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Omnes homines natura Lohertati student conditionem
ORATION, DELIVERED AT BOSTON, Arnik 2, 1771, ORATIONS DELIVERED AT THE REQUEST OF THE IN
BY JAMES LOVELL, A. M.
Nunc ea petit, que dare nullo modo possumus, nisi A PARTY OF BRITISA TROOPS, QUARTERED AMONG
prius volumus nos bello victos confiteri. Cic. THEN, IN TIME OF PEACE.
Your design in the appointment of this cere.. [These orations were first collected and published in a volume, by Mr. Peter Edes of Boston, printer, mony, my friends and fellow-townsmen, cannot fail
to be examined in quite different lights at this son of the MR. Epes of that town whose press
season of political dissesion. From the principles was so notorious for its fearless devotion to the
I profess, and in the exercise of my common rigla: liberties of America; both before the revolution
to judge with others, I conclude it was decent, wise, comrienced and during the time of its continu.
and honorable. ance.]
The certainty of being favored with your kindest TO THE INHABITANTS OF THE TOWN OF BOSTON,
partiality and candor, in a poor attempt to execute I hope my collecting, in one volume, the follow the part to which you have invited me, bas overing orations, which were first severally printed at come the objection of my inability to perform it your request, but many of which have been long in a proper manner; and I now beg the favor of since not to be purchased, will be considered in
your animating countenance. the mild light of an attempt to please the public. Americans have been reprehended for not pre. whatever were the causes which concurred to bring
The horrid bloody scene we here commemorate, serving, with suficient care, the various painphlets it on that dreadful night, must lead the pious and and political tracts wbich this country has afforded during the late war.
humane, of every order, 10 some suitable reflec
Lions. The pious will adore the conduct of that. Many of those productions which appear trite to Being who is unsearchable in all his ways, and withus, who live on the spot where they grew, may, out whose knowledge not a single sparrow falls, in however, be considered as sources of curiosity to permitting an immortal soul to be hurried by the strangers. Many of these orations have been con. flying ball, the messenger of death, in the ļwinksidered as the sentiments of this metropolis, from ling of an eye, to meet the awful Judge of all its time to time, touching the revolution; and as our secret actions. The humane, from having often Earliest public invectives against oppression. thought, with pleasing rapture, on the endearing
As the institution of an oration upon the fifin scenes of social life, in all its amiable relations, of March is now superseded by the celebration of will lament, with heart felt pangs, their sudden the anniversary of independence, upon the fourth dissolution, by indiscretion, rage and vengeance. of July, I have given to this volume a general title, But let us leave that shocking close of one which will apply to both institutions: so that if continued course of rancor and dispute, from the bereafter there shall be a like volume, containing first moment that the troops arrived in town: that the orations of that anniversary, this may be con. course will now be represented by your own re. sidered the first and that the second volume of Aections to a much more solid, usefull purpose, than Boston orations.
by any artful language. I hope, however, that I am, with the greatest respect, your obedient beaven has yet in store such happiness for this fiumble servant,
PETER EDES. afflicted town and province, as will in time wear Boston, January, 1785.
out the memory of all your friper troublest
I sincerely rejoice with you in the bappy even upon the army. A less body of troops than is now of your steady and united effort to prevent a second maintained bas, on a time, destroyed a king, and tragedy.
fought under a parliament with great success and 0.ir fathers left their native land, risqued all glory; but, upon a motion t.; disbund them, they the dangers of the sea, and came to this then turned their masters out of doors, and fixed others
in their stead. Such wild things are not again to savage desart, with that true undaunted courage which is excited by a confidence in Gov. They happen, because the parliament have poiver to stop came that they might here enjoy themselves, and payment once a year: but arma tenenti quis neget? leave to their posterity the best of earthly portions, which may be easily interpreted, “who will bind fill English liberty. You showed upon the alarm- Sampson with his locks on?" in; cause for trint, that their brave spirit still The bill which regulates the army, the same exists in vigor, though their legacy of right is much fine author I have mentioned, says, "is, in many impaired. The sympathy and active friendship of respects, hastily penned, and reduces the soldier to some neighboring towns, upon that sad occasion, a state of slavery in the midst of a free nation. This commands the highest gratitude of this.
