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the unity of the empire. Do not entertain weal papire; and have made the most extensive, and an imagination, as that your registers and your he only bonorable conques's; not by destroying, bonds, your affidavits and your sufferances, your but by promoting, the wealth, the number, the cockets and your clearances, are what form the appiness, of the human race. Let us get an Ame. great securities of your commerce. Do not dream, fican revenue as we have got an American empire. that your letters of office, and your instructions, English privileges have made it all that it is; Eng. and your suspending classes are the things tha'lish privileges alone will make it all it can be. hold together the great contexture of this mysteri- in full confidence of this unalterable truth, ous whole. These things do not make your go (QUOD FELIX FAUSTUMQUR 81T) lay the first stone of vernment. Dead instruments, passive tools as they the temple of peace; and I move to you. are, it is the spirit of English communion that gives
“That the colonies and plantations of Great Bri. all their life and efficacy to them. It is the spirit of
tain, in North America, consisting of fourteen se. the English constitution, which, infused through the mighty mass, pervades, feeds, invigorates, and upwards of free inhabitants, have not had the
parate governments and containing two millions vivifies, every part of the empire, even down to
right and privilege of electing and sending their the rainutest member.
kights and burgesses, or others, to represent in the Is it not the same virtue which does every thing high court of parliament.” for us here in England? Do you imagine then,
Upon this resolution the previous question was that it is the land tax act which raises your re
put, and carried; for the previous question 270, venue? that it is the annual vote in the committee
against it 78. of supply, which gives you your army? or that it is the mutiny bill which inspires it with bravery and NEWBERN, (Norte CAROLINA) Sept. 20, 1775, discipline? No! surely no! It is the love of the In provincial congress.— The following address to the people, it is their attachment to their government, inhabitants of the British empire being preseliled, from the sense of the deep stake they have in such was unanimously received and approved, and is de a glorious institution, which gives you your army
follows, viz. and your navy, and infuses into both that liberal obedience, without which your army would be a “Friends and fellow-citizens.-The fate of the base rabble, and your navy nothing but rotten contest which at present subsists between these timber.
American colonies and the British ministers who All this, I know well enough, will sound wild now sit at the helm of public affairs, will be one and chimerical to the profane herd of those vulgar
of the most important epochs which can mark the and mechancial politicians, who have no place
annals of the British bistory. Foreign nations with among us; a sort of people who think that nothirig
anxious expectation wait the result, and see with exists but what is gross and material; and wbo
amazement the blind infatuated policy which the therefore, far from being qualified to be direc. present administration pursues to subjugate these tors of the great movement of empire, are not fit to colonies, and reduce them from being loyal and turn a wheel in the machine. But to men truly
useful subjects, to an absolute dependence and initiated and rightly taught, these ruling and mas
abject slavery; as if the descendents of those an. ter principles, which, in the opinion of such men
cestors who have shed rivers of blood, and expend. as I have mentioned, have no substanial existence,
ed millions of treasure, in fixing upon a lasting are in truth every thing, and all in all. Magnanimity
foundation the liberties of the British constitution, in politics is not seldom the truest wisdom; and a
saw with envy the once happy state of this western great empire and little minds go ill together. i region, and strove to exterminate the patterns of we are conscious of our situation, and glow with those virtues which shone with a lustre wbich bid zeal to fill our place as becomes our station and fair to rival and eclipse their own. ourselves, we ought to auspicate all our public “To enjoy the fruits of our own honest industry: proceedings on America, with the old warning of to call that our own which we earn with the labor the church, SURSUM CORDA! We ought to elevate of our hands, and the sweat of our brows; to reour minds to the greatness of that trust to which gulate that internal policy by which we, and not the order of Providence lias called us. By advert. they, are to be affected, these are the mighty boons ing to the dignity of this high calling, our ances. we ask: And traitors, rebels, and every barsh ap. tors have turned a savage wilderness into a glorious pellation that malice can dictate, or the viralence
TO THE IN UABITANTS OF THE BRITISU EMPIRE.
of language express, are the returns which we re “This declaration we hold forth as a resiimony ceive to tbe most humble petitions and earnest sup. of loyalty to our sovereign, and affection to our plications. We have been told that independence parent state, and as a sincere earnest of our present is our object; that we seek to shake off all con and future intentions. nection with the parent state. Cruel suggestion! Do not all our professions, all our actions, uniformly which have been made by the representations of
“We liope hereby to reserve those impressions contradict this?
weak and wicked men to the prejudice of this “We again declare, and we invoke that Almighty colony, who thereby intended that the rectitude Being who searches the recesses of the human of our designs might be brought into distrust, and heart, and knows our most secret intentions, that sedition, anarchy, and confusion, spread througla it is our most earnest wish and prayer to be this loyal province. restored, with the other United Colonies, to the
“We have discharged a duty which we owe to state in which we and they were placed before the
the world, to ourselves, and posterity; and may year 1763, disposed to glance over any regulations
the Almighty God give success to the means we which Britain had made previous to this, and
make use of, so far as they are aimed to produce which seem to be injurious and oppressive to these
just, lawful, and good purposes, and the salvation colonies, hoping that, at some future day, she will
and happiness of the whole British empire.” benignly interpose, and remove from us every cause of complaint.
