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to concert some adequate remedy for preventing Penetrated with the most poignant concern, and impending ruin, and providing for the public safety. ardently solicitious to preserve union and harmony
between Great Britain and the colonies, necessary It is with the utmost concern we see your hostile
to the well being of both, we entreat your excelpreparations, which have spread such alarm through
lency to remove that brand of contention, the the province and the whole continent, as threaten to invoive us in all the confusion and horrors of
fortress at the entrance of Boston. We are much
concerned that you should have been induced to civil war: and, while we contemplate an event so
construct it, and thereby causelessly excite such a deeply to be regretted by every good man, it must
spirit of resentment and indignation, as now geneoccasion the surprise and astonishment of all man
rally prevails. kind, that such measures are parsued, against a people, whose love of order, attachment to Britain, We assure you, that the good people of this and loyalty to their prince, bave ever been truly colony never have had the least intention to do exemplary. Your excellency must be sensible, that any injury to his majesty's troops; but, on the conthe sole end of government is the protection and trary, most earnestly desire, that every obstacle security of the people: whenever, therefore, that to treating them as fellow subjects may be impower, which was originally instituted to effect mediately removed: but are constrained to tell these important and valuable purposes, is employed your excellency, that the minds of the people will to harass and enslave the people, in this case it never be relieved, till those hostile works are becomes a curse, rather than a blessing. demolished. And we request you, as you regard
bis majesty's honor and interest, the dignity, and The most painful apprehensions are excited in happiness of the empire, and the peace and wel. our minds, by the measures now pursuing; the fare of this province, that you immediately desist rigorous execution of the (Boston) port bill, with from the fortress, now constructing at the south improved severity, must certainly reduce the capi- entrance into the town of Boston, and restore the tal and its numerous dependences to a state of
pass to its natu; al state. poverty and ruin. The acts for altering the char. ter,* and the administration of justice in the ADDRESS OF THE PROVINCIAL CONGRESS TO TRE IWK4colony, are manifestly designed to abridge this people of their rights, and to license murders; and, if carried into execution, will reduce them to
Decemuer 4, 1774. slavery. The number of troops in the capital, Friends and brethren: increased by daily accessions drawn from the whole
At a time when the good people of this colony continent, together with the formidable and hostile were deprived of their laws, and the administra. preparations which you are now making on Bos. tion of justice; when the cruel oppressions brougħt ton Neck, in our opinion, greatly endanger the on their capital had stagnated almost all their comlives, liberties, and property, not only of our merce; when a standing army was illegally posted brethren in the town of Boston, but of this pro among us, for the express purpose of enforcing vince in general. Permit us to ask your excel- submission to a system of syranny; and when the Jency, whether an inattentive and unconcerned general court was, with the same design, probibit. acquiescence to such alarming, such menacing ed to sit; we were chosen, and empowered by you, measures, would not evidence a state of insanity? to assemble and consult upon measures necessary Or, whether the delaying to take every possible for our common safety and defence. With much precaution for the security of this province, would anxiety for the common welfare, we have attended not be the most criminal neglect in a people, here. this service, and upon the coolest deliberation, have tofore rigidly and justly tenacious of their con.
adopted the measures recommended to you. stituied rights?
We have still confidence in the wisdom, justice, *In June of this year, an act of parliament was
and goodness of our sovereign, as well as in the passed, revoking that part of the charter, which integrity, humanity, and good sense of the nation. allowed the representatives of the people to elect and, if we had a reasonable expectation that the counsellors; and the king, with the advice of his ministers, was empowered to appoint them; and, truth of facts would be made known in England, in August, he accordingly appointed others, cm we should entertain the most pleasing hopes, that monly called mandamus counsellors; being wholly he measures concerted by the colonies, jointly independent of the people, and holding their office of the crown, they were likely to be fit instruments and severally, would procure a full redress of our of oppression and tranny.
