« 前へ次へ »
tion of the mystery, I determined to place. Processes analogous to de. subject the matter to the ordeal of composition are witnessed in the my own senses; and for this pur- human subject while the living prinpose visited the cabin for fourteen ciple remains. Disease is but a step nights, and on three nights only did toward dissolution, in which the I witness any thing unusual. Once I vital powers are impaired ; and unperceived a luminous fog, resem less the malady be checked by the bling the Aurora Borealis, and twice use of proper means, the period will I saw scintillations, like the spark- quickly approach when the chemical ling phosphorescence sometimes ex action will entirely prevail over the hibited by the sea infusoria. From frame. Phosphorescent matter may the close scrutiny I made, I can be generated in organic bodies at with certainty say, that no impo- the period of incipient decomposisition was either employed or at tion; and when we consider that tempted."
phosphuretted hydrogen undergoes I refer only to one case more, spontaneous combustion, when which I will briefly relate :
brought in contact with the oxygen In the old Meath Hospital a poor of the atmosphere, and that in the
was admitted, labouring body, the component parts of which under an extensive cancerous this gas is formed exist in great mour of the breast, who complained abundance, an easy solution is at that she could not sleep for watch- hand, accounting for the luminous ing the sore, which she described as appearances which have been witbeing on fire all night. Dr. Stokes, nessed in dissecting-rooms, in burialwhose patient she was, directed that grounds, in inarine substances, as he should be sent for when this well as on the approach of dissoluluminous appearance was visible ; tion. which was done. The lights of the On the subject of burial-grounds, ward were extinguished ; and then, we are reminded of that phenome. removing the coverings of the tu non which has often been witnessed mour, he discovered the whole of in the grave-yards of Wales, and the base and edges of the cavity popularly termed, corpse phosphorescing in the strongest dles;” which, when divested of the manner. The light was distinctly marvellous and superstitious expres. visible at the end of the ward, a dis- sions that generally accompany their tance of more than twenty feet from description, will be found to arise her bed. The light within a few from the spontaneous combustion of inches of the ulcer, enabled him to a noxious gas, similar in quality to distinguish the figures on a watch- the phosphuretted hydrogen : and dial.
hence, who does not perceive the How are these appearances to be deleterious effects of a cemetery in accounted for? In answering this the vicinity of a populous neighbourquestion, I would observe, that they hood, or of a residence immediately are never seen but in cases of ex contiguous ? tensive disease, and when consider. London. able alteration of structure has taken
The Connexion and Harmony of the Old and New Testaments : being an
Inquiry into the Relation, literary and doctrinal, in which these two
M.A., Edinburgh. 8vo. pp. xv, 510. Jackson and Walford. However necessary controversy lishment or vindication of truth, may be when required for the estab- and with whatever pleasure its suc
cessful issue, or even progress, may of a political community, and the be regarded, yet the region through religion necessary for him as a fallen which it conducts is never one but redeemed man; and thus, which would be chosen for its own amidst so much that is ceremonial sake by those who have any ac and external, the unchangeable chaquaintance with the paths of a more racteristics of spiritual piety were practical inquiry, or who at all un- brought forwards with a prominence derstand the charity which the which even the New Testament divine administration always seeks does not surpass, though the pria. to secure, whether in love or re ciples of which they are the deve. demption. For our own part, we lopement, and the various relations are glad to avail ourselves of every in which they stand, may be placed opportunity of escaping from it. in a clearer light, and revealed to a Truth, indeed, must be freed from greater extent. the entanglements of error, and Still, the subjects which a volume they who err must often be directly like Mr. Alexander's calls us to assailed, lest they succeed in beguil consider are, in the first instance, ing others by the impunity which and chiefly, connected with persor.al they may bé permitted to enjoy : inprovement. The knowledge which but it is far more pleasant to move these studies are calculated to be under the guidance of unfettered stow, relates generally to the divine truth, gathering the fruit which goodness in affording to us direct may be found in her paths, and revelations and particularly to advancing towards the position to those momentous subjects which which they lead, and of which they those revelations place before us. afford the prospect.
Milton speaks with all the exactress It is with feelings such as these of even mathematical truth, as well that we have placed before us the as with all the richness of poetical
Congregational Lectures" deliver thought, uttered in language of ed soine tiine ago by Mr. Alexan. the sweetest melody, when he es. der. Other matters have lately claims, “How charming is divine called for our attention. Even Dr. philosophy!” and denies the harsbBennett's Lectures, likewise belong ness and ruggedness ascribed to it ing to this series, and delivered by the foolishness of a God-forgetsince Mr. Alexander's, were noticed ting world. The history of the Old as connected with the almost all. and New Testament is the history absorbing controversy of the day. of the divine administration; and Nor will it be out of sight from the they who devote themselves to its ground on which the present volume study, might almost be said " to places us. The point really at issue dwell in the house of the Lord all between the Tractarians and Evan- the days of their life, to behold the gelicals relates directly to the true beauty of the Lord, and to inquire nature of personal religion ; and if in his temple.” the Evangel cal view be correct, it Indeed, we often think that many may be looked for, in its principles Christians deprive themselves, by at least, as well in the Old Testa. want of reflection on subjects of this ment as in the New ; and be- class, of one of the most pleasingls: cause of the national, and therefore impressive evidences of the truth of limited, character of the Mosaic revelation. They take the Bible as ritual, it may even be expeeted to one book. It is bound in Obe stand out from it with sufficient volume; and, having been transdistinctness, furnish import- lated at one time, and in the same ant directions for our guidance state of the national mind, it speaks in ascertaining the boundaries be- throughout in the same language tween the form of godliness, and its In their own minds, let them sepa. power, under the Gospel.
rate its constituent portions, and often necessary to remind the Jew regard them as having been penned of the difference between the obedi. by different men, in more than one -ence due from him as the member language, and throughout a tract of
time 'extending from the Jewish the reader; but the principal stress Legislator, Moses, to the Roman is laid, as was proper, on their reliEmperor, Trajan ; from B.C. 1500, gious unity. to A. D. 100; a space (speaking As to their literary connexion, the generally) of not less than sixteen first Lecture is devoted to the consihundred years.
Over this period deration of the subject, and the does the work of revelation extend, question of the quotations from the embracing large number of Old Testament found in the New, is writers, and exhibited in no less examined with much ability. We than sixty-six separate treatises. can give, however, only the conclu. Sixty-six works, in sixteen hundred sion, which is likewise the concluyears! And what is the fact of the sion of the Lecture. case? It may be given under two aspects. First, there is sufficient “I have now finished what I have variety in the external forms of style deemed it necessary to offer, in such a to banish even the suspicion of their
course as the present, on the external or production by one man, or even by literary connexion between the Old and
the New Testaments. From the survey many men at one time. Second,
which has been made, it is obvious that under this remarkably limited vari- that connexion is very close, and that a ety, there is a oneness of thought, powerful influence has been exerted upon principle, object, utterly inexplica- the composition of the latter, by the ble, except on the supposition, that familiarity which its authors possessed they were the work of one and the with the language and contents of the same mind, that mind being the former. Though written originally in same throughout the whole period different tongues, and marked respect. required by the facts of the case for ively by certain peculiarities of style, its manifestation. No hypothesis structure, and allusion, both belong eviwill meet the undeniable facts, but dently to the same national literature, that of the inspiration of holy men;
and bear the stamp and hue of the same
national taste, intellect, and character. one and the same Spirit operating upon a number of men of different however, the materials we have been
“ Besides establishing this connexion, mental constitutions, living at dif- considering clearly point us to one of a ferent times, and in different states deeper and more intrinsic character, to of public opinion : and by this one not in outward form merely, but hypothesis they are met, and fully also in substance. The terms in which satisfied. And this, according to our Lord and his Apostles speak of the the established principles of the
Old Testament, the frequent references inductive philosophy, this is demon- which, in their discourses or writings, stration. And if demonstration be they make to its contents, and the delightful in the science of abstract purposes for which these references are quantity, what must it be in the made, are such as to leave no doubt on
the mind of the reader respecting the science which, if true, makes
views entertained and taught by them on known to us infinite wisdom, bene- this head. That the Jewish Scriptures volence, and power, as the attri contain a system of religious truth subbutes of a Being whom we may call stantially identical with that which they “Our Father which art in heaven?" promulgated ; that the prophecies record
The title-page of Mr. Alexander's ed in these Scriptures concerning the volume precisely explains his object, Messiah and his kingdom, find their ful. and the character of his work. He filment in the events in which they either proposes to show-and he does were chief agents, or of which they are show—the connexion and harmony witnesses to the world ; that the symboliof the two great portions of the cal and typical institutions of Moses
adumbrated those great spiritual truths sacred volume : he thus furnishes a
which they had come forth to proclaim most important and convincing ar
to mankind; that, in short, Christianity gument for their divine origin; is only the full manifestation of those they are exhibited as being undeni. glorious facts which had projected their ably the work of one mind, and as prophetic shadows into the previous ecorelating to the same object. Their nomies, announcing that the source of literary connexion is placed before light was in the direction from which
they came ;-are positions inseparably in- poses for which it is given, is as unterwoven with the whole texture of the equivocally stated as its inspiration, evangelical history and doctrines. If we something, indeed, is represented profess to take our religion from the New Testament, we must take this as a
as necessary for its proper undernecessary part of the whole system there standing; but that aid is not refera in revealed.”
red to human tradition. “Open thou
mine eyes, that I may behold wonYes; and the inference is irresist. drous things out of thy law,” is lanible, that both the religion and the guage the meaning of which cannot books are from God. An origin be misunderstood, and which is merely human, under these circum- perfectly in agreement with the lanstances, they could not have had. guage of the New Testament on the What man is, is well known; and same subject : From a child thou his variableness now belongs to his hast_known the holy Scriptures," very nature. We cannot conceive St. Paul says to Timothy," which of a series of works, spread over so are able to make thee wise unto salmany ages, each number of it being vation,”-not by the careful study the separate result of an individual of the traditions of men who lived will, whatever sameness of intention next to the times when these Scripthere might be, preserving such a tures were given, as if bere alone perfect identity of character. Had the just principles of interpretation the books been merely human, were to be found, but," through marks of their humanity would have faith which is in Christ Jesus." been indisputably presented. But And thus, assuming their practical all the phenomena which the case plainness, the writer of that admirafurnishes, and on which alone it can ble composition, Psalm cxix., debe honestly argued, conduct us to clares, “o how I love thy law! it this issue, -that “the prophecy is my meditation all the day.” And came not in old time by the will of was he thus led into heresy? Nay;
but holy men of God spake let us hear him out: as they were moved by the Holy through thy commandments, hast Ghost.” And, therefore, “ all Scrip- made me wiser than mine enemies ; ture is given by inspiration of God, for they are ever with me. I bare and is profitable for doctrine, for more understanding than all my reproof, for correction, and for in- teachers; for thy testimonies are my struction in righteousness ; that the meditation. I understand more than man of God may be perfect, tho- the ancients, because I keep thy preroughly furnished unto all good cepts.". What! were there no diffi
culties in the Mosaic ritual? And Nor is this a merely theoretical if so, is it not certain that Moses conclusion ; nor is it so put by the would explain them? and, thereApostle. From the divine origin of fore, that the people of his time the Scriptures, their unapproach. would most correctly understand able supremacy unavoidably follows. them? and, as a further conse. They stand alone. No other writ. quence, that the traditions of the ings are to be associated with them. ancients would furnish the true soNor are they wrapped in obscurity. lution of all difficulties, and the proGiven for the instruction of man, per rule of faith be the Mosaic they are fitted for their work. The books, with the traditions of the Bible is not a column of hierogly. primitive church? Nothing of the phics, requiring either a living priest- kind is set before us. On the conhood, or a traditionary alphabet and trary, our Lord only refers to these key, for their just 'interpretation, traditions to condemn them. And Were this the case, we might expect he condemns them in language to find some expressions of thanks which the earlier Scriptures sur. giving for a provision so indispensa- nished, and which is more remarkble. °But we find nothing of the able than is sometimes supposed : sort. On the contrary, the pluinness “Forasmuch as this people draw of Scripture, for the sanctifying pure near me with their mouth, and with
their lips do honour me, but have Of all personal religion, the founremoved their heart far from me, dation must be the knowledge of and their fear toward me is taught by God; and in nothing do we see the the precept of men,”—is the language unity of Scripture more clearly, than of God in the Old Testament; and in the instructions by which this is our Lord, in quoting it, fully opens communicated. Some ancient hereits ance by the form which tics seemed to fancy that they perhe gives to the last clause: “ But ceived a distinction between the God in vain do they worship me, teaching of the Old Testament, and the God for doctrines the commandments of of the New. But this was a fancy men.” God will not accept a merely which could only have existed in external religion; nor will be allow times when general opinion was as his service to rest on what-plausi- yet struggling with nevly-revealed bly disguised as it may be-is, after truth, and had as yet taken up none all, only a human foundation. And of that truth into its own collection. the two go together. Externalism Truth was as yet external to huinan is found still to be associated with thought, which was only made up tradition ; while they who identify of heathen fables, and popularizireligion with the inward and spirit- tions of heathen philosophy. Even ual kingdom of God, make the writ- the religious opinions of individuals ten word of God their only and were often a strange mixture of light sovereign rule. Chrysostom bears and darkness; and heretical notions a very strong testimony to the mis. were fabricated out of the mass of chiefs which are inevitable when common thought; and were, there. this rule is neglected : “From this fore, such as no wild dreamer, unacit is that our countless evils have quainted with antiquity, would now arisen,-from ignorance of the Scrip. construct. The revelations of the tures; from this it is that the plague divine character, contained in the of heresies has broken out so rife; earlier Scriptures, are remarkably from this, that there are negligent explicit ; and no one can read the lives; from this, labours without language of Psalmists and Prophets, advantage. For as men deprived of and be surprised that, when it had this daylight would not walk aright; thoroughly penetrated and pervaded so they that look not to the gleam- the public mind, an unconquerable ing of the holy Scriptures, must opposition to idolatry should be the needs be frequently and constantly result. Mr. Alexander's statements sinning, in that they are walking in are important:the worst of darkness."* In fact, when the number of the
“ Whatever obscurity may be supa books of Scripture is remembered, posed to attach to the Old Testament
revelations of the nature of the divine and also the division of the whole
existence, it must be admitted, on every into two grand classes,-the writ- hand, that nothing of this is carried into ings of the Old and of the New
their announcements of the moral cha. Testament,—the plan of making the racter and attributes of the Almighty. Scripture its own interpreter will be Here their language is precise and full ; seen to have more recommendations and perhaps we may say, that even than would at first be supposed, on greater prominence is given to this dea view of the sacred volume as partment of divine truth in them, than being properly one complete whole.
in the New Testament itself. The reaThe comparison of Scripture is the
son of this probably is, that as it is comparison of the writings of many
chiefly in connexion with the scheme of
redemption that the moral character of men, living at very different times.
Jehovah is displayed in the Bible, the And the comparison which brings
more perfect developement of that scheme out their important meaning, illus
by the incarnation and work of Christ, trates, likewise, their oneness. A rendered it less necessary for his Aposfew particulars may be adduced in tles to teach by formal statements the proof of this.
true character of God, than it had been
for those who taught before his advent. * Homilies on Romans. Argument. Be this, however, as it may, no one can VOL. XXI. Third Series. NOVEMBER, 1842.