Saturday, November 11, 1775.
House OF LORDS. -The lords were yesterday ago “Whenever we have departed from the forms of the constitution, our own safety and self-pre. sembled for the purposes of examining governor servation have dictated the expedient; and if, in Penn, and of discussing a motion which the duke any instances, we have assumed powers which the of Richmond proposed to ground on such informa
tion as that gentieman should afford the house. laws invest in the sovereign or his representatives, it has been only in defence of our persons, pro. Previous to the calling of Mr. Penn to the bar, perties, and those rights which God and the con. the duke of Richmond announced the mode he had stitution have made unalienably ours. As soon as adopted preparatory to the governor's examina. the cause of our fears and apprebensions are re. tion. His grace confessed, “That he had apprized moved, with joy will we return these powers to Mr. Penn of the questions which would be protheir regular channels; and such institutions formed pounded to bim, but the noble duke disclaimed from mere necessity, shall end with that necessity having entered into any sort of conversation with which created them.
the governor, lest such conversation should be “These expressions flow from an affection bor. malevolently construed into a design of anticipat. dering upon devotion to the succession of the ing the answers Mr. Penn might think proper to
return." house of Hanover, as by law established, from sub. jects who view it as a monument that does lionor The duke of Richmond having finished his pre. to human nature; a monument capable of teaching liminary remarks, Mr. Penu was called to the bar, kings bow glorious it is to reign over a free peo. and interrogated nearly to the following purport: ple. These are the heart.felt effusions of men Q How long had he resided in America? ever ready to spend their blood and treasure, when A Four years. Two of those years in the capa. constitutionally called upon, in support of that city of governor of Pennsylvania. succession of his majesty king George the third, Q. Was he acquainted with any of the members his crown and dignity, and who fervently wish to of the continental congress? transmit his reign to future ages as the æra of A. He was personally acquainted with all the common happiness to his people. Could these members of that congress. our sentiments reach the throne, surely our so. R. In what estimation was the congress held? vereign would forbid the horrors of war and desola. A. In the highest veneration imaginable by all tion to intrude into this once peaceful and happy ranks and orders of men. land, and would stop that deluge of human blood Q. Was an implicit obedience paid to the resolu. which now threatens to overflow this colony; blood tions of that congress throughoui all the provinces? too precious to be shed but in a common cause, A. He believed this to be the case. against the common enemy of Great Britain and Q. How many men had been raised throughout ber sons.
ike province of Peonsylvania? 32
A. Twenty thousand eflective men bad volun-, vinces, he replied in the wtfirmuise from informetarily enrolled themselves to enter into actual ser- tion only. vice if necessity required.
Q. Did he suppose that the congress contained Q. Of what rank, qualiiy, and condition were delegates fairly nominated by the choice of the these persons?
people! A. Men of the most respectable characters in A. He had no doubt but that the congress did the province.
contain delegates chosen under this descrip'ion. Q. Were not a considerable number of them Q. By what mode were the delegates in congress entirely destitute of property?
appointed? A. It was presumed that, subtracted from so A. By the votes of assemblies in some places, large a number as 20,000, there were some ne. by ballot in others. cessitous, but the major part were in foorisbing Q. In what light had the petition, which the situations.
witness bad presented to the king, been considered Q Besides those 20,000, who voluntarily enrolled by the Americans? themselves to act as exigencies might require, what A. The petition had been considered as an olive other forces had the provincials of Pennsylvania branch, and the witness had been complimented raised
by his friends, as the messenger of peace. A. Four thousand minute-men, whose duty was Q. On the supposition that the prayer of this pointed out by their designation. They were to be petition should be rejected, what did the witness ready for service at a minute's warning:
imagine would be the consequence? Q. Did the province oi Pennsylvania grow corn A. That the Americans, who placed much reli. sufficient for tbe supply of its inhabitan's? ance on the petition, would be driven to despera.
A. Much more than sufficient, there was a sur- rion by its non-success. plus for exportation if required.
Q. Did the witness imagine, that sooner than Q. Were they capable of making gunpowder in yield to what were supposed to be unjusi claims Pennsylvania?
of Great Britain, the Americans would take the A. They perfectly well understood the art, and desperate resolution of calling in the aid of foreign bad effected it.
assistance! Q. Could salt-petre be made in the province? A. The witness was apprehensive that this would
A. It could; mills and other instruments for ef. be the case. fecting such an undertaking had been erected with
Q. What did the witness recollect of the stamp.
acı? Q. Could cannon be cast in Pennsylvania?
