy neighbour as thyself. He then that can tiles, who had received the faith of Christ, knowing that torment his neighbour's weak or tender conscience, with his an idol was nothing in the world, nor was evea a representa-food or his conduct, does not love him as himself; and tion of any thing, (for the beings represented by idol images therefore knows nothing as he ought to know. were purely imaginary,) made no scruple to buy and eat the Verse 3. But if any man love God]
In that way Aesh as they used to do, though not with the same intention : which the commandment requires, which will necessarily for, when in their heathen state, they ate the flesh offered to beget love to his neighbour, the same is known of him; is idols, they ate it as a feast with the idol, and were thus sup- approved of God, and acknowledged as his genuine folposed to have communion with the idol ; which was the lower. grossest idolatry.
Verse 4. Things that are offered in sacrifice] See on From these observations, it will at once appear, that much the first verse. misunderstanding and offence must have existed in the Corin- An idol is nothing in the world] Dr. Lightfoot translates thian church; the converted Jews abominating every thing that this, we know that there is no idol in the world; which he they kuew had been used in the heathen worship; while the explains thus--Erownoy idol, ομοίωμα, είκής σημείο, converted Gentiles, for the reasons above assigned, would macax77,0009, cxlosides; a likeness, an image, a sign, a cha fcel no scruple on the account.
racter, a shadow : now, wudsy sodwzor, signifies there is no We know that we all have knowledge] I am inclined to idol, no representation of God in the world. Images there think that these are not St. Paul's words; but a quotation are of stone, wood, and metal, but none of these is any refrom the letter of the Corinthians to him : and a proof of presentation of the infinite Spirit. But I prefer the meaning what the apostle says below, knorcledge puleth op: but given in the note on verse 1. As the expression an idol i is
Of eating things
offered to idols.
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A. M. 4000.
A. D. 56.
ronis Cæs. 3.
* and that there is none other God knowledge: for some "with conscience M A. U.C. 809. but one.
of the idol. unto this hour cat it A.U. C. 809. Anno Imp.Ne
Anno Imp. Ne5 For, though there be that are as a thing offered unto an
idol ; "called gods, whether in heaven or in earth, and their conscience being weak is 'defiled. (as there be gods many, and lords many,) 8 But kmeat commendeth us not to God : for
6 But, to us there is but one God, the Fa- neither, if we eat, 'are we the better; ; neither ther, of whom are all things, and we in him; if we eat not,are we the worse. and 'one Lord Jesus Christ, s by whom are all 9 But "take heed, lest by any means this oliberthings, and we by him.
ty of yours become 'a stumblingblock to them 7 Howbeit, there is not in every man that that are weak.
2 Dent. 4. 39. & 6. 4. Isai. 44. 8. Mark 12. 29. ver. 6. Eph. 4. 6. hi Ch. 10. 28, 29. Rom. 14. 14, 23.-
* Rom. 14. 17.- Or, have „u Gal. 5. 13. Or, power'.
nothing in the world, was common in the Old Testament, an idol is nothing in the world; for some with a conscience of and among the Jews; and was understood by them in this the idol, viz. that it is something, eat it ; the flesh that was way : they are not obx Elohim, the true God; but they offered to the idol, as a thing thus offered, considering the are Disebe nothings, and diba, hubclim, VANITY.
feast as a sacred banquet, by which they have fellowship with Verse 5. There be that are called gods] There are many the idol. And their conscience being weak, not properly inimages that are supposed to be representations of divinities ; structed in divine things, is de filed : he performs what he but these divinities are nothing; the figments of mere does as an act of religious worship, and thus his conscience fancy; and these images have no corresponding realities. contracts guilt through this idolatry.
Whether in heaven or in earth] As the sun, moon, planets, As in the commencement of Christianity among the Jews stars; the ocean, rivers, trees, &c. And thus there are, no- that were converted, there were many found who incorpominally, gods many and lords muny.
rated the rites of the law with the principles of the gospel; Verse 6. But, to us there is but one God, the Father] so, doubtless, among the Gentiles there were several who Who produced all things, himself un-created, and un-origin- did not at once throw aside all their idolatry or idolatrous ated. And we in him, xan queis Eis AUTO', and we for him ; notions, but preserved some of its more spiritual and imposall intelligent beings having been created for the purpose of ing parts, and might think it necessary to mingle idolatrous manifesting his glory, by receiving and reflecting his wisdom, feasts with the rites of Christianity--as the sacrament of the goodness, and truth.
Lord's supper was certainly considered as a feast upon a saAnd one Lord Jesus] Only one visible governor of the crisice, as I have proved in my Discourse on the Nature and world and the church ; by whom are all things: who was Design of the Eucharist: as the minds of many of these the Creator, as he is the upholder of the Universe. And youngGentile converts could not, as yet, have been deeply enwe by him, being brought to the knowledge of the true God, dued with spiritual knowledge, they might incorporate these by the revelation of Jesus Christ; for, it is the only be feasts, and confound their nature and properties. gotten Son alone that can reveal the Father. The gods of Verse 8. Nieut commendeth us nol to God] No such feasts whom the apostle speaks, were their divinities, or objects of as these can be a recommendation of our souls or persons to religious worship; the lords were the rulers of the world, the Supreme Being. As to the thing, considered in itself, such as emperors, who were considered next to gods, and the euting givos us no spiritual advantage; and the eating some of them were deified. In opposition to those gods he not, is no spiritual loss. places God the Father, the fountain of plenitude and being : Verse I. But take heed] Lest by frequenting such feasts, and in opposition to the lords, he places Jesus Christ, who and eating things offered to idols, under the conviction that made and who governs all things. We, as creatures, live in an idol is nothing, and that you may eat those things innoFeference, abs AUTOY to him, God the Father, who is the four-cently; lest this liberty of yours should become a means of Lain of our being: and, as Christians, we live di' autou, by grievously offending a weak brother, who has not your or through him, Jesus Christ; by whom we are bought, en knowledge; or inducing one, who respects you for your suightened, pardoned, and saved.
perior knowledge, to partake of these things with the conVerse 7. There is not in every man that knowledgc] This science, the persuasion and belief that an idol is something, s spoken in reference to what is said, ver. 4. We know that and you partake of such things; so he may also, and with