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General observations on

I. CORINTHIANS,

the preceding chapter.

diet : see the quotation from Epictetus, under ver. 25. And crown, while he and his fellow-Christians expected a crown this was a regimen both for quantity and quality : and they incorruptible and immortal, and that could not fade away. carefully abstained from all things that might render them 8. On the subject of the possibility of St. Paul becoming less able for the combat : whence the apostle says they were a cast-away, much has been said in contradiction to his own temperate in all things, ver. 25.

words : He most absolutely states the possibility of the 5. No person who was not of respectable family and cori. case : and who has a right to call this in question? The nections was permitted to be a competitor at the Olympic | ancient Greek commentators, as Whitby has remarked, have games. St. Chrysostom, in whose time these games were still made a good use of the apostle's saying, E. de Iauros Tours celebrated, assures us that no man was suffered to enter the 8801XEY, Ó TOOCUTOUS Sodačas, to QV ELTOILEY quais; “ If Paul, lists who was either a servant or a slave, Ouders OywriteTab so great a man, one who had preached and laboured so δουλος, ουδεις τρατευεται οικετης" And if

any
such was

much, dreaded this, what cause have we to fear lest this found who had got himself inserted on the military list, his should befal us?” name was erased, and he was expelled and punished. Arx' 9. On the necessity of being workers together with God, εαν άλω δουλος ων, μετα τιμοριας εκβαλλεται του της στρατιω- I in order to avoid apostasy, Clemens Alexandrinus has some TWY matangyou. To prevent any person of bad character | useful observations in his Stromata, lib. vii. pag. 448, from entering the lists at the Olympic games, the Kerux, or Edit. Oberthur-125 de, says he, ó satpos üyelar maçeyerek herald, was accustomed to proclaim aloud in the theatre, τους συνεργoυσι προς υγειαν, ουτως και ο Θεος την αιδιου when the combatant was brought forth, Μη τις τουτου κατη- σωτηριαν τους συνεργoυσι προς γνωσιν τε και ευπραγειαν ' γορει; ωςε αυτον αποσκευασαμενον της δουλειας την υποψιαν “ As a physician gives health to those who co-operate with QUTWS ELS TOUS agwvas Eu Ervar: Who can accuse this man. | him in their cure ; so God also gives eternal salvation to For which he gives this reason; "that, being free from all them who are workers together with him in knowledge and suspicion of being in a state of slavery, (and elsewhere he || a godly life.” " Therefore,” says he, “it is well said says of being a thief, or of corrupt morals) he might enter | among the Greeks, that when a certain wrestler, who had the lists with credit." Chrysost. Homil. in Inscript. Altaris, long inured his body to manly exercises, was going to the &c. vol. iii. pag. 59. Edit. Benedict.

Olympic games, as he was passing by the statue of Jupiter, 6. The boxers used to prepare themselves by a sort of || he offered up this prayer, E. Tarta, w Zev, dEQYTWS LLOI TA TIPOS σκιομαχια, or going through all their postures of defence, | τον αγωνα παρεσκευασαι, αποδος φερων δικαιως την νικην εμοι: and attack, when no adversary was before them. This was O Jupiter, if I have performed every thing as I ought, in termed beating the air, ver. 26. but when such came to the reference to this contest, grant me the victory !!” May we combat, they endeavoured to blind their adversaries by not feel something of this spirit in seeking the kingdom of hitting them in the eye, which is the meaning of unwT1KGELY, || God? And can any thing of this kind be supposed to de as we have seen under ver. 27.

rogate from the glory of Christ? St. Paul himself says, if 7. The rewards of all these exercises were only a crown a man contend for the mastery, yet is he not crowned exmade of the leaves of some plant, or the bough of some cept he strive lawfully. Shall we pretend to be wiser than tree; the olive, bay, laurel, parsley, &c. called here by the the apostle, and say, that we may gain the crown, though we apostle piaptoy OTEÇavov, a corruptible, withering, and fading Il neither fight the good fight, nor finish the course?

CHAPTER X.

