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The Romans made it a fised rule never to send addressed, he was pleased to send me a copy of or receive ambassadors, to treat of peace with it, and of another written to her on the same third their enemies, wbile their affairs were in an adverse of July. It is probable that, after the loss of such or disastrous situation. There was a generosity a companion, a review of their epistolary corresand magnanimity in this, becoming freemen. It pondence brought to his recollection the enquiries flowed from that temper and those principles which I had made, and the subsequent conversation, alone can preserve the freedom of a people. It though years bad elapsed. These letters I preis a pleasure to find our Americans of the same sent to the public, but not without permission; temper. It is a good symptom, foreboding a good believing that they will be read with much interest end.
on the forty-third anniversary of the grand event
which they announced. If you imagine that I expect this declaration
THOMAS DAWES. will ward off calamities from this country, you
Boston, July 3, 1819. are mistaken. A bloody conflict we are destined
PHILADELPATA, July 3, 1776. to endure. This has been my opinion from the
Your favor of June 17, dated at Plymouth, was beginning. You will certainly remember my decid.
banded me yesterday by the post. I was much ed opinion was, at the first congress, when we found
pleased to find that you had taken a journey to that we could not agree upon an immediate non
Plymouth to see your friends, in the long absence exportation, that the contest could not be settled
of one whom you may wish to see. The excursion without bloodshed, and that if hostilities should
will be an amusement, and will serve your health. once commence, they would terminate in an incura.
How happy would it bave made me to bave taken ble animosity between the two countries. Every
this journey with you! political event since the 19th of April, 1775, has confirmed me in this opinion.
I was informed, a day or two before the receipt If you imagine that I flatter myself with happi- Miss
. P. who was obliging enough to inform me, in
of your letter, that you was gone to Plymouth, by ness and halcyon days, after a separation from
your absence, of the particulars of the expedition Great Britain, you are mistaken again. I don'i ex
to the Lower Harbor, against the men of war.pect that our new governments will be so quiet as
Her narration is executed with a precision and I could wish, nor that happy harmony, confidence, and affection, between the colonies, that every
perspicuity which would bave become the pen of
an accomplished historian. good American ought to study, labor, and pray for, for a long time. But freedom is a counterbalance I am very glad you had so good an opportunity for poverty, discord, and war, and more. It is your of seeing one of our little Americ men of war. hard lot and mine to be called into life, at such a Many ideas, new to you, must have presented time;-yet even these times have their pleasures. themselves in such a scene; and you will in future I am your friend and servant,
better understand the relations of a sea engage.
JOHN ADAMS, Mr. Chase.
I rejoice extremely in Dr. Bulfinch's petition for
leave to open an Hospital. But I hope the busiTrvo letters from president Adams, written, one in the ness will be done upon a larger scale. I hope that
morning, the other in the evening, of the 3d July, one Hospital will be licensed in every county, if not 1776.
in every town. I am bappy to find you resolved to Mr. Editor-Some years ago, having seen in be with the children in the first class. Mr. W. and your paper a brilliant paragraph from a letter of Mrs. Q. are cleverly through innoculation in this the bon. John Adams to a friend-not, bowever, city. for the first time, it having appeared before on
I have one favor to ask, and that is, that in your many a fourth of July-I was curious to learn from
future letters you would acknowledge the receipt its venerable author who was that friend, and also
of all those you may receive from me, and mention such anecdotes concerning the subject of the let.
their dates; by this means I shall know if any of ter, as he might be willing to communicate. He
mine nuiscarry. gratified my curiosity, with his accustomed energy, on a transaction in which he had taken so dis The information you give me of our friend's retinguished a part. After the death of Mrs. Adams, fusing his appointment, bas given me much pain, the accomplished friend to whom the letter was grief, and anxiety. I believe I shall be obliged to
FROM A LATE BOSTON PAPEN.
follow his example. I have not fortune enough to Jof affliction produces refinement in states as well support my family, and, what is of more importance, as individuals. And the new governments we are to support the dignity of that exalted station. It assuming in every part, will require a purification is too high and lifted up for me, who delight in from our vices, and an augmentation of our virtues, nothing so much as retreat, solitude, silence, and or they will be no blessings. The people will have obscurity. In private life, no one has a right to unbounded power; and the people are extremely censure me for following my own inclinations in addicted to corruption and venality, as well as retirement, in simplicity, and frugality; but in pub. the great. I am not without apprehensions from lic life every man has a right to remark as he pleases; this quarter; but I must submit all my hopes and at least he thinks so.
fears to an overruling Providence, in which, un
fashionable as it may be, I firmly believe. Yesterday the greatest question was decided
JOHN ADAMS. which ever was debated in America; and a greater, MRS, ADAMS. perbaps, never was or will be decided among men. A resolution was passed, without one dissenting
PHILADELPAIA, July 3, 1776. colony:
Had a declaration of independence been made
seven months ago, it would have been attended “That these United Colonies are, and of right with many great and glorious effects. We might, ought to be, free and independent states; and, as before this hour, have formed alliances with foreign free and independent states, they have, and of
states. We should have mastered Quebec, and right ouglit to have, full power to make war,.con. been in possession of Canada. clude peace, establish commerce, and to do all other acts and things which other states may right.
You will, perhaps, wonder how such a declara.
tion would have influenced our affairs in Canada; fully do."
but, if I could write with freedom, I could easily You will see, in a few days, a declaration, setting convince you that it would, and explain to you the forib the causes which have irnpelled us to this manner how. Many gentlemen in high stations, revolution, and the reasons which will justify it and of great influence, have been duped, by the in the sight of God and man. A plan of confedera. ministerial bubble of commissioners, to treat; and, tion will be taken up in a few days.
in real, sincere expectation of this event, which When I look back to the year 1761, and recol- they so fondly wished, they have been slow and lect the argument concerning writs of assistance, languid in promoting measures for the reduction in the superior court, which I have hitherto con. of that province. Others there are in the colonies, sidered as the commencement of the controversy
who really wished that' our enterprize in Canada between Great Britain and America, and run
would be defeated; that the colonies might be through the whole period from that time to this, brought into danger and distress between two and recollect the series of political events, the fires, and be thus induced to submit. Others really chain of causes and effects, I am surprised at the wished to defeat the expedition to Canada, lest suddenness as well as greatness of this revolution. the conquest of it should elevate the minds of the
people too much to hearken to those terms of reBritain has been filled with folly, and America conciliation which they believed would be offered with wisdom; at least this is my judgment-time These jarring views, wishes, and designs, oc. must determine. It is tlie will of Ileaven that casioned an opposition to many salutary measures the two countries should be sundered forever. It willich were proposed for the support of that ex. may be the will of Heaven that America shall suf. pedition, and caused obstructions, embarrassments, fer calamities still more wasting, and distresses and studied delays, which have finally lost us the still more dreadful. If this is to be the case, it
province. will have this good effect at least, it will inspire
All these causes, however, in conjunction, would us with many virtues which we have not, and cor. rect many errors, follies, and vices, which threaten misfortune which could not have been foreseen, and
not have disappointed us, if it had not been for a to disturb, dishonor, and destroy us. The furnace
perhaps could not have been prevented -I mean' "Office of chief justice of the superior court of the prevalence of the small.pox among our troops. Massachusetts, to which Mr. Adams had been 'This fatal pestilence completed our destruction. It appointed, but which he declined, preferring his seat in the old congress, to which he had been is a frown of Providence upon us, wbich we ought re-elected.
to lay to heart.
LETTER TO THE EDITOR.
But, on the other hand, the delay of this declara. An extract of one of them has been published in tion to this time has many great advantages at the newspapers. Once on a time, upon my stony tending it. The hopes of reconciliation, which field bill, you interrogated me concerning that were fondly entertained by multitudes of honest extract, in so particular a manner, that I thought and well meaning, though short-sighted and mis- you felt a tincture of pyrrhonism concerning its taken people, have been gradually, and at last authenticity. If you bave still any doubts, I will lotally, extinguished. Time has been given for show you the original letters, in my hand writing, the whole people maturely to consider the great whenever you will do me the honor of a visit to question of independence, and to ripen their judg. Quincy. In those days, my principal correspondent ment, dissipate their fears, and allure their hopes, was my wife, who was then surrounded by many by discussing it in newspapers and pamphlets- of the principal politicians of the age, such as by debating it in assemblies, conventions, com- general James Warren, of Plymouth, and bis lady; mittees of safety and inspection-in town and Dr. Cotton Tufts, of Weymouth; my brother Richcounty meetings, as well as in private conversa- ard Cranch, of Braintree, and gen. Joseph Palmer, of tions; so that the whole people, in every colony, Germantown, and many others, who were constantly bave now adopted it as their own act. This will enquiring of ber the news from congress. Whatcement the union, and avoid those heats, and per- ever related merely to public affairs, she read lo haps convulsions, which might have been occasion. them, or suffered them to read. ed by such a declaration six months ago.
I am, sir, with perfect esteem and sincere affec. But the day is past. The second day of July, tion, your friend and humble servant,
JOIN ADANIS. 1778, will be a memorable epocha in the history
Judge Dawes. of America. I am apt to believe that it will be celebrated by succeeding generations, as the great COL. LEDYARD-NEW LONDON, &c. Anniversary Festival. It ought to be commemorated, as the day of deliverance, by solemn acts of Nr. Niles. The following scrap of history is devotion to God Almighty. It origb: to be solem recorded on a head stone at the grave of colonel nized with pomp, shews, games, sports, guns, bells, LXDYARD, half a mile S. E. of Fort Griswold, or bon-fires and illuminations, from one end of the Groton, Con. as a public monument of the characcontinent to the other, from this time forward for. ter of the cause, the actors and the act. Col. Ledever.
yard was run through with his own sword, by a You will think me transported with enthusiasm: British captain to whom he had surrendered it, and but I am not. I am well aware of the toil, and most of the garrison were murdered after they had
Those who survived saved blood, and treasure, that it will cost us to main grounded their arms. tain this declaration, and support and defend these
themselves by embracing the British soldiers in states. Yet, through all tbe gloom, I can see the
such a manner that they could not bayonet then,
The wounded were put into a waggon and prerays of light and glory; I can see that the end is more than worth all the means, and that posterity
cipitated down the steep hill which elerates the will triumph, although you and I may rue, which
fort above the river. I hope we shall not.
JOHN ADAMS. MRS. Adams.
WILLIAM LEDYARD, esq.
"Colonel commandant of the garrisoned posts of The following letter was not intended for pub- “ New London and Groton, who, after a gallant delication, but we cannot resist a desire we feel-for “ fence, zus, with a large part of the brave garrison, reasons which will be obvious to the reader-to inhumánly massacred by British troops in fort Gris. record the document in our files; and apologize to "wold, September 6th, 1781, Etat, suæ 43. By a our fellow-citizens for the liberty we have taken.“ judicious and faithful discharge of the various
QUINCI, February 16, 1819. "duties of his station, he rendered most essential Respected and beloved judge Dawes:
“ services to his country, and stood confessed Inclosed are copies of two letters written by " the unshaken patriot, and intrepid hero. He lived me to my wife, one in the morning, the other in the pattern of magnanimity, courtesy and humani. the evening of the 3d July, 1776, the day after “ ty: He fell the victim ungenerous of rage and the vote of independence was passed in congress. “ cruelty!"
SACRED TO TUE MEMORY
“There is a white stone inscribed-SACRED TO THE (that on the Groton side being commanded by lieut. MEMORY of captain JNO. WILLIAMS, who fell col. Eyre, and that on the New London side by the gloriously fighling for the liberty of his country general, who met no great trouble. Fort Trumbull in fort Griswold, September, 6th 1781, in the 43). and the redoubt, which were intended to cover year of his age.”
the harbor and town, not being tenable, were “On another stone is the inscription—SACRED TO THE
evacuated as he approached, and the few men in
them crossed the river to fort Griswold, on Groton. XEMORY of lieut. EBENEZER AVERY, who fell gloricusly fighting in defence of fort Griswold and
Mill. Arnold proceeded to the town without being American freedom, September 6th, 1781, in the 420 otherwise opposed than by the scattered fire of year of his age.”
small parties that had hastily collected. Orders
were sent by the general to Fyre for attacking "OYE REXAGADO IS WORSE THAN TES TENKS." fort Griswold, that so the possession of it might To complete the history of this horrible transac prevent the escape of the American shipping. The
tion, and further to disseminate a knowledge of militia, to the amount of 157, collected for its the infamy of Arnolal and give up the butcher. defence, but so hastily as not to be fully furnished ing traitor to the execration of posterity—we with fire arms and other weapons. As the assailants extract the following account of the massacre approached, a firing commenced, and the fag.staff from Gordon's history, New-York edit. vol. III. was soon shot down, from whence the neighbor. page 249.*
ing spectators inferred, that the place had sur. “The return of gen. Arnold to New-Yorås from rendered, till the continuance of the firing conVirginia, did not fix him in a state of inactivity.
vinced them to the contrary. The garrison defendHe was sent on an enterprize against New Lon.
ed themselves with the greatest resolution and don, with a sufficient land and marine force. The bravery; Eyre was wounded near the works, and embarkation having passed over from Long Island major Montgomery was killed immediately after, shore in the night, the troops were landed in two
so that the command devolved on major Broom.
field. detachments on each side of the harbor, at ten
The British at one time staggered; but o'clock in the morning of the 6th of September;
the fort being out of repair, could not be maintain
ed by a handful of men against 50 superior a num. *In speeking of Arnold, it may be useful to ob. ber as that which assaulted it. After an action of serve that WASHINGTON offered to exchange Andre for him, which sir Henry Clinton declined. Never about 40 minutes, the resolution of the royal were the sympathies of the American people so troops carried the place by the point of the much misled as in the case of the unfortunate | bayonet. The Americans had not more than half Andre. He was engaged in a most vile businessthe meanest that can be imagined for an honorable a dozen killed before the enemy entered the fore, man, the perfection of an act of corruption and trea. when a severe erecution took place, though resistance son, and justly merited bis fate; if he had had ceased. The British officer enquired, on his enterten thousand lives, they were all justly forfeited by the laws of honor as well as to those of war, ing the fort, who commanded? colonel Ledyard and every principle of self preservation. Had he answered—"I did, sir, but you do now;” and prenot been put to death, the great Washingtox, sented him his sword. The colonel was imme. himself, would at least have merited a dismissal from the command of the revolutionary army. But diately run through and killed. The slain were it is well known that the private feelings of the 73; the wounded between 30 and 40, and about illustrious father of his country were greatly 40 were carried off prisoners. Soon after reducing excited in favor of that unlucky young man I say unlucky, because if he had succeeilent lie would the fort, the soldiers loaded a waggon with the have been praised and rewarded for his gallantry, wounded, as said, by order of their officers, and dexterity, &c. He failed—and instead of being a hero became a culprit, in the estimation of every
set the waggon off from the top of the hill, which reflecting man. No personal accomplishments or
is long and very steep; the waggon went a conprivate character can palliate a public act of siderable distance with great force, till it was slame-they rather aggravate the offence; and an agency in an act of villair ny entitles the agent to
suddenly stopt by an apple tree, which gare the the villain's fare, Yet he was treated with all faint and bleeding men so lerrible a shock that part possible courtesy and kindness, and had all the l of them died instantly. About fifteen vessels, with intercourse with his friends which the nature of his effects of the inhabitants, retreated up the river, condition admitted of. Ilow different the conduct of the Briush to captain Nathan Hale-an Ameri. notwithstanding the reduction of the fort, and can, whose character, in any and every light, was four others remained in the harbor unhurt; a num. comparable with that of Andre, a sketch of whose case may be found in the WEEKLY REGISTER, vol. Der were burnt by the fire's communicating from Il. page 129.)
Eorrox. the stores when in flames. Sixty dwelling houses
IROM THE BOSTON PATRIOT.
and 84 stores were burned, including those on of civil society and constitutional protectios, to both sides of the barbor and in New London. The wit, liberties and life. burning of the town was intentional and not accidental. The loss that the Americans sustained in this
Your petitioners most bumbly represent to your destruction was very great; for there were large majesty, that, to destroy or assume their chartered quantities of naval stores, of European goods, of rights, without a full and fair hearing, with legal East and West India commodities, and of provi proof of forieiture, and the abrogating of their most sions in the several stores. The British had two valuable laws, which had duly received the solemn commissioned officers and 46 privates killed; eight confirmation of your majesty's royal predecessors, officers (some of whom are since dead) with 135 and were thence deemed unchangeable, without non.commissioned and privates wounded."
the consent of the people, is such a proceeding as
renders the enjoyment of every privilege they Petition of the native Americans residing in London possess totally uncertain and precarious. That as to his Britannic majesty, in 1774.
exemption of the soldiery from being tried in the Massachusetts-Bay, for murder or other felony, com.
mitted upon your majesty's subjects there, is such Messrs. Editons:-Having recently been em
an encouragement to licentiousness and incentive ployed in searching for old records, I met with a
to outrage, as must subject your majesty's liege manuscript copy of the following petition of a
people to continued danger. number of native Americans, who were then in London, to his Britannic majesty, in the year 1774. Your petitioners and their countrymen have been If you think it sufficiently interesting to publish, ever most zealously attached to your majesty's per. you are at liberty to do it. Among the number son and family. It is therefore with inexpressible of signers is the late Arthur Lee, of Virginia, a affliction that they see an attempt, in these progentleman whose life and character seem to be ceedings against them, to change the principle of but little known at the present day, although he obedience to government, from the love of the subwas one of the firmest patriots of the revolution, ject towards their sovereign, founded on the opi and his services, though not conspicuous, yet were nion of his wisdom, justice and benevolence, into eminently beneficial to the cause he had espoused. the dread of absolute power and laws of extreme
rigor, unsupportable to a free people. It will be remem. i'e', that the bills there alluded to are the last of the series of those acts Should the bills above-mentioned receive your of the British parliament which produced a crisis, royal sanction, your majesty's faithful subjects will and were the immediate cause of the war of the be overwhelmed with grief and despair. revolution:
It is therefore our most earnest prayer that your To the king's most excellent majesty. majesty will be graciously pleased to suspend your The petition of several natives of America, most royal assent to the said bills. humbly sheweth:
And your petitioners, &c. That your petitioners, being your majesty's most
William H. Gibbs, faithful subjects, are obliged to implore your graci. William Lee, William Blake, ous interposition, to protect them in the enjoyment Arthur Lee,
Isaac Motte, of those privileges which are the right of all your Edmund Jenings, Henry Lawrence, people.
Thomas Pinckney. Your majesty's petitioners have already seen, with Daniel Bowley, John T. Grimpke, unspeakable grief, their earnest prayers rejected, Benjamin Franklