my of impotence and contempi—and to reader thay blocked up the town, and reduced to beggary and folly equal to the disgrace, they are an army of ir. fainine 30,000 inhabitants. But his majesty is ritation. I do not mean to censure the inactivity alvised that the union of America cannot last.of the troops. It is a prudent and necessary inac. Vinisters have more eyes than I, and should have tion. But it is a miserable condition, where dis- more ears, but from all the information I have grace is prudence; and where it is necessary to be been able to procure, I can pronounce it a union contemptible. This tameness, however disgrace solid, permanent and effectual.

Ministers may ful, ought not to be blamed, as I am surprised to satisfy themselves and delude the public with the hear is done by these ministers. The first drop of reports of what they call commercial bodies in blood, shed in a civil and unnatural war, would be America. They are not commercial. They are an immedicabile vulnus. It would entail hatred and your pckers and factors; they live upon nothing, contention between the two people, from genera. før I call commission nothing; I mean the minis. tion to generation. Woe be to him who sheds the terind AUTHORITI for their Ainerican intelligence. first, the unexpiable drop of blood in an impious The runners of government, who are paid for their war, with a people contending in the great cause intelligence. But these are not the men, nor this of public liberty. I will tell you plainly, my the influence to be considered in America, when lords, no son of mine nor any one over whom I have we estimate the firmness of their union. Even to influence, shall ever draw his sword upon his fellow extend the question, and to take in the really subjects.

mercantile circle, will be totally inadequate to the

consideration. Trade indeed increases the wealth I therefore urge and conjure your lordships im

and glory of a country; but its real strength and mediately to adopt this conciliatory measure. I

stamina are to be looked for among the cultivators will pledge myself for its immediately producing

of the land. In their simplicity of life is founded conciliatory effects, from its being well timed: But

the simplicity of virtue, the integrity and courage it you delay, till your vain hope of triumphantly of freedom. Those true genuine sons of the earth dictating the terms shall be accomplished-you

are invincible; and they surround and hem in the delay forever. And, even admitting that this hope, mercantile bodies; even if those bodies, which which in truth is desperate, should be accomplished,

supposition I totally disclaim, could be supposed what will you gain by a victorious imposition of

disaffected to the cause of liberty. Of tbis-gene. amity? You will be untrusted and unthanked. Adopral spirit existing in the American nation, for so then the grace, while you have the opportunity of

I wish to distinguish the real and genuine Ameri. reconcilement, or at least prepare the way; allay

cans from the pseudo traders I have described: of the ferment prevailing in America, by removing the

this spirit of independence, animating the natiOx obnoxious hostile cause. Obnoxious and unservices of America, I have the most authentic information. ble; for their merit can be only inaction. “Non It is not new among them; it is, and ever has been dimicare estvincere.” Their victory can never be

their established principle, their confirmed persuaby exertions. Their force would be most dispro- sio”; it is their nature and their doctrine. I rememportionately exerted, against a brave, generous, bersome years ago when the repeal of the stamp act and united people, with arms in their hands and

was in agitation, conversing in a friendly confidence courage in their hearts; three millions of people, with a person of undoubted respect and authenticiiy the genuine descendants of a valiant and pious

on this subject; and be assured me with a certainty ancestry, driven to these desarts by the narrow which bis judgment and opportunity gave him, that maxims of a superstitious tyranny. And is the

these were the prevalent and steady principles of spirit of tyrannous persecution never to be appeas. America: That you might destroy their towns, and ed? Are the brave sons of those brave forefathers

cut them off from the superfluitics, perhaps the to inherit their sufferings, as they have inherited

conveniencies of life, but that they were prepared their virtues? Are they to sustain the infictions

io despise your power, and would not lament their of the most oppressive and unexampled severity, loss, whilst they had, wur, my lords?—Their beyond the accounts of history or the description woods and liberty. The name of my authority, if of poetry? “Rhadamantbus habet durissima regna, i am called upon, will authenticate the opinion castigatque auditque." So says the wisest states.

irrefragably. man and politician. But the Bostonians have been condemned UNHEARD. The indiscriminating band If illegal violences have been, as it is said, com. of vengeance bas lumped together innocent andmitted in America, prepare the way, open a door guilty: with all the formalities of hostility, bas of possibility, for acknowledgment and satisfaction.

Bat proceed not to such coerci. n, suc. proscription: head, the distinction I contend for, is and must be Cease your indiscriminate inflictions; smerce not observed, thirty thousands, oppress not three millions, for the

My lords—This country superintends and cone faulis of foriy or fifty. Such severity of injustice trouls their trade and navigation; but they tak must forever render incurable the wounds you have

THEMSELVES. And this distinction between external given your colonies; you irritate them to unap. and internal controul, is sacred ar.d insurmountapeasable rancour. What though you march from

ble; it is involved in the abstract nature of things, 2own to town, and from province to province? Property is private, individual, absolute. Trade Though you should be able to force a temporary is an extended and complicated consideration; it and local submission, which I only suppose, nor

reaches as far as ships can sail, or winds can blow. adm.it, how shall you be able to secure the obedi It is a great and various machine-To regulate the ence of the cour try you leave behind you in your numberless movements of its several parts, and progress? To grasp the dominion of 1,800 miles combine them into effect for the good of the whole, of continent, populous in vulor, liberty and resis.

requires the superintending wisdom and energy of tance? This resistarce to your srbitrary system of the supreme power in the empire. But this supreme taxation might have been foreseen; it was obvious

power bas no effect towards internal taxation-for from the nature of things and of mankind; and it does not exist in that relation. There is no such above all, from the whiggish spirit Aourishing in thing, no such idea in this constitution, as a supreme that country. The spirit which now resists your power operating upon property. taxation in America, is the same which formerly opposed, and with success opposed, loans, benevo Let this distinction then remain forever ascertain. Jences, and ship money in Egland-lhe same spirited, Taxation is theirs, commercial regulation is which called all England on its LEGS, and by the ours. As an American, I would recognize to Engbill of rights vindicated the English constitution and her supreme right of regulating commerce the same spiri: which established the great funda. and navigation: As an Englishman, by birth and mental and 'essential maxim of your liberties, that principle, I recognize to the Americans their suno subject shall be taxed, but BY HI8 own con preme, unalienable right in their property; a right SENT. If your lordships will turn to the politics wbich they are justified in the defence of, to the of those times, you will see the attempts of the extremity. To maintain this principle is the com. lords to poison this inestimable benefit of the bill, mon cause of the whigs on the other side of the by an insidious proviso: You will see their attempts Atlantic, and on this. 'Tis liberty to liberty defeated, in their conference with the commons, engaged, that they will defend themselves, their by the decisive arguments of the ascertainers and families and their country. In this great cause maintainers of our liberty; you will see the thin, they are immoveably allied. It is the alliance of God inconclusive and fallacious stuff of those enemies and nature-immutable, eternal, fix'd as the firma. to freedom, contrasted with the sound and solid ment of Heaven! To such united force, what force reasoning of serjeant Glanville and the rest, those shall be opposed! What, my lords, a few regigreat and learned men who adorned and enlightened ments in America, and 17 or 18,000 men at home! this country, and placed her security on the summit The idea is too ridiculous to take up a nuoment of of justice and freedom. And whilst I am op my your lordships time—nor can such a national prin. legs, and thus do justice to the memory of those cipled union be resisted by the tricks of office or great men, I must also justify the merit of the ministerial mancuvres. Laying papers on your living by declaring my firm and fixed opinion, that table, or counting noses on a division, will not such a man exists this day (looking towards lord avert or postpone the hour of danger. It must Cambden); this glorious spirit of whiggism animates arrive, my lords, unless these fatal acts are done three millions in America, who prefer poverty with away; it must arrive in all its horrors: And then liberty, to golden chains and sordid affluence; and these boastful ministers, 'spite of all their conwho will die in defence of their rights, as men-fidence and all their manauvres, shall be forced to as freemen. What shall oppose this spirit? aided hide their beads. But it is not repealing this act by the congenial Alame glowing in the breast of of parliament, or that act of parliament-it is not every wbig in England, to the amount, I hope, of repealing a piece of PARCAMENT that can restore at least double the American numbers! Ireland America to your bosom. You must repeal her they have to a man. In that country, joined as it fears and her resentments, and you may then hope is with the cause of the colonies, and placed at their for ber love and gratitude. But now insulted with