A. That it caused great uneasiness throughout A. The art of casting Cannon had been carried America. to great perfection; they were amply furnished with
Q. What did the witness recollect, concerning iron for that purpose.
the repeal of that ac ? Q. Could small arms be made to any degree of
A. The anniversary of that memorable day is kept perfection?
throughout America, by every lestiin ny of public A To as great a degree of perfection as could rejoicing, such as bonfires, illuminations, and o.ber be imagine!. The workmanship employed in finish.
Exhibitions of gladness. ing the small arms was universally admired for its
R. Would not the neglect with which the last excellence.
petition was treated induce the Anericans to resign Q. Were he Americans expert in ship-building? I hopes of pacific negociatio .s? A. More so than the Europeans.
A. In the opinion of the witness it would. Q. To what extent of tonnage did the largest of
Q. When the witness presented the petition to their shipping amount?
the secretary of staie, was he asked any questions A. A ship of about three hundred tons was the
relative to the sta e of America? largest they were known 'o buil'l.
A. Not a single question. Q. Circumstanced 18 things at present were, di' Cross EIANINED BY THE louDS DEXBIGA AND SANDthe witness ihink, that the language of the congresexpressed the sense of the people in America in
QUERIES FROM LOND DXXBIGH. general?
As the witness had acted in the capacity of go. A. As far as the question applied to Pennsylvania, vernor, was he well acquainted with the charter of he was sure this was the case; for the other pro. Pennsylvania?
A. He had read the charter, and was well ac- provinces, but never met with them during his quainted with its contents.
residence in Pennsylvania. Q. Did he know that there was a clause which Q In the opinion of the witness, were the Ame. specifically subjected the colony to taxation by the ricans now free? British legislature?
A: They imagined themselves to be so. A. He was weil apprised that there was such a Q In case a formidable force should be sent to clause.
America, in support of government, did the witness Q Were the people of Pennsylvania content with imagine there were many who would openly profess their charter?
submission to the authority of parliament? A. Perfectly content.
A. The witness apprehended the few who would Q. Then did they not acquiesce in the right of join on such an occasion would be too trivial a num. the British parliament to enforce taxation
her to be of any consequence. A. They acquiesced in a declaration of the right,
Mr. Penn was then or lered to withdraw, and the soling as they experienced no inconvenience from duke of Richmond, after descanting with singular the declaration.
propriety on the necessity of immediate concilia. QUERIES FROX LOND Sandwich.
tion, proposed the last petition from the continental Q. Had the witness ever heard of an act entitled,
ogress to the king, as a basis for a plan of accom.
modation. His grace of Richmond moved, “That “The declaratory act?”
the preceding paper furnished grounds of concilia. A. He had heard of sich an act.
iion of the unhappy diffi-rences at present subsiste Q Did he ever peruse, and was he sufficiently
ing between Great Britain and America, and that acquainted with the corrents of that act?
some mode should be immediately a lopted, for the A. He never had perused it. It never had been
effectuating so desirable a purpose.” much discussed whilst he resided in America. Q. Did the witness apprehend that the congress
This produced a debate, supported on both sides acquiesced in an act which maintained the authority with infinite ingenuity. The numbers were: of the British parliament in all cases whatsoever?
For the motion 27-Proxies 6-33 Objected to, and the witness wus desired to with.
Against the motion 50 – Pr xies 36 -86 draw; but being called in again, the question was
Majority against the motion 53 put, and be replied: That, except in the case of TAXATION, he ap.
In the Virginia convention-present 112 members. prehended the Americans would have no objec.
WEDNESDAY, May 15, 1776. tion to acknowledge the sovereignty of Great Bri. Firasmuch as all the endeavors of the UNITED tain.
COLOVIES, by the most decent representations Q. Had the witness any knowledge of certain nd petitions to the king and parliament of Great resolutions passed by the county of Suffolk?
Britain, to restore peace and securiiy to America A. He had not attended to them.
minder the British governmont, and a re-union with Q. Had the witness any knowledge of an answer that people upon just and liberal terms, instead of given by the continental congress, to what had a re:dress of grievances, have produced, from an been commonly called lord Nortii's conciliatory inperious and vin lictive administration, increased motion?
sult, oppression, and a vigorous attempt to effect A. The witness knew nothing of the proceedings our lo al destruction. By a late act, all these colo. of the congress, they were generally transacted nies are declared to be in rebellion, and out of the under the seal of secrecy.
protection of the British crown, our properties aub. Q Wis the witness personally arquainted with ject to confiscation, our people, wh-n captivated, Mr. Harriso:, a member of the congress? compelled in join in the murder and plunder of A. The witness knew him well.
their relations and countrymen, and all former Q. What character did he bear?
rapine and oppression of Ainericans declared legal A. A very respectable one.
and just. Fleeis and armies are raised, and the aid Q. Had the wiiness ever heard of any persons of foreign troops engaged to assist these destrucwho had suffered persecutions, for declaring senti-:ive purposes. The king's representative in this ments favorable to the supremacy of the British colony bath not only withheld all the powers of go. parliament?
vernment from operating for our safety, but, having A. He had heard of such oppressions in other retired on board an armed ship, is carrying on a
pirulical and savage war gainst us, tempting our 3. General Washington, and victory to the Ame-
The U VION FLAG of the American states waved this state of extreme danger, we have no alternative
upon the capitol during the whole of this ceremony, left but an abject submission to the will of those
which being ended, the soldiers partook of the overbearing tyrants, or a total separation from the
refreshment prepared for them by the affection of crown and government of Great Britain, uniting their countrymen, and the evening concluded with and exerting the strength of all America for de
illuminations, and other demonstrations of jos; fence, and forming alliances with foreign powers for commerce and aid in war: Wherefore, appeal Great Britain was now at an end, so wickedly and
every one seeming pleased that the domination of ing to the Searcher of hearts for the sincerity of
tyrannically exercised for these twelve or thirteen former declarations, expressing our desire to pre.
years past, notwithstanding our repeated prayers serve the connexion with that nation, and that we
and remonstrances for redress. are driven from that inclination by their wicked councils, and the eternal laws of self-preservation.
The declaration of the deputies of Pennsylvania, mes RESOLVED, Unan. That the delegates appointed
in provincial conference, at Philadelphia, June 24, to represent this colony in general congress be
1776. instructed to propose to that respectable body to
Whereas George the third, king of Great Bri. declare the United Colonies free and independent states, rain, &c. in violation of the principles of the British absolved fr. m all allegiance to, or dependence up. constitution, and of the laws of justice and huon, the crown or parliament of Great Britain; and
manity, hath, by an accumulation of oppressions, that they give the assent of this colony to such
unparalleled in history, excluded the inbabitants declaration, and to whatever measures may be
of this, with the other American colonies, from his thought proper and necessary by the congress for
protection; and whereas he bath paid no regard to forming foreign siliances, and A CONFEDERA.
any of our numerous and Jutiful petitions for redress TION OF THE COLONIES, at such time, and in of our complicated grievances, but bath lately the manner, is to them shall seem best. ProRided, purchased foreign troops to assist in enslaving us, that the power of forming government for, and the and bath excited the savages of this country to regulations of the internal concerns of each colony, carry on a war against us, as also the negroes, to be left to the respeciive colonial legislatures.
embrue their hands in the blood of their masters, RESOLVED, unan. That a committee be appointed in a manner unpractised by civilized nations; and to prepare A DECLARATION OF RIGHTS, and
moreover bath lately insulted our calamities by such a plan of govern inent as will be inost likely declaring, that he will shew us no mercy, until he to maintain peace and order in this colony, and has subdued us; and whereas, the obligations of secure substantial and equal liberty to the people. allegiance (being reciprocal between a king and
EDMOND PENDLETON, president. his subjects) are now dissolved, on the side of the (A COPY)
colonjsts, by the despotism and declaration of the Joun Tazewell, clerk of the convention.
said king, insomuch that it appears that loyalty to In consequence of the above resolution, universal. him is treason against the good people of this ly regarded as the only door which will lead to country; and whereas not only the parliament, but safety and prosperity, some gentlemen made a there is reason to believe, too many of the peobandsome collectior: for ihe purpose of treating the ple of Great Britain, have concurred in the aforesoldiery, who next day were paraded in Waller's said arbitrary and unjust proceedings against us; grove, before brigadier general Lewis, attended by and whereas the public virtue of this colony (so thegentlemen of the committee of safety, the mem- essential to its liberty and happiness) must be bers of the general convention, the inhabitants of endangered by a future political union with, or this city, &c. &c. The resolution being read aloud dependence upon a crown and nation, so lost to to the army, the following toasts were given, each justice, patriotism, and magnanimity: We, the of them accompanied by a discharge of the artillery deputies of the people of Pennsylvania, assembled and small arms, and the acclamations of all pre in full provincial conference, for forming a plan for
executing the resolve of congress of the 15th of 1. The American independent states. May last, for suppressing all authority in this pro
2. The grand congress of the United States, and vince, derived from the crown of Great Britain, and their respective legislatures.
for establishing a government upon the authority