Peculiar circumstances in the Jewish history were typical of the greatest mysteries of the gospel; particularly

their passing through the Red Sea, and being overshadowed with the miraculous cloud, 1, 2. The manna with which they were fed, 3. And rock out of which they drank, 4. The punishments inflicted on them for their disobedience, are warnings to us, 5. We should not lust as they did, 6. Nor commit idolatry, 7. Nor fornica. tion as they did ; in consequence of which twenty-three thousand of them were destroyed, 8. Nor tempt Christ as they did, 9. Nor murmur, 10. All these transgressions, and their punishments, are recorded as warnings to us, that we may not fall away from the grace of God, 11, 12. God never suffers any to be tempted above their strength, 13. Idolatry must be detested, 14. And the Sacrament of the Lord's Supper properly considered and taken, that God may not be provoked to punish us, 15—22. There are some things which may be Facts in Jewish history, representative

CHAP. X.

of gospel ordinances.

legally done which are not expedient; and we should endearour so to act as to edify each other, 23, 24.

The question concerning eating things offered to idols, considered, and finally settled, 25—30. Ile should do all things to the glory of God, avoid whatsoever might be the means of stumbling anciher, and seck the profit of others in spiritual matters, rather than our own gratification, 31-33.

OREOVER, brethren, I would 3 And did all cat the same spiritual 4. 1. 1060. not that

should be ignorant, meat ; Anno lmp. Ne ye

Anno Imp.Neronis Cæs. 3. how that all our fathers were under 4 And did all drink the same aspiri- ronis Cæs. 3. * the cloud, and all passed through "the sea ; tual drink : (for they drank of that spiritual

2 And were all baptized unto Moses in the rock that followed them: and that rock was cloud and in the sea ;

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MOREOVER, brethren, I would

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* Exod. 13. 21. & 40. 31. Num. 9. 18. & 14. 14. Deut. 1. 33. Neh. 9. 19, 19. Ps. 78. 14. & 105. 39. Exod. 14. 22. Num. 33. S. Josh. 4. 23. Ps. 79. 13.

• Exod, 16. 15, 35. Neh. 9. 15, 20. Ps. 78. 24.-_ Exod. 17. 6. Num. 20. 11. Ps, 78. 15. Or, went with then. Deut. 9, 21. 105. 41.

1

NOTES ON CHAP. X.

tized into Christ, and are thereby brought under obliga. Verse 1. I would not that ye should be ignorunt] It seems tion to keep the precepts of the Gospel. as if the Corinthians had supposed that their being made par- Verse 3. Spiritual meat] The manna which is here called takers of the ordinances of the gospel, such as baptism and spiritual. 1. Because it was provided supernaturally; and, the Lord's supper, would secure their salvation; notwith- 2. because it was a type of Christ Jesus, who speaking of it, standing they might be found partaking of idolatrous feasts; John vi. 31, &c. tells us that it was a type of that true bread as long, at least, as they considered an idol to be nothing in which came down from heaven, which gives life to the world, the world. To remove this destructive supposition which v. 33. and that himself was the bread of life, v. 48. would have led them to endless errors, both in principle and Verse 4. Spiritual drink] By the Όρωμα πνευματικών, practice; the apostle shews that the Jews had sacramental or- spiritual meat, and mou& TEVEUU&Tixov, spiritual drink; the dinances in the wilderness, similar to those of the Christians; apostle certainly means both meat and drink, which were and that notwithstanding they had the typical baptism from | furnished to the Israelitish assembly miraculously, as well as the cloud, and the typical eucharist from the paschal lamb, typically: and he appears to borrow his expressions from the and the manna that came down from heaven; yet when they | Jews themselves, who expressly say "3917 750 onda halechem joined with idolaters, and partook of idolatrous feasts, God | halaz rucheni, that bread was spiritual, and D"3119 O" was not only displeased with them, but signified this dis- meyim rucheniyim haiu, the waters were spiritual. Alschech pleasure by pouring out his judgments upon them; so that in legem, fol. 238. to which opinion the apostle seems parin one day 23,000 of them were destroyed.

ticularly to refer. See Schoettgen. Under the cloudl] It is manifest from scripture that the The spiritual rock that followed them] There is some difmiraculous cloud in the wilderness performed a three-fold of- . ficulty in this verse. How could the rock follow them? fice to the Israelites. 1. It was a cloud in the form of a pil- | it does not appear that the rock ever moved from the place lar to direct their journeyings by day. 2. It was a pillar of where Moses struck it. But to solve this difficulty, it is said, fire to give light to the camp by night.

3. It was a

that rock here is put by metonymy, for the water of the rock; ing for them during the day, and preserved them from the and that this water did follow them through the wilderness. scorching rays of the sun, and supplied them with a suffi- This is more likely ; but we have not direct proof of it. The ciency of aqueous particles, not only to cool that burning at- | ancient Jews, however, were of this opinion, and state that mosphere, but to give refreshment to themselves and their the streams followed them in all their journeyings, up the cattle ; and its humidity was so abundant, that the apostle mountains, down the vallies, &c. &c. and that when they here represents the people as thoroughly sprinkled and en- came to encamp, the waters formed themselves into cisterns, veloped in its aqueous vapour. See the note on Exodus | and pools, and that the rulers of the people guided thein by xiij. 21.

their staves in rivulets to the different tribes and families; Verse 2. And were all baptized unto Moses] Rather and this is the sense they give to Num. xxi. 16. Spring up, 0 INTO Moses, into the covenant of which Moses was the me. well, &c. See the places in Schoettgen. diator; and by this typical baptism, they were brought un- Others contend that by the rock following them, we are der the obligation of acting according to the Mosaic precepts, to understand their having carried of its waters with them, as Christians receiving Christian baptism, are said to be bap: ll on their journeyings.—This we kuow is a common custom

cover

Transgressions and punishments

I. CORINTHIANS.

of the ancient Jeas,

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5 But with many of them God was 7 . Neither be ye idolaters, as were 4.16.4960 A. U. C. 809. not well pleased: for they “were overAnno Imp. Ne

some of them; as it is written, The A. U.C. 609. ronis Cæs. 3. thrown in the wilderness.

people sat down to eat and drink, ronis Cas. 3. 6 Now these things were our examples, to and rose up to play. the intent we should not lust after evil things,

, 8 Neither let us commit fornication, as as they also lusted.

some of them committed, and fell in one

a Ver. 14.

e Exod. 32. 6.

• Num. 14. 29, 32, 35. & 26. 64, 65. Ps. 106. 26. Hebr. 3. 17. Jude 5.

Gr. our figures. Numb. 11. 4, 33, 34. Ps. 106. 14.

_f ch. 6. 18. Rev. 2. 14.-
Ps. 106. 29.

-6 Num. 25. 1,9.

in these desarts to the present day ; and that the Greek verb | Christianity. The apostle shews them that their sin was of axonou bew, to follow, has this sense, Bishop Pearce has am- | the same nature as that of the murmuring rebellious Israel. ply proved in his note on this place. The Jews suppose that ites, whom God so severely punished ; and if he did not the rock itself went with the Israelites, and was present with spare the natural branches, there was no likelihood that he them in their thirty-eight stations, for only so many are men- | should spare them. tioned. See Alschech in legem, fol. 236. And see Schoett- Verse 7. Neither be ye idolaters] The apostle consi. gen.

ders partaking of the idolatrous feasts, as being real acts of Now, though of all the senses already given, that of idolatry; because those who offered the flesh to their gods, Bishop Pearce is the best ; yet it does appear that the apostle considered them as feeding invisibly with them, on the flesh does not speak about the rock itself; but of him whom it repre. thus offered; and that every one that partook of the feast, sented, namely Christ : this was the rock that followed them, was a real participator with the god to whom the flesh or and ministered to them; and this view of the subject is ren- | animal had been offered in sacrifice.

See ver. 21. dered more probable by what is said ver. 9. that they tempt. Rose up to play.] See the note on Exod. xxxii. 6. The ed Christ, and were destroyed by serpents.

Jews generally explain this word, as implying idolatrous Verse 5. They were overthrown in the wilderness] And acts only—I have considered it as implying acts of impurity yet all these persons were under the cloudALL passed with which idolatrous acts were often accompanied. It also through the seamall were baptized into Moses in the cloud, means those dances which were practised in honour of their and in the seuall ate the same spiritual meat— All drank gods. That this is one meaning of the verb Tastery, Kypke bas the same spiritual drink, for they were made partakers of the largely proved. The whole idolatrous process was as follows. spiritual rock Carist. Nothing can be a more decisive' 1. The proper victim was prepared and set apart. 2. It was proof than this, that people who have every outward ordi- ' slain, and its blood poured out at the altar of the deity. 3. The nance, and are made partakers of the grace of our Lord flesh was dressed, and the priests and offerers feasted on it, Jesus, may so abuse their privileges and grieve the Spirit of and thus endeavoured to establish a communion between God, as to fall from their state of grace, and perish ever- themselves and the object of their worship. 4. After eating, lastingly. Let those who are continually asserting that this they had idolatrous dances in honour of their god : and, 5. as is impossible, beware lest they themselves, if in a state of might be expected, impure mixtures, in consequence of those grace, become not, through their overmuch security, proofs dances. The people sat down to eat and to drink, and rose in point of the possibility of ending in the flesh, though they up to play; and it is in reference to this issue of idolatrous began in the spirit.—Reader, remember who said, Ye shall feasts and dancings, that the apostle immediately subjoias, not surely die ; and remember the mischiefs produced by a i Neither let us commit FORNICATION, &c. belief of his doctrine.

Verse 8. Fell in one day three and twenty thousand] Verse 6. These things were our examples] The punish- In Numb. xxv. 9. the number is 24,000; and, allewing this ments which God inflicted on them, furnish us with evi- to be the genuine reading, and none of the Hebrew MSS. dences of what God will inflict upon us, if we sin after the exhibits any various reading in the place, Moses and the similitude of those transgressors.

apostle may be thus reconciled: in Numb. XXV. 4. God comWe should not lust after evil things] It is most evident mands Moses to take all the heads, (the rulers,) of the peothat the apostle refers here to the history in Num. xi. 4, &c. ple, and hang them up before the Lord against the sun; and the mixed multitude fell a lusting, and said, Who shall these possibly amounted to 1000; and those who fell by the give us flesh to eat. Into the same spirit the Corinthians had plague were 23,000, so that the whole amounted to 24,000. most evidently fallen; they lusted after the flesh in the idol Instead of sixoOiT PEIS Wincades, 23,000, two MSS. with the feasts, and therefore frequented them to the great scandal of I latter Syriac and the Armenien, have EIXOSTEOTAPEs Xi asales,

Transgressions and punishments

CHAP. X.

of the ancient Jews.

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a

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9 Neither let us tempt Christ, as ed unto them for ensamples: and A. U.C. 809. Anno Imp. Ne

some of them also tempted, and they are written for our adıno- ronis Cees. 3. • were destroyed of serpents.

nition, "upon whom the ends of the world are 10 Neither murmur ye, as some of them also come. murmured, and were destroyed of the de- 12 Wherefore let him that thinketh he standstroyer.

eth take heed lest he fall.

• Exod. 17. 2, 7. Numb. 21. 5. Deut. 6. 16. Ps. 78. 18, 56. & 95. 9. & 106. 14.-Numb. 21.6.- Exod. 16. 2. & 17. 2. Numb. 14. 2, 29. & 16. 41. a Numb. 14. 37. & 16. 49.

• Exod. 12. 23. 2 Sam. 24. 16. 1 Chron. 21. 15.- Or, types.--& Rom. 15. 4. ch. 9. 10. ch. 7. 29. Phil. 4. 5. Hebr. 10. 25, 37. 1 John 2. 18.- Rom. 11. 20.