is impoiitic: for slaves envy the freedom of others, We have seen and felt the ill effects of placing
and take a malicious pleasure in contributing to standing forces in the midst of populous communi.
destroy it.” tie's; but those are only what individuals suffer. By this scandalous bill a justice of peace is Your vote directs me to point out the fatal tendency empowered to grant, without a previous oath from of placing such a: order in free cities-fa'al indeed! the military officer, a warrant to bre’k open any Athens once was free; a citizen, a favorite of the (free inan's) house, upon pretence of searching for people, by an artful story, gained a trilling guard deserters. of fifty men; ambition taught him ways to enlarge I must not omit to mention one more bad ten. that number; he destroyed the commonwealth and dency: 'tis thisma standing force leads to a total f.ude himself the tyrant of the Atheniuns. Cæsar, neglect of militias, or tends greatly to discourage by the length of his command in Gaul, got the them. aficctions of bis army, marclied to Rome, overthrew
You see the danger of a standing army to the the state, and made himself perpetual dictator. By
cause of freedom. If the British parliament con. the same instruments, many less republics have been made to fall a prey to the devouring jaws of
sents from year to year to be exposed, it doubtless
bas good reasons. But when did our assembly pass tyrants.—But this is a subject which should never
an act to hazard all the property, the liberty and be disguised with tigures; it chooses the plain stile
lives of their constituents? what check bave we of dissertation.
upon a British army? can we disband it? can we stop The true strength and safety of every common- its pay? wealth or limited monarchy, is the bravery of ils
Our own assemblies in America can raise an army: freeholders, its militia. By brave militias they and our monarch, George the 3d, by our constitu. rise 10 grandeur; and they come to ruin by a
tion, takes immediate command. This army can mercenary army. This is founded on historical
consent to leave their native provinces. Will the facis, and she same causes will, in similar circum.
royal chief commander send them to find barracks stances, furever produce the same effects. Justice
at Bruinstvick or Lunenburg, at Hanover, or the comBlackstone, in his inimitably clear commentaries, modious hall of Westminster? guppose the last-suptells us, that "it is extremely dangerous in a land
pose this army was infirmed, nay thought the parof liber'y, to make a distinct order of the pro- liament in actual rebellion, or only on the eve of fession of arms; that such an order is an object of
one, against their king, or against those who paid jealousy; a'd that the laws and constitution of Eng, and cloatheil them--for there it pinches:--we are luul are sirangers to it.” One article of the bill of reliels against parliament;--we adore the king. rights is, that the raising or keeping a standing army within the kingdom in a time of peace, unless
Where, in the case I have stated, would be the it be with consent of parliament, is against law.
value of he boasted English constitution?
Who are a free people? not those icho do not The present army, therefore, though called the peace establishment, is kept up by one act, and
8 ffer ar tual oppression; but those who have a congoverned by another; both of which expire annually.
stitutional check upon the power to oppress. This circunstance is valued as a suflicient check Trenchard.
We are slaves or freemen: if as we are called if passage, some bappier climate. Here at length the last, where is our check upon the following they settled down. The king of England was said powers, France, Spain, the states of Holland, or o be the royale landlord of this territory; with the British parliaments? now if any one of these Him they entered into mutual, sacred compact, by (and it is quite immaterial which) has right to which the price of tenure, and the rules of managemake the two acis in question operate within this ment, were fairly stated. It is in this compact that
we fiad our ONLY TRUE LEGISLATIVE AUTHORITY. province, they have right to give us up to an unlimited army, under the sole direction of one
I might here enlarge upon the character of those Saracen commander.
firsi seitlers, men of whom the world was little Thus I have led your thoughts to that upon whic' worthy; who, for a long course of years, assisted I tormed my conclusion, that the design of this by no earthly power, defended their liberty, their ceremony was decent, wise and honorable. Make religion, and their lives, against the greatest inland the bloody 5th of March the æra of the resurrec danger of the savage natives: but this falls not tion of your birthrights, which have been murdered within my present purpose. They were secure by by the very strength that nursed them in their sea. infancy. I bad an eye solely to parliamentary
In our infancy, when not an over tempting jewel supremacy; and I hope you will think every other for the Bourbon crown, the very nume of England view beneath your notice, in our present most saved us; afterwards her fleets and armics. We alarming situation.
wish not to depreciate the worth of that protection. Chatham, Camden, and others, Gods among men, of our gold, yea of our most fine gold, we will and the Farmer, whom you have addressed as the freely give a part. Our fathers would have done friend of mankind; all these have owned that Eng. the same. But must we fall down and cry "let land has right to exercise every power over us, not a stranger rob and kill me, O my father! let me but that of taking money out of our pockets, with rather die by the hand of my brother, and let bim out our consent.* Though it seems almost too
ravish all my portion!"| bold therefore in us to say “we doubt in every
It is said that disunited from Britain "we should single instance her legal rights over this province,”+
bleed at every vein.” I cannot see the consoquence. yet we must assert it. Those I have named are
The states of Holland do not suffer thus. But mighty characters, but they wanted one advantage Providence has given us.
The beum is carried of Frant it true, Seneca would prefer the lancets
of France, Spain, or any other power, to the bow. from our eyes by the flowing blood of our fellow. citizens, and now we may be allowed to attempt to stkine, though applied by the fair hand of Bri
tannia. remove the mole from the eyes of our exalted patrons. That mote, we think, is nothing but our
The declarative vote of the British parliament obligation to England filist, and afterwards Great is the death.warrant of our birthrights, and wants Britain, for constanı kind protection of" our lives and only a Czarish king to put it into execution.
Here birthrights against foreign danger. We all acknow. then a door of salvation is open. Great Britain ledge that protection.
may raise her feels and armies, but it is only our Let us once more look into the early history of wn king that can direct their fire down upon our
heads. this province. We find that our English ancestors,
He is gracious, but not omniscieni. He disgusted in their native country at a legislation, is ready to hear our Appeals in their proper course; which they saw was sacrificing all their rights, lef and knowing himself, though the most powerful ils jurisdiction, and so!igst, like wandering birds prince on earth, yet, a subject under a divine con
stitution of Law; that law he will ask and receive *Taxation and representation are inseparable. from the twelve judges of England. These will
Chath Cambu From what in our constitution is representation prove that the claim of the British parliament over not inseparable!-multa a Crasso divinitus dicta us is not o:) ly ILLEGAL IN ITSELF, BUT A DOWN-NIGHT efferebantur, cum sibi illum, consulein esse neguret USURPATION OF AIS PRER GATIVE as king of America. cui senator ipse non esset.
Cic, tl confine myself to this province, partly from A brave nation is always generous. Let us ap. ignorance of other charters; but more from a desire eren to ver some abler pen to pursue the idea of Ichocse to bury a fruitful subject for any satyrical CHECK; which an unchartered FREEMAN may do, as genius of the family of Pesx. well as any other in America.
t-la vitam corpusque servato, ita fortunas, ita Hec sunt enim fiundamenta frissima nostra rem familiarem, ut he posteriera libertati Lucas, libertatis, sui quemque juris et retinendi et dimit- --n-c pro his libertatem, sed pro liberiuti hæc tendi esse dominum.
Cit. Spojicias, tariquam pignora injuriz.
NIGUTS OF BRETHREX.
pex, there'i re, at the same time, to the generosity |stitution leads us to expect. In that condition, let of the People of Great Britain, before the tribunal* us behave with the propriety and dignity of FAKEof Europe, not 10 envy us the full enjoyment of the men; and thus exhibit to the world, a new character
of a people, which no history describes. And now, my friends and fellow Insonsmen, having May the all-wise and beneficent nuler OF THE declared myself an American son of liberty of true UNIVERSE preserve our lives and health, and proscharter principles: having shewn the critical and per all our lawful endeavors in the glorious cause of dangerous situation of our birthrights, and the true FREEDOM. course for speedy redress; I shall take the freedom
ORATION DELIVERED AT BOSTON, MARCH 5, 1772, to recommend, with boldness, one previous step.
BY JOSEPH WARREN. Let us show we understand the true value of what
Quis talia fando, we are claiming.
Nyrmidonum, Dolopumve, aut duri miles Ulyssei, The patriotic Farmer tells us, “the cause of li.
Temperet a lacrymis. berty is a cause of too much dignity to be sullied
When we turn over the bistoric page, and trace by turbulence and tumult.-Anger produces anger; the rise and fall of states and empires, the mighty an•l differer.ces, that might be accommodated by revolutions which have so often varied the face of kind and respectful behavior, may, by imprudence, he world strike our minds with sulemn surprise, be er:larged to an incurable rage. In quarrels - and we are naturally led to endeavor to search out risen to a certain height, the first cause of dissen- the causes of such astonishing changes. sion is no longer remembered, the minds of the
That man is formed for social life, is an observa. par:ies being wholly engaged in recollecting and tion, which, upon our first enquiry, presents itself resenting the mutual expressions of their dislike. immediately to our view, and our reason approves When feuds have reached that fatal point, con
that wise and generous principle which actuated siderations of reason and equity vanish, and a blind the first founders of civil government; an institufury governs, or rather confounds all things. A peo
tion which hath its origin in the weakness of indiple no longer regurd their interest, but a gratifica.viduals, and bath for its end, the strength and secution of their wrath."
rity of'all: and so long as the means of effecting
this important end are thoroughly known, and reWe know ourselves subjects of common law: to
ligiously attended to, government is one of the that and the worthy executors of it, let us pay a richest blessings to mankind, and ought to be held steady and conscientious regard. Past errors in
in the highest veneration. this point have been written with gall, by the pen
In young and new formed communities, the grand of malice. May our fu'ure conduct be such as to design of this institution, is most generally underniake even that vile imp lay ber pen aside.
stood, and most strictly regarded; the motives The righe which imposes duties upon us, is in which urged to the social compact, cannot be at dispute: bui whether they are managed by a once forgotten, and that equality which is rememsurveyor general, a board of commissioners, Turkish bered to have subsisted so lately among them, pre. Janizaries, or Russian Cossacks, let them enjoy, vents those who are clothed with authority from during our time of fair trial, the common personal attempting to invade the freedom of their brethren; protection of the laws of our constitution. Let or if such an attempt is made, it prevents the comus shut our eyes, for the present, to their being munity from suffering the offender to go unpunishexecutors of claims subversive of our rights. ed: every member feels it to be his interest and
Watchful, hawk-eyed jealousy, ever guards the knows it to be his duty, to preserve inviolate the portal of the temple of the GODDESS LIBERTI. This constitution on which the public safety depends,* is known to those who frequent ber altars. Our and he is equally ready to assist the magistrale in whole conduct therefore, I am sure, will meet with the execution of the laws, and the subject in de. the utmost candor of her votANIES: but I am
tence of his right; and so long as this noble attachwishing we may be able to convert even her basest ment to a constitution, founded on free and bene.
volent principles, exists in full vigor, in any state,
that state must be flourishing and happy. We are slaves until we obtain such redress,
It was this noble attachment to a free constitu. through the justice of our king, as our happy con.
Omnes ordines ad conservamdam rempublicam, *I do not think the quo WARRANTO against our mente, voluntate, studio, virtute, voce, consentiunt. first charter, was tried in a proper court.
tion which raised ancient Rome, from the smallest solutely as they possibly could be by any human beginnings, to that bright summit of happiness and instrument which can be devised. And it is undeglory to which she arrived; and it was the loss of niably true,, that the greatest and most important this which plunged her from that summit into the right of a British subject is, that he shall be govern. black gulph of infamy and slavery. It was this at. ed by no laws but those to which he either in person or tachment which inspired her senators with wisdom; by his representative hath given his consent: and this it was this which glowed in the breast of her he. I will venture to assert, is the grand basis of Briroes; it was this which guarded her liberties and tish feeedom; it is interwoven with the constitution; extended her dominions, gave peace at home, and and whenever this is lost, the constitution must be commanded respect abroad: and when this decay. destroyed. ed, her magistrates lost their reverence for justice The British constitution (of which ours is a copy) and tae laws, and degenerated into tyrants and op. Jis a happy compound of the three forms (under pressors-her senators, forgetful of their dignity, some of which all governments may be ranged) viz. and seduced by base corruption, betrayed their monarchy,aristocracy, and democracy:of these three country-her soldiers, regardless of their relation the British legislature is composed, and without the to the community, and urged only by the hopes of consent of each branch, nothing can carry with it plunder and rapine, unfeelingly committed the the force of a law; but when a law is to be passed most flagrant enormities; and bired to the trade of for raising a tax, that law can originale only in the death, with relentless fury, they perpetrated the democratic branch, which is the house of commons most cruel murders, whereby the streets of impe. in Britain, and the bouse of representatives bere rial Rome were drenched with her noblest bloodThe reason is obvious: they and their constitu. , Thus this empress of the world lost her dominions ents are to pay much the largest part of it; but as abroad, and her inhabitants, dissolute in their man. the aristocratic branch, which, in Britain, is the ners, at length became contented slaves; and she house of lords, and in this province, the council, stands to this day, the scorn and derision of nations, are also to pay some part, THEIR consent is neces. and a monument of this eternal truth, that public sary; and as the monarchic branch, which in BriHAPPINFSS DEPENDS ON A VIRTUOUS AND UNSHAKEN tain is the king, and with us, either the king in ATTACAMEXT TO A FREE CONSTITUTION.
person, or the governor whom he shall be pleased It was this attachment to a constitution, founded to appoint to act in his stead, is supposed to have on free and benevolent principles, which inspired a just sense of his own interest, which is that of all the first settlers of this country:-they saw with
the subjects in general, his consent is also neces. grief the daring outrages committed on the free sary, and when the consent of these three branches
is obtained, the taxation is most certainly legal. constitution of their native land-they knew that nothing but a civil war could at that time restore
Let us now allow ourselves a few moments to its pristine purity. So hard was it to resolve to examine the late acts of the British parliament for embrue their bands in the blood of their brethren, taxing America-Let us with candor judge whether that they chose rather to quit their fair possessions they are constitutionally binding upon us:--if they and seek another habitation in a distant clime.-are, in THE NAME OF JUSTICE let us submit to them, When they came to this new world, which they without one murmuring word. fairly purchased of the Indian natives, the only
First, I would ask whether the members of the rightful proprietors, they cultivated the then bar
British bouse of commons are the democracy of ren soil, by their incessant labor, and defended this province? if they are, they are either the peotheir dear-bought possessions with the fortitude of
ple of this province, or are elected by the people of the christain, and the bravery of the bero.
this province, to represent them, and have there. After various struggles, which, during the tyran- fore a constitutional right to originate a bill for nic reigns of the house of Stuart, were constantly taxing them: it is most certain they are neither: kept up between right and wrong, between liberty and therefore nothing done by them can be said to . and slavery, the connection between Great Britain be done by the democratic branch of our constituand this colony was settled in the reign of king tion. I would next ask, whether the lords, who William and queen Mary, by a compact, the condi. compose the aristocratic branch of the legislature, tions of which were expressed in a charter; by which are peers of America? I never heard it was (even all the liberties and immunities of British subjects, in those extraordinary times) so much as pretendwere confined to this province, as fully and as ab. ) ed, and if they are not, certainly no act of these