grievances: but we are constrained in justice to
BITANTS OF TUE TOWNS AND DISTRICTS OF MASSA
you, to ourselves, and posterity, to say, that the and provincial congress; and, while it censures incessant and unrelenting malice of our enemies its own individuals counteracting those plans, bas been so successful, as to fill the court and that it be not deceived, or diverted from its duty, kingdom of Great Britain with falsehood and by rumors, should any take place, to the prejudice calumnies concerning us, and excite the most bit of other communities. Your provincial congresses, ter and groundless prejudices against us; that the we bave reason to hope, will hold up : be towns, sudden dissolution of parliament, and the hasty any should be so lost, as not to act their parts; summons for a new election, gives us reason to and none can doubt, that the continental congress apprehend that a majority of the house of com. will rectify errors, should any take place, in any mons will be again elected, under the influerce of colony, through the subtilty of our enemies. Surely, an arbitrary ministry; and that the general tenor no arguments can be necessary to excite you to of our intelligence from Great Britain, with the the most strict adherence to the American associa. frequent reinforcements of the army and navy attion, since the minutest deviation in one colony, Boston, excites the strongest jealousy, that the especially in this, will probably be misrepresented system of colony administration, so unfriendly to in the others, to discourage their general zeal and the protestant religion, and destructive of Ameri. perseverance, which, bowever, we assure ourselves, can liberty, is still to be pursued, and attempted cannot be effected. with force, to be carried into execution.
While the British ministry are suffered, with a You are placed, by Providence, in a post of high hand, to tyrannize over America, no part of it, honor, because it is a post of danger; and while we presume, can be negligent in guarding against struggling for the noblest objects, the liberties of the ravages threatened by the standing army, now our country, the bappiness of posterity, and rights in Boston; these troops will, undoubtedly, be em. of human nature, the eyes, not only of North Ameployed in attempts to defeat the association which rica and the whole British empire, but of all Eu. our enemies cannot but fear will eventually defeat rope, are upon you. Let us be, therefore, altogether them; and, so sanguinary are those our enemies, solicitous that no disorderly behavior, nothing un. as we have reason to think, so thirsty for the blood becoining our character, as Americans, as citizens, of this innocent people, who are only contending for and Christians, be justly chargeable to us. their rights, that we should be guilty of the most
Whoever, with a small degree of attention, con- unpardonable neglect, should we not apprize you templates the commerce between Great Britain and of your danger, which appears to us imminently America, will be convinced that a total stoppage great, and ought attentively to be guarded against. thereof will soon produce, in Great Britain, such The improvement of the militia in general, in the dangerous effects, as cannot fail to convince the military art, has been therefore thought necessary, ministry, the parliament, and people, that it is and strongly recommended by this congress. We their interest and duty to grant us relief. Who- now think, that particular care should be taken by ever considers the number of brave men inhabiting the towns and districts in this colony, that each of North America, well know, that a general atten- the minute men, not already provided therewich, tion to military discipline must so establish their should be immediately equipped with an effective rights and liberties as, under God, to render it fire-arm, bayonet, pouch, knapsack, thirty rounds impossible for an arbitrary minister of Britain to of cartridges and ball, and that they be disciplined destroy them. These are facts, which our ene. three times a week, and oftener, as opportunity mies are apprized of, and if they will not be in- may offer. Auenced by principles of justice, to alter their cruel To encourage these, our worthy countrymen, to measures towards. America, these ought to lead obtain the skill of complele soldiers, we recomthem thereto. They, however, hope to effect by mend it to the towns, and districts, forthwith to stratagem what they may not obtain by power, and pay their own minute men a reasonable considera. are using arts, by the assistance of base seribblers, lion for their services; and, in case of a genera i who undoubtedly receive their bribes, and by many muster, their further services must be recompensed other means, to raise doubts and divisions through. by the province. An attention to discipline in the out the colonies.
militia, in general, is, however, by no means to be To defeat their wicked designs, we think it neglected. necessary for each town to be particularly care. With the utmost cheerfulness, we assure you ful, stricliy to execute the plans of the continental lof our determination to stand or fall with the li
berties of America; and while we humbly implore, desert.).—"Evidently discernible as were the diffi.
"Giving to the serjeant three guineas, and prereinstated in the full exercise of their rights, with
senting his best wishes, he recommended him to out the evils and devastations of civil war.
start without delay, and enjoined him to communi.
cate his arrival in New-York as soon thereafter as John Champe.
might be practicable. Champe pulling out his FROM THE RICHMOND COMPILER.
watch, compared it with the major's, reminding the Some person in a late Compiler having asked, latter of the importance of bolding back pursuit, with at least the semblance of sincerity, whether which he was convinced would take place during Slaugliter or Champe was sent to arrest the traitor the night, and which might be fatal, as he knew Arnold? I beg leave to inform him, upon the testi. that he should be obliged to zig-zag in order to mony of Henry Lee, that Champe was the distin. avoid the patroles, which would consume time. It guished soldier selected for this highly honorable, was now 11 o'clock: He returned to camp,* and and most confidential business, by major Lee, at taking his cloak, valice, and orderly book, lie drew the request of general Washinglon. Lee, in his his horse from the picket, and mounting him, put memoirs of the war in the southern states, thus himself upon fortune. Lee, charmed with his ex. describes the hero, and bis adventure:
peditious consummation of the first part of his "He was a native of Loudon county, in Virginia, enterprize, retired to rest. Useless attempt! The about twenty-three or twenty-four years of age; past scene could not be obliterated; and, indeed, that he had enlisted in 76-rather above the bad that been practicable, the interruption which common size-full of bone, and muscle; with a ensued would have stopped repose. saturnine countenance; grave,' thoughtful and
“Within half an hour, captain Carnes, officer of taciturn-of tried courage and inflexible persever. the day, waited upon the major, and, with con. ance, and as likely to reject an offer coupled with siderable emotion, told him that one of the patrole ignominy, as any officer in the corps; a commission had fallen in with a dragoon, who, being challenged, being the goal of his long and anxious exertions,
put spur to his horse and escaped, though instantly and certain on the first vacancy."
pursued. Lee, complaining of the interruption, (It will be proper here to premise, that although and pretending to be extremely fatigued by his Champe was young, ardent, and devoted to bis ride to and from bead-quarters, answered as if be country's cause, and thirsting for military fame; did not understand what had been said, which yet his noble and magnanimous soul revolted at compelled the captain to repeat it. Who can the the idea of doing any think underhanded, or that fellow that was pursued be? enquired the major; had even the shadow of a deviation from the paths adding, a countryman, probably. No, replied the of chivalry, and the high notions of honor which captain, the patrole sufficiently distinguished him glywed in every Ainerican bosom.At last, how. to know that he was a dragoon; propably one from ever, Champe, convinced that no action stampt the army, if not certainly of our own. This idea with the approbation of the commander in chief, was ridiculed from its improbability, as during the could be other than laudable and worthy of a whole war but a single dragoon had deserted from soldier's best exertions, he engaged in the inter- the legion. This did not convince Carnes, so much prize with alacrity and zeal; and after all the plans stress was it now the fashion to lay on the deser. of Washington were fully explained to him by tion of Arnold, and the probable effect of bis major Lee, it was determined that, to give a greater example. The captain withdrew to examine the chance of success, that Champe should enter the
*From Lee's Marque, where they had been con. cnemies lines as a deserter! and accordingly he did sulting on the best plan of the proposed desertion,
squadron of borse, whom he had ordered to assem- enabled the pursuing dragoons to take the trail of ble in pursuance of established usage on such oc. his horse; knowing, as officer and trooper did, the casions. Very quickly be returned, stating that make of their shoes, whose impression was an the scoundrel* was known, and no other person unerring guide. than the serjeant major, who had gone off with his
“When Middleton departed, it was a few minutes horse, baggage, and orderly book-so presumed, as neither the one nor the other could be found. past twelve; so that Champe had only the start of
rather more tban an hour-by no means as long as Sensibly affected at the supposed baseness of a
was desired. Lee became very unhappy, not only soldier extremely respected, the captain added that
because the estimable and gallant Champe might he had ordered a party to make ready for pursuit, be injured, but lest the enterprise might be delayand begged the major's written orders.
ed; and he spent a sleepless night. The pursuing "Occasionally this discourse was interrupted, and party during the night, was, on their part, delayed by every idea suggested which the excellent character the necessary balts to examine the road, as the imof the sergeant warranted, to induce the suspicion pression of the horse's shoes directed their course; that he had not deserted, but had taken the liberty this was unfortunately too evident, no other horse to leave camp with a view to personal pleasure: having passed along the road since the shower. an example, said Lee, too often set by the officers When the day broke, Middleton was no longer themselves, destructive as it was of discipline, found to halt, and he pressed on with rapidity. upposed as it was to orders, and disastrous as it Ascending an eminence before he reached the might prove to the corps in the course of the ser. three Pidgeons, some miles on the north of the vice.
village of Bergen, (Jersey) as the pursuing party “Some little delay was thus interposed, but it reached its summit, Champe was discovered not being now announced that the pursuing party was more than half a mile in front, resembling an Indian ready, major Lee directed a change in the officer, in bis vigilance. The serjeant at the same mo. saying that he had a particular service in view, ment discovered ihe party, (whose object he was wbich he had determined to entrust to the lieut. no stranger to,) and giving spur to his horse, he ready for duty, and which probably must be per determined to outstrip his pursuers. Middleton, formed in the morning. He therefore directed at the same instant put his horses to the top of him to summon cornet Middleton for the present their speed; and being (as the legion all were) command. Lee was induced thus to act, first to well acquainted with the country, he recollected add to the delay, and next from his knowledge of a short route through the woods to the bridge the tenderness of Middleton's disposition, which below Bergen, which diverged from the great he hoped would lead to the protection of Champe, road just after you gain the Three Pidgeons. should he be taken. - -Within ten minutes Mid. Reaching the point of separation he halted, and dleton appeared to receive orders, which were dividing his party, directed a serjeant with a few delivered to him made out in the customary form, dragoons to take the near cut, and possess, with and signed by the major. 'Pursue so far as you all possible despatch the bridge, while he with the can with safety, serjeant Champe, who is suspected residue followed Champe; not doubting but that of deserting to the enemy, and has taken the road Champe must deliver himself up, as he would be leading to Pauler's Hook. Bring him alive that closed between himself and his serjeant. Champe he may guffer in the presence of the army; but kill did not forget the short cut, and would have taken him if he resists or escapes after being taken.' it himself, but he knew it was the usual route of
our parties when returning in the way from the "Detaining the cornet a few minutes longer in
neighborhood of the enemy, properly preferring advising him what course to pursue urging him
the woods to the road.-He consequently avoided to take care of the horse and accoutrements, if recovered—and enjoining bim to be on his guard, self of it, wisely resolved to relinguish bis inten.
it; and persuaded that Middleton would avail him. lest he might, by bis eager pursuit, improvidently tion of getting to Pauler's Hook, and to seek fall into the bands of the enemy, the major dis-refuge from two British galleys, lying a few miles missed Middleton, wishing him success. A shower
to the west of Bergen. of rain fell soon after Champe's departure, which
“This was a station always occupied by one or *The reader will understand, that Washington and Lee were the only persons acquainted with the more galleys, and which it was known now lay facts in this case.
! there. Entering the village of Bergen, Champe
turned to his right, and disguised his change of as would more effectually mislead. After this courge as much as he could by taking the beaten examination he was consigned to the care of gestreets, turning as they turned; he passed through neral Arnold, and by him retained in his former the village and took the road towards Elizabeth rank. Washington hoped and believed, that the town Point. Middleton's serjeant gained the bridge, trial of Andre would occupy much time, and enable when he conceived himself ready to pounce upon Champe to accomplish his designs. That gallant Champe when he came up; and Middleton pursuing officer disdaining all subterfuge, completely foiled bis course through Bergen, soon got also to the this bope, by broadly confessing the nature of his bridge, when to bis extreme mortification be found connexion with Arnold. The commander in chief that the serjeant had slipped through his fingers. offered to exchange andre for Arnold, a proposal Returning up the road, he enquired of the villagers, sir llenry Clinton, for obvious motives, declined. of Bergen, whether a dragoon had been seen that Had this gallant officer protracted his trial, and morning preceding his party? He was answered the plot proved successful, the life of Andre would in the affirmative, but could learn nothing satis. have been saved, not by the intrigues of sir Henry factory as to the route he took. While engaged Clinton, but of Washington in his favor. The in enquiries himself, he spread his party through honest and precipitate intrepidity of the British the village to take the trail of Champe's horse, a officer defeated this benevolent project, and no resort always recurred to. Some of his dragoons alternative remained but a speedy death. The hit it just as the serjeant, leaving the village, got serjeant, unfortunate as he was in this, was more in the road leading to the point. Pursuit was successful in obtaining evidence the most full and renewed with vigor, and again Champe was dis. satisfactory, that the suspicions resting on several covered. He, apprehending the event, had pre. American officers were foul calumnies, and a pared himself for it, by lashing his valice, (contain. forgery of the enemy. He now determined on ing bis cloathes and orderly book) on bis shoulders, making one bold attempt for the seizure of Arnold. and holding a drawn sword in his hand, having Having been allowed, at all times, free access to thrown away its scabbard. This he did to save Arnold, marked all his habits and movements, he what was indispensable to him, and to prevent any awaited only a favorable opportunity for the esecu. interruption to swimming by the scabbard, should tion of his project. He had ascertained that Arnold Middleton, as be presumed, when disappointed at usually retired to rest about twelve, and that prethe bridge, take the measures adopted by him. The vious to this, he spent some time in a private pursuit was rapid and close, as the stop occasioned garden, adjoining his quarters. He was there to by the serjeant's preparation for swimming had have been seized, bound, and gagged, and under brought Middleton within two or three hundred the pretext that he was a soldier in a state of yards. As soon as Champe got abreast of the intoxication, to have been conveyed through bye galleys, he dismounted, and running through the paths, and unsuspected places to a boat laying in marsh to the river, plunged into it, calling upon readiness, in the river Hudson. Champe engaged the galleys for help. This was readily given; they two confederates, and major Lee, who co-operated fired upon our horse, and sent a boat to meet in the plan, received timely intelligence of the Champe, who was taken on board, and conveyed night fixed on for its execution. At the appointed to New.York, with a letter from the captain of time that officer, attended by a small party, well the galley stating the past scene, all of which he mounted, laid in wait on the other side of the had seen."
Hudson with two spare horses, one for Champe,
and the other for Arnold. The return of day light (Champe's affair continued, from another paper.] announced the discomfiture of the plan, and Lee
Washington was highly pleased with the result and his party retired to the camp with melancholy of his adventure. The eagerness of the pursuit forebodings that the life of the gallant serjeant he thought would be decisive evidence to the had been sacrificed to his zeal in the service of bis British commander, that this was a real and not country. Consoling was the intelligence, shortly a feigned desertion. Champe was immediately after received from the confederates, that on the brought before sir Henry Clinton, and questioned right preceeding the one fixed for Arnold's arrest, by him on a variety of subjects, and amongst the that officer bad shifted his quarters. It appeared rest, if any American officers were suspected of deser. that he was employed to superintend the embarka. ti011, and who those officers were. The serjeant was tion of certain troops, composed chiefly of Ameri. forewarned on this point, and gave such answers I can deserters, and it was apprehended that unless