T

21,000 ; but this authority is too slender to establish a va- with Zimri and Cosbi, and the rebellion of Corah and his rious reading, which recedes so much from the received text. || company, &c. &c. I think the discordance may be best accounted for, by sup- Destroyed of the destroyer.] The Jews suppose that God posing, as above, that Phineas and his companions, might employed destroying angels to punish those rebellious Israel. have slain 1000 men, who were heads of the people, and ites; they were five in number, and one of them they call chief in this idolatry, and that the plague sent from the nun Meshachith, the destroyer; which appears to be an. Lord destroyed 23,000 more; so an equal number to the other name for Samael, the angel of death; to whose inwhole tribe of Levi perished in one day; who were just fluence they attribute all deaths which are not uncommon or 23,000. See Numb. xxvi. 62. and see Lightfoot.

violent. Those who die violent deaths, or deaths that are Verse 9. Neither let us tempt Chrisl] I have already not in the common manner of men, are considered as perishsupposed, in the Note on ver. 4. that Christ is intended by ing by immediate judgments from God. the Spiritual Rock that followed them; and that it was Fle, Verse 11. Upon whom the ends of the world are come.] not the rock, that did follow or accompany the Israelites in Ta TENY TWY alwww. The end of the times included within the wilderness. This was the Angel of God's presence who the whole duration of the Mosaic economy. For; although was with the church in the wilderness, to whom our fathers the word awww means, in its primary sense, endless being, or would not obey, as St. Stephea says, Acts vii. 38 and 40. duration ; yet in its accommodated sense, it is applied to any Instead of Xpisov Christ; several MSS. and a few Versions, round or duration, that is complete in itself. And here it have Kupoor the Lord, and some few @eor God. But though evidently means the whole duration of the Mosaic æconomy. some respectable MSS. have the Lord instead of Christ; “ Thus therefore,” says Dr. Lightfoot, “ the apostle speaks yet this latter has the greatest proportion of authority on its in this place that those things which were transacted in the side. And this affords no mean proof that the person who is beginning of the Jewish ages, are written for an example to called 91.7 Yehovah, in the Old Testament, is called Christ you, upon whom the ends of those ages are come : and the in the New. By tempting Christ, is meant disbelieving the beginning is like to the end ; and the end to the beginning. providence and goodness of God; and presuming to pre- Both was forty years; both consisted of temptation and un. scribe to Him how he should send them the necessary sup-belief ; and both ended in the destruction of the unbelievers. plies ; and of what kind they should be, &c.

That, in the destruction of those who perished in the wil. Verse 10. Neither murmur ye] Ilow the Israelites mur- derness; this, in the destruction of those that believed not: mured because of the manna, which their souls despised as a viz. the destruction of their city and nation.” The phrase light bread, something incapable of affording them nourish- ***1910 soph yomia, the end of days, says the Targum of ment, &c. and because they had been brought out of Jerusalem, Gen. iii. 15. mean xn'un *3597 213 beyomoi Egypt into the wilderness, and pretended that the promises de malca Mashicha, in the days of the king Messiah. of God had failed; and how they were destroyed by ser- are to consider the apostle's words as referring to the end of pents, and by the destroyer or plague, may be seen at large the Jewish dispensation, and the commencement of the in the texts referred to in the margin, on this and the pre- Christian ; which is the last dispensation which God will ceding verses. It appears from what the apostle says here, vouchsafe to man in the state of probation. that the Corinthians were murmuring against God and his

Verse 12. Let him that thinketh he stanuleth] 'O Boxwe apostle, for prohibiting them from partaking of the idolatrous savo: Let him who must confidently standeth ; him who has feasts; just as the Israelites did in the wilderness, in re- the fullest conviction in his own conscience, that his heart is ference to a similar subject. See the history of Phineas, I right with God, and that his mind is right in the truth, take

We

The nature and design of

I. CORINTHIANS.

the Lord's supper.

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13 There hath no temptation taken || 16 The cup of blessing, which we - Anno impone you but « such as is common to man: bless, is it not the communion of the A. U.C. 802.

but God is faithful, who will not blood of Christ ? The bread which ronis Cass. suffer you to be tempted above that ye are able; we break, is it not the communion of the body but will, with the temptation, also d make a way of Christ ? to escape, that ye may be able to bear it.

17 For, 'we being many, are one bread, and 14 Wherefore, my dearly beloved, " Ree from one body: for we are all partakers of that one idolatry.

bread. 15 I speak as to wise 'men; judge ye what 18 Behold “Israel 'after the flesh: are not they .

which eat of the sacrifices partakers of the altar?

I say

a Or, moderate.--4h ch. 1. 9.-- Ps. 125. 3. 2 Pet. 2. 9.- - Jer. 29. 11. Le ver. 7. 2 Cor. 6. 17. 1 John 5. 21.--- ch. 8. 1.-- Matt. 25. 26, 27, 28.

h Acts 2. 42, 46. ch. 11. 23, 24.-— Rom. 12. 5. ch. 12. 27. k Rom. 4. 12. Gal. 6. 16. Rom. 4. 1. & 9.3, 5. 2 Cor. 11. 18.in Lev. 3. 3. & 7. 15.

heed lest he fall from his faith, and from the state of holi- Verse 11. Wherefore-flee from idolatry.] This is a ness in which the grace of God has placed him. I have trial of no great magnitude; to escape from so gross a tempalready shewn that the verb 29%81%, which we render to seem, tation requires but a moderate portion of grace and circumto think, to suppose, is used by the best Greek writers not spection. to lessen or weuken the sense, but to render it stronger, and Verse 15. I speak as to wise men] The Corinthians more emphatic. See the Note on Luke viii. 18.

valued themselves not a little on their wisdom and various In a state of probation, every thing may change; while gifts; the apostle admits this, and draws an argument from we are in this life, we may stand or fall: our standing in the it against themselves. As ye are so wise, surely ye can see faith depends on our union with God; and that depends on the propriety of abominating idolatry of every kind : for an our watching unto prayer, and continuing to possess that idol is nothing in the world ; and can do nothing for you, and faith that worketh by love. The highest saint under heaven nothing against you. can stand no longer than he depends upon God, and conti- Verse 16. The cup of blessing] The apostle speaks nues in the obedience of faith. IIe that ceases to do so, will here of the Eucharist, which he illustrates by the 393703 fall into sin, and get a darkened understanding and a hard- cos huburacuh, cup of blessing, over which thanks were er. ened hcart : and he may continue in this state till God come pressed at the conclusion of the Pass-over. See this largely to take away his soul. Therefore, let him icho most ussur- explained at the conclusion of the Notes on Matt. xxvi. and edly standeth, take heed lest he full; not only partially, but in my Discourse upon the Eucharist, 8vo. 2d edit. 1814. finally.

The communion of the blood of Christ] We who partake Verse 13. But such as is common lo man] A: 65WT. LYOSÓ of this sacred cup, in commemoration of the death of Chri:t, Chrysostom has properly translated this word a=5WTIVOS, are made partakers of his body and blood, and thus have TOUTE 51 Picos, Bamus, cuecos, that is, small, short, mo- fellowship with him; as those who partake of an idol ferest; derate. Your temptations or trials have been but trifling, in thereby, as much as they can, participate with the idol, to comparison of those endured by the Israelites; they might whom the sacrifice was offered. This I have proved at large have been easily resisted and overcome : besides, God will in the above Tract, to which I must refer the Reader; as the not suffer you to be tried above the strength he gives you ; l subject is too voluminous to be inserted here. but, as the trial comes, he will provide you with sufficient Verse 17. For, we being many, are one breal] The original strength to resist it: as the trial comes in, he will make your would be better translated thus : because there is one bread, tedy out. The words are very remarkable, T: 017,CEL OUV TV or lvaf, we, who are many, are one body. As only one loaf TE120W xX6 TYY 889.01, “he will, with the temptation, was used at the Pass-over, and those who pattook of it were make the deliverance, or way out.”

Satan is never per

considered to be one religious body; so we who partake of mitted to block up our way, without the providence of God the Eucharistical bread and wine, in commemoration of the making a way through the wall. God ever makes a breach sacrificial death of Christ, are one spiritual society, because in his otherwise impregnable fortification. Should an up- we are all made partakers of that one Christ whose bleed right soul get into difficulties and straits, he may rest as- was shed for us, to make an atonement for our sins; as the sured that there is a way out, as there was a way in; and blood of the Paschal Lamb was shed and sprinkled in rethat the trial shall nover be above the strength that God shall ference to this, of which it was the type. give him to bear it.

Verse 18. Behold Israel after the flesh] The Jews pot

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