an armed force posted in Boston, irritated with an, feelings of men; a d establishes solid confidence bostile array before her eyes, her concessions, if in the foundation of affection and gratitude. So you could force them, would be suspicious and thought the wisest poet, and perhaps the wisest insecure: They will be, irato animo: They will men in political sagacity, the friend of Mæcenas, not be the sound, honorable pactions of freemen; and the eulogist of Augustus. To him the adopted they will be the dictates of fear and the extorsions son and successor of the first Cæsar, to him, the of force. But it is more than evident that you master of the world, he wisely urged this conduct cassor force them, principled and united as they of prudence and dignity,

Tuque prior, &c. VIRGIL. are, to your unworthy terms of submission. It is impossible. And when I hear general Gage cen.

Every motive, therefore, of justice and of policy, sured for inactivity, I must retort with indignation of dignity and of prudence, urges you to allay the on those whose intemperate measures and im ferment in America, by a removal of your troops provident counsels bave betrayed him into bis pre from Boston, by a repeal of your acts of parliameñt, sent situation. His situation reminds me, my lords, and by demonstration of amicable dispositions toof the answer of a French gen. in the civil wars of wards your colonies. On the other hand, every France, Monsieur Turenne, I think. The queen danger and every hazard, impend to deter you said to him, with some peevishness, I observe that from perseverance in your present ruinous meayou were often very near the prince during the cam. sures: Foreign war hanging over your heads by a paign, why did you not take him?–The Mareschal slight and brittle thread: France and Spain watch. replied with great coolness—J'avois grand peur, ing your conduct and waiting for the maturity of qui Monsieur le prince ne me pris -I was very your errors; with a vigilant eye to America and much afraid the prince would take me.

the temper of your colonies, more than to their When your lordships look at the papers trans. own concerns, be they what they may. mitted us from America, when you consider their

To conclude, my lords, if the ministers thus decency, firmness and wisdom, you cannot but re.

persevere in misadvising and misleading the king, spect their cause, and wish to make it your own

I will not say that they can alienate bis subjecto - for myself I must declare and avow that, in all

from his crown, but I will affirm that they will my reading and observation, and it has been my make the crown not worth his wearing: Isball not favorite study—I have read Thucidydes, and have studied and admired the master states of the world say that the king is betrayed, but I will pronounce -that for solidity and reasoning, force of sagacity, and wisdom of conclusion, under such a complica.

A SERMON tion of different circumstances, no nation or body of men can stand in preference to the general con- Preached in Christ-Courcy, June 23, 1775, at the

On the present situation of AMERICAN AFFAIRS: gress at Philadelphia.—1 trust it is obvious to your

request of the officers of the third battalion of lordships, that all attempts to impose servitude

the city of Philadelphia, and district of Southon such men, to establish despotism over such a

wark mighty continental nation-must be vain-must be

By WILLIAM SMITH, D. D. Provost of the college futile.- We shall be forced ultimately to retrac,

in that city. whilst we can, not when we must. I say we musi necessarily undo these violent and oppressive acts: The Lord God of Gods-the Lord God of Gods, He knoweth, and -they must be repealed-you will repeal them: I

against the Lord-save us not this day-Joshua, xxi. 22.

These words, my brethren, will lead us into a pledge myself for it you will in the end repeal

train of reflections, wholly suitable to the design them: I stake my reputation on it: I will consent to be taken for an ideo: if they are not finally re.

of our present meeting; and I must beg your pealed.-- Avoid then this humiliating, disgraceful indulgence till I explain, as briefly as possible, the necessity.-With a dignily becoming your esaltad

solemn occasion on which they were first deliverede situation, make the first advances to concord, to

hoping the application, I may afterwards make of peace and bappiness, for that is your true dignity, them, may fully reward your atten:ion. to act with prudence and with justice. That you The two tribes of Reubed and of Gad, and the should first concede is obvious from sound and half tribe of Manasseh, bad chosen their inberi. rational policy. Concession conues wiib better tance, on the eastern side of Jordan, opposite to the grace and more salutary effect from the superior other tribes of Israel. And alıbough they knew power, li reconciles superiority of power with the 'that this situation would deprive them of some


Israrl he shall know, if it be in rebellion, or in trausgression

privileges which remuned with their brethren ons country, &, in the fullness of gratitude, on the the other side, and particularly that great privilege banks of Jordan, at the common passage over of having the place of the altar and tabernacle of against Canaan, they built an "igh or great altar, God among them; yet, as the land of Canaan was that it might remain an eternal monument of their judged too small for all the twelve tribes, they were being of one stock, and entitled to the same civil contented with the possession they had chosen.- and religious privileges, with their brethren of the And thus they spoke to Moses

other tribes. "It is a land of cattle, and thy servants have But this their work of piety and love was directly much cattle. Wherefore, if we have found grace in misconstrued. The cry was immediately raised tby sight let this land be given to us for a possession, against them. The zealots of that day scrupled and we will build sheepfolds here for our cattle, not to declare them rebels against the living God, and cities for our little ones; and we ourselves will violators of his sacred laws and theocracy, in go ready armed before our brethren, the children setting up an altar against his holy altar, and there. of Israel--and will not return into our houses, until fore the whole congregations of the brother-tribes, they have inherited every man his inheritance.”- that dwelt in Canaan, gathered themselves together,

to go up to war against their own flesh and blood, “And Moses said unto them-If you will do this

in a blind transport of unrighteous zeal, purposing thing, and will go all of you armed over Jordan be.

to extirpate them from the face of the earth, as fore the Lord, until he hath driven out his enemies

enemies to God and the commonwealth of Israel! from before him; and the land (of Canaan) be subdued (for your brethren;) then afterwards ye In that awful and important moment (and, oh! my shall return, and this land (of Gilead) shall be your God that the example could be copied among the possession before the Lord."*

brother tribes of our Israel, in the parent land) I

say, in that awful and important moment, some This, then, was the great original contract, under

milder and more benevolent men there were, whose which these two tribes and a half were allowed to

zeal did not so far transport them, but that, be. separate from the rest, and to dwell on the other

fore they unsheathed the sword to plunge it with side of Jordan. They were to assist their brethren

unballowed hand into the bowels of their brethren, in their necessary wars, and to continue under one

they thought it justice first to enquire into the government with them-even that of the great

charge against them. And, for the glory of Israel, Jehovah bimself-erecting noseparate altar but com.

this peaceable and prudent council prevailed. ing to perform their sacrifices at that one altar of Shiloa, where the Lord had vouchsafed to promise A most solemn embassy was prepared, at the his special presence.

head of which was a man of sacred character, and

venerable authority, breathing the dictates of Though this subjected them to inconveniences,

religion and humanity; Phinehas, the son of Eleazer, yet as uniformity of worship and the nature of their theocracy required it, they adhered faithfully to

the high priest, accompanied with ten other chiefs their contract.

or princes, one from each of the nine tribes as well

as from the remaining half tribe of Manasseh. In the fear of God, they bowed themselves at his altar, although not placed in their own land; and,

Great was the astonishment of the Gileadites in love to their brethren, they supported them in on receiving this embassy, and hearing the charge their wars, “ill there stood not a man of all their against them. But the power of conscious innocence enemies before them;" and at last, Josada, their is above all fear, and the language of an upright great leader, having no farther need of their assis. heart superior to all eloquence. By a solemn ap. tance, gave them this noble testimony—That they peal to Heaven for the rectitude of their intenhad, in all things obeyed his voice as their general,

tions, unpremeditated and vehement, in the words and faithfully performed all they bad promised to

of my text, they disarmed their brethren of every Moses the servant of God. Wherefore, he blessed

suspicion. them, and dismissed them to return to their own “The Lord God of Gods," say they (in the fer. land “with much riches, and with cattle, and with vency of truth, repeating the invocation) "the Lord silver, and with gold, and with much raiment." God of Gody"-He liat made the Heavens and the No sooner, therefore, had they entered their own *The iwo tribes and a bulf are bere briefly and

generally denominale. Gileadites, from the name *Numb. 32.

Tof the land they had chosen.

earth, who searcheth the hearts, and is acquaint, pedigree with yourselves, and entitied to the same ed with the most secret thoughts of all men _"He civil and religious privileges. knoweth, and all Israel shall know," by our unshaken

This noble defence brought an immediate re. constancy in the religion of our fathers--that this

conciliation among the discordant tribes. "The charge against us is uiterly false.

words, (when reported) pleased the children of Then turning from their brethren, with unsperk. Israel--they blessed Gol together" for preventing able dignity of soul and clearness of conscience, the effusion of kindred blood, "and did not go up they address the Almighty Jehovah bimself to destroy the land wliere their brethren, the chilo

dren of Reuben* and Gad, dwelt." Oh thou sovereign Ruler of the universe-our God and our Fathers' God if it be in rebellion or The whole history of the bi' le cannot furnish 2 in transgression against thee," that we have raised passage more ins ructive than this, to the members this monument of our zeal for the commonwealth of a great empire, whose dreadful misfortune it is of Israel "save us not this day!" If the most to have the evil demon of civil or religious discord distant thought has entered our hearts of erecting gone forth among them. And would to God, that an independent altar; if we have sought, in one the application I am now to make of it could be instance, to derogate from the glory of that sacred delivered in accents louder than thunder, till they aliar which thou hast placed among our brethren have pierced the ear of every Brilon; and especially beyond Jordan, as the common bond of anion and their ears who have meditated war and destruction worship among all the tribes of Israel-let not this against their brother-tribes of Reuben and Gad, in day's sun descend upon us, till thou hast made us this out AMERICAN GILEAD. And let me add a monument of thine avenging justice, in the sight -would to God ioo that we, who this day consider, of the surrounding world!

ourselves in the place of those tribes, may, like,

them, be still able to lay our hands on our hearis After this astonishing appeal to the great God

in a solemn appeal to the God of Gods, for the of Heaven and earth, they proceed :o reason with

rectitude of our intentions towards the whole com. their brethren; and tell them that, so far from

monwealth of our Butian Istart. For, called to intending a separation, either in government or

this sacred place, on this great occasion, I know it religion, this altar was built with a direct contrary

is your wish that I should stand superior to all purpose-"That it might be a wITNESS between us

partial motives, and be found alike unbiassed by and you, and our generations after us, that your favor or by fear. And happy it is that the parallel, children may not say to our children, in time to

now to be drawn, requires not the least sacrifice come, ye have no part in the Lord.” We were

either of truth or virtue? afraid lest, in some future age, when our posterily may cross Jordan to offer sacrifices in the place Like the tribes of Reuben and Gad, we have, appointed, your posterity may thrust them from chosen our inheritance, in a land separated front the altar, and tell them that because they live not that of our fathers and brethren, not indeed by a in the land where the Lord's tabernacle dwelleth, small river, but an immense ocean. This inheri. they are none of his people, nor entitled to the tance we likewise hold by a plain original contract, Jewish privileges.

entitling us to all tlic natural and improvable But while this altar stands, they shall always have advantages of our situation, and to a community

of privileges with our brethren, in every civil and an answer ready. They will be able to say—"Be.

religious respect, except in this, that the throne bold the pattern of ibe altar of the Lord which our

or seat of empire, that great aliar at which the fathers made." If our fathers bad not been of the

men of this world bow', was to remain among them. seed of Israel, they would not have fondly copied your customs and models. You would not have

Regardless of this local inconvenience, uncanker. beheld in Gilead, an altar, in all things an imitation ed by jealousy, undepressed by fear, and cernented of the true altar of God, which is in Shilob, except by mutual love and mutual benefits, we trod the only that ours is an high "or great altar lo see" path of glory with our brethren for an hundred from far. And this may convince you that it was years and more-enjoying a length of felicity not intended as an altar of sacrifice (for then it would bave been but three cubiis in height, as our

*Though for brevity, the sacred tesi, in this

and other places, only mentions Reuben and Gad, law directs) but as a monumental altar, to instruct yet the half tribe of Man vseb is also supposed to our generations forever, that they are of the same be includedo

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