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form a due sense of the general privileges of mari Every species of prsivision, brought to my camp, kind. To the eyes and ears of the temperate part will be paid for at an equitable rate, and in solid of the public, and the breasts of suffering thou coin. sands, in the provinces, be the melancholy appeal,
In consciousness of christianity, my royal mas. whether the present unnatural rebellion has no:
ter's clemency, and the honor of soldiership, I have been made a foundation for the completest system welt upon this invitation, and wished for more of tyranny that ever God, in iis displeasure, suffer.
more persuasive terms to give it impression. And ed for a time to be exercised over a froward and let not people be led to disregard it, by considerstubborn generation.
ing their distance from the inmediate situation of Arbitrary imprisonment, confiscation of property, my camp. I have b'i: to give stretch to the Indian persecution, and torture, unprecedented in the in- forces under my direction—and they amount to quisition vi the Romish church, are among the palo thousands-to overtake the hardened enemies of pable enormities that verify the afirmative. These Great Britain and America. I consider them the are inflicted, by assemblies and committees, who same, wherever they may lurk. dare to profess themselves friends to liberty,
If, notwithstanding these endeavors, and sincere upon the most quiet subjects, without distinc. inclinations to effect them, the phrenzy of hostili. tion of age or sex, for the sole crime, often for ty should renisin, I trust I shall stand acquitted tje sole suspicion, of baving adhered in principle in the eyes of God and men in denouncing and to the government under which they were born, executing the vengeance of the state against the and to which, by every tie, divine and human, they wilful outcasts. The messengers of justice and of owe allegiance. To consummate these schocking wrath await them in the field: and devastation, faproceedings, the profanation of religion is added mine, and every concomitant horror, that a relucto the most profligate prostitution of common rea tant, but indispensable prosecution of military duson, the consciences of men are set at nought; and ty must occasion, will bar the way to their return. multitudes are compelled not only to bear arins, but
JOHN BURGOYNE. also to swear subjection to an usurpation they ab. Camp, at 'T'iconderoga, July 2, 1777. bor.
By order of his excellency the lieut. general. Animated by these considerations at the head
ROBERT KINGSTOX, secretary. ef troops in the full powers of health, discipline, and valour-determined to strike where necessary To John Burgoyne, esq. lieutenant general of his -and anxious to spire where possible-1, by these
majes'y's armies, in America, colonel of the presents, invite and exhort all persons, in all places
queen's regiment of light dragoons, governor of where the progress of this army may point-and Fort William in North Britain, one of the repre. by the blessing of God I will extend it far-to
sentatives of the commons of Great Britain, and maintain such a conduct as may justify me in pro commanding an ariny and fl et employed on an lecting their lands, habitations, and families. The
expedition from Canada, &c. &c. intention of this address is to bold forth security, Most high, most mighty, mo-6 puissant, and sublime pot depredation to the country. To those, whom
general! spirit and principle may induce to partake the glo. When the forces under your command arrived at rious task of redeeming their countrymen from Quebec in order to act in concert and upon a comdungeons, and re-establishing the blessings of legal mon principle with the numerous fleels and armies government, I offer encouragement and employ which already display in every quarter of America, ment; and, upon the first intelligence of their asso. the justice and mercy of your king, we, the rep, ciation, I will find ineans to assist their undertak- tiles of America, were struck with unusual trepida. ings. The domestic, the industrious, the infirm, iion and astonisiiment. But what words can exand even the timid inhabitants, I am desirous to press the pienitude of our horror, when the colonet protect, provided they remain quietly a: their of the quee..'s regiment of ligt dragoons advanced houses; that they do oot suffer their cattle to be towards Ticonderoga. The mounixins shook be. removed, nor their corn or forage to be secreted fore thee, and the trees of the forest bowed their or destroyed; that they do not break up their lofy heads-the vast lakes of the north were chil. bridges or roads; nor by any other act, directly or led at thy presence, and the migiity cataracıs stopindirectly, endeavor to obstruct the operations of ped their tremendous career, and were suspended the king's troops, of supply or assist those of the fin awe at lliy approach. Judge, then, Oh! ineflable enemy.
governor of Fort William in Norla Britill, what'
must have been the terror, dismay, and despair.clemency, and the bonor of soldiers mp, * tiankthat overspread this paltry continent of America, fully accept. The blood of the slain, the cries of and us, its wretched inhabitants. Dark and dreary injured virgins and innocent children, and the never indeed, was the prospect before us, till, like the ceasing sighs and groans of slarving wretches, now sun in the horizon, your most gracious, sublime, languishing in the jails and prison-ships of New and irresistible proclamation, opened the doors of York, call on us in vain; whilst your sublime promercy, and snatched us, as it were, from the jaws clamation is sounded in our ears. Forgive us, 0 of annihilation.
our country! Forgive us, dear posterity! Forgive
us, all ye foreign powers, who are anxiously watchWe foolishly thought, blind as we were, that ing our conduci in this important struggle, if we your gracious master's feets and armies were yield impliciily to the persuasive tongue of the come to destroy us and our liberties; but we are most elegant colonel of her majesty's regiment of happy in hearing from you (and who can douby
light dragoons. what you assert?) that they were called forth for the sole purpose of restoring the rights of the con
Forbear, then, thou magnanimous lieutenant gestitution, to a froward and stubborn generation.
general! Forbear to denou ce vengeance against
us-Forbear to give a stretch to those restorers of And is it for this, Oh! sublime lieutenant general, constitutional rights, the Indian forces under your that you have given yourself the trouble to cross direction. Let not the messengers of justice and the wide Atlantic, and with incredible fatigue tra- wrath await us in the field, and devastation, and verse uncultivated wilds? And we ungratefully every concomitant borror, ber our return to the refuse the proffered blessing?-To restore the allegiance of a prince, who, by his royal will, would rights of the constitution, you liave called together deprive us of every blessing of life, with all posan amiable host of savages, and turned them loose sible clemency. loose to scalp our women and children, and lay our country waste-this they have performed with their
We are domestic we are industrious, we are in usual skill and clemency; and yet we remain insen firm and timid: we shall remain quietly at home, sible of the benefit, and unthankful for 90 much and not remove our cattle, our corn, or furage, in goodness.
hopes that you will come, at the bead of troops, ia
the full powers of health, discipline, and valor, and Our congress have declared independence, and take charge of them for yourselves. Behold our our assemblies, as your highness justly observes, wives and daughters, our flocks and herds, our have most wickedly imprisoned the avowe i friends goods and chattles, are they not at the mercy of our of that power with which they are at war, and most lord the king, and of bis lieutenant general, mem. profanely compelled those, whose consciences will ber of the house of commons, and governor of Fort not permit them to fight, to pay some small part William in North Britain? A. B. towards the expenses their country is at, in sup.
C. D. porting what is called a necessary defensive war.
E. F. &c. &c. &c. If we go on thus in our obstinacy and ingratitude,
Suratoga; 10th July, 1777. what can we expect, but that you should, in your anger, give a stretch to the Indian forces under Proposals for an exchange of general Burgoyne.your direction amountiug to thousands, to overtake
Ascribed to his excellency Willian Livingston, esą. and destroy us? or, which is ten times worse, that
governor of the state of New.Jersey.* you should withdraw your fleets and armies, and
Should the report of general Burgoyne's having leave us to our own misery, without completing the benevolent task you have begun, of restoring infringed the capitulation, between major general
Gates and himself, prove to be true, our supe-i irs to us the rights of the constitution?
* The turgid, bombastic procla nation (for whick We submit-we submit.-most puissant colonel
see American Museum, vol. II. page 495) which of the queen's regiment of light dragoons, and gave rise to this elegant and poignant satire, *as governor of Fort William in North Britain! We prefaced in the following manner: “Proclamation offer our heads to the scalping knife, and our bel- by John Burgoyne, esquire, lieutenant general of
his majesty's armies in America, colonel of the lies to the bayonet. Who can resist the force of green's regiment of light drago018, governor of your eloquence? Who can withstand the terror of fort William, in North Britain, one of the repre.
senlatives of tlie commons of Great Britain, and your arms? The invitation you have made, in the commanding an army and flect on an expedition consciousness of christianity, your royal master's from Canada, &c. &c. &c."-C.
will doubtless take proper care to prevent his ment, I suppose a colonel of her majesty's own regia reaping any benefit from it; and should he be de ment will procure at least three continental colonels tained as a prisoner for his infraction of any of the of horse. articles, I would humbly propose to exchange him IV. For John Burgoyne, governor of fort William in in such manner, as will at the same time Hatter North Britain. bis vanity and redound to the greatest emolument Here I would demand one governor of one of the of America. To evince the reasonableness of my United States, as his muliitulury excellency is
go. proposal, I would observe, that by the same parity vernor of a fure; and two more, as that fort is in of reason, that a general is exchanged for a gene North Brilain, which his Britannic mijes'y may be ral, a colonel for a colonel, and so on, with respect presumed to vidue in that proportion; but consider. to other officers, mutually of equal rank, we ought ing that the said fort is called William, wlich may to have for one and the same gentleman, who shall excite in his inajesty's mind the rebellious idea of happen to hold both those offices, both a general liberty, I deduct one upon that account, and, rather and a colonel. This will appear evident from the 'han pizzle the cartel with any perplexity, I am consideration that those exchanges are never re. content with two governors. gulated by viewing the persons exchanged in the V. For John Burgoyne, one of the representatives of light of
men, but as officers; since otherwise, a colo Great Britain. nel might as well be exchanged for 8. serjeant as The first member of congress who may fall into for an officer of his own rank; a serjeant being, the enemy's hands. undoubledly, equally a man, and, as the case some. VI. For John Burgoyne, commander of a fleet em. times happens, more of a man too. One prisoner, ployed in an expedition from Canada. therefore, having twenty different offices, ought to
The admiral of our navy. redeem from captivitytwenty prisoners aggregately Vit. For John Burgovne, commander of an army holding the same offices; or such grenier or less employed in an expedition from Canada. number as shall, with respect to rank, be equal to 0e commander in chief in any of our depart. his twenty offices. This being admitied, I think ments. general Burgoyne is the most profitabie prisoner VIII. For John Burgoyne, &c. &c. &c. we could have taken, having more offices, or (what Some connoisseurs in hieroglypbics imagine that amounts to the same thing in Old England) more these three et ceteras are emblematical of three titles, than any gentleman on this side the Ginges. certain occull qualities in the general, which he And as his impetuous excellency certainly meant to never intends to exhibit in more legible characters, avail himself of his titles, by their pomporis display viz. prudence, modesty, and humanity. Others sup. in his proclamation, bad be proved conqueror, it is pose that they stand for king of America; and that, but ressonable that we should avail ourselves of had he proved successful, he would have fallen them now he is conquered; and, till I meet with a upon general Howe, an:l afterwards have set up better project for that purpose, I persuade myself for limself. Be this as it may, (which it however that the following proposal will appropriate them behoves a certain gentleman on the other side of to a much better use, than they were ever applied the water seriously to consider) I insist upon it, to before.
that as all dark and cabalistical characters are The exchange I propose is as follows: suspicious, these incognoscible enigmas may poriend 1. For John Burgoyne, esquire.
much more than is generally apprehended. Acail Some worthy justice of the peace, magnanimously events, general Burgoyoe bas availed himself of slolen ont of his bed, or taken from his farm by their importance, and I doubt at they excited as band of ruffians in the uniform of British soldiers, much terror in his proclamation, as any of his more and now probably perishing with hunger and cold luminous titles. As his person, therefore, is by the in a loathsome jail in New.York.
capture, become the property of the congress, all II. For John Burgoyne, lieutenan! general of his ma. his titles, (which some suppose lo constituie his jesty's armies in America.
very essence) whether more splendid or opake, Two majors general.
laieni or visible, are become, ipso facto, the lawful III. For John Burgoyne, colonel of the queen's regi goods and chatiels of the continent, and ought not ment of light dragoons.
to be restored without a consideration equivalent. As the Briiish troops naturally prize erery thing If we should happen to over-rate them, it is liig in proportion as it partakes of royalty, and under own fault, it being in his power to ascertain their value whatever originates from a republican govern. ! intrinsic valuos and it is a role in law, that when
man is possessed of evidence to disprove what is power. Nor can I forbear suggesting its fatal ten. alleged against him, and refuses to produce it, the dency to widen that uphappy breach, which you, presumption raised against him, is to be taken for and those ministers under whom you act, have regranted. Certain it is, that these three et ceteras peatedly declared you wish to see forever closed. must stand for three somethings, and as these three
My duty now makes it necessary to apprise you, somethings must, at least, be equal to three some.
that, for the future, I shall regulate my conduct tothings without rank or title, I had some thoughts
wards those gentlemen of your army, who are, or of setting them down for three privales; but then as they are three somethings in general Burgoyne, may be in our possession, exactly by the rule you
shall observe towards those of ours who may be which must be of twice the value of three any
in your custody. things, in any three privates, I shall only double them, and demand in exchange for these three If severity and hardship mark the line of your problematical, enigmatical, hieroglyphical, mystic, conduct (painful as it may be to me) your prisoners necromantic, cabalistical and portentous et ceteras, will feel its effect; but if kindness and humanity six privates.
are shown to ours, I shall, with pleasure, consider So that, according to my plan, we ought to detain those in our hands only as unfortunate, and they
shall receive from me that treatment to which the this ideal conqueror of the North, now a real pri
unfortunate are ever entitled. soner in the East, till we have got in exchange for him, one esquire, two majors general, three colo. I beg to be favored with an answer as soon as nels of light horse, two governors, one member of possible, and am, sir, your very humble servant, congress, the admiral of our navy, one commander
G. WASHINGTON. in chief in a separate department, and six privates; His excellency genera! Gage. which is probably more than this extraordinary hero would fetch in any part of Great Britain, were he
ANSWER. exposed at public auction for a day and a year. All
Boston, August 13, 1775. which is nevertheless, bumbly submitted to the con.
S18-To the glory of civilized nations, humanity sideration of the honorable the congress, and his and war have been compatible; and compassion to excellency general Washington.
the subdued is become almost a general system. Princeton, December 8, 1777.
Britons, ever pre-eminent in mercy, have outLeller from his excellency general Washington to ge. gone common examples, and overlooked the crimineral Guge.
nal in the captive. Upon these principles, your IIEAD QUARTERS,
prisoners, whose lives, by the laws of the land, are Cambridge, August 11, 1775.
destined to the cord, bave hiiherio been treated SIR-I understand that the officers, engaged in
with care and kindness, and more comfortably lodgthe cause of liberty and their country, who, by the ed, than the king's troops, in the hospitals; indis. fortune of war, have fallen into your hands, have criminately, it is true, for I acknowledge been thrown indiscriminately into a common jail, that is not derived from the king. appropriated for felons-that no consideration has
My intelligence from your army would justify been bad for those of the most respectable rank, severe recrimination. I understand there are some wben languishing with wounds and sickness—that of the king's faithful subjects, taken sometime some of them have been even amputated in this since by the rebels, laboring like negro slaves, to unworthy situation.
gain their daily subsistence, or reduced to the Let your opinion, sir, of the principle which actu- wretched alternative, to perish by famine or take ates them, be what it may, they suppose tbey act
armis against their king and country. Those, who from the noblest of all principles, a love of freedom have made the treatment of the prisoners in my and their country. But political opinions, I conceive, hands, or of your other friends in Boston, a pre
tence for such measures, found barbarity upon falseare foreign to this point. The obligations arising from
hood. the rights of humanity, and claims of rank, are uni. versally binding and extensive, except in case of
I would willingly hope, sir, that the sentiments retaliation. These, I should have hoped, would of liberality, which I have always believed you to have dictated a more tender treatment of those in possess, will be exerted to correct these misdoings. dividuals, whom chance or war had put in your Be temperate in political disquisitions; give free
operation to truth, and punish those who deceive political disquisition; nor shall I now avail my. and misrepresent; and not only the effects, but the self of those advantages, which the sacred cause causes of this unhappy conflict will soon be re- of my country, of liberty and human nature, give moved.
me over you; much less shall I stoop to retort any
invective. But the intelligence, you say you have Should those, under whose usurped authority received from our army, requires a reply.' I have you act, controul such a disposition, and dare to taken time, sir, to make a strict enquiry, and find it call severity retaliation, to God, who knows all has not the least foundation in truth. Not only hearts, be the appeal for the dreadful consequences. your officers and soldiers have been treated with I trust that British soldiers, asserting the rights a tenderness due to fellow citizens and brethren, of the state, the laws of the land, the being of the but even those execrable parricides, whose coun. constitution, will meet all events with becoming cils and aid have deiuged their country with blood, fortitude. They will court victory with the spirit have been protected from the fury of a justly en. their cause inspires, and from the same motive will raged people. Far from compelling or permitting find the patience of martyrs under misfortune. their assistance, I am embarrassed with the num
bers who croud to our camp, animated with the pu. Till I read your insinuations in regard to minis.
rest principles of virtle and love of their country. ters, I conceived that I had acted under the king: You advise me to give free operation to truth; to whose wishes it is true, as well as those of his
punish misrepresentation and falsehood. If expe. ministers, and of every honest man, have been to rience stamps value upon counsel, your's must see this unhappy breach forever closed; but unfor. have a weight which fes can claim. You best can tunately for both countries, those, who have long tell, how far the convulsion, which has brought since projected the present crisis, and influence such ruin on both countries, and shaken the mighty the councils of America, have views very distant empire of Britain to its foundation, may be traced from accommodation.
to these malignant causes. I am, sir, your most obedient humble servant,
THOMAS GAGE. You affect, sir, to despise all rank, not derived George Washington, esq.
from the same source with your own. I cannot con. ceive one more honorable, than that which flows
from the uncorrupted choice of a brave and free REPLY.
people, the purest source and original fountain of HEAD QUARTERS,
all power. Far from making it a plea for cruelty, Cambridge, August 19, 1775.
a mind of true magnanimity and enlarged ideas, SIR-1 addressed you on the 11th inst. in terms would comprehend and respect it. which gave the fairest scope for the exercise of that humanity and politeness, which were supposed What may have been the ministerial views which to form a part of your character. I remonstrated have precipitated the present crisis, Lexington, with you on the unworthy treatment shewn to the Concord, and Charlestown, can best declare. May officers and citizens of America, whom the fortune that God, to whom you then appealed, judge be. of war, chance, or a mistaken confidence, had tween America and you. Under his providence, thrown into your hands.
those who influence the councils of America, and
all the other inbabitants of the United Colonies, at Whether British or American mercy, fortitude, the hazard of their lives, are determined to hand and patience, are most pre-eminent-whether our down to posterity those just and invaluable privi. virtuous citizens, whom the hand of tyranny has leges which they received from their ancestors. forced into arms, to defend their wives, their chil. dren, and their property, or the mercenary instru.
I shall now, sir, close my correspondence with ments of lawless domination, avarice, and revenge, you, perhaps forever. If your officers, our prisonbest deserve the appellation of rebels, and the pu. ers, receive a treatment from mo, different from nisbment of that cord, which your affected clemen- what I wished to shew them, they and you will cy has forborne to inflict-whether the authority remember the occasion of it. under which I act, is usurped, or founded upon I am, sir, your very humble servant, the genuine principles of liberty-were altogether
GEORGE WASHINGTON. foreign to the subject. I purposely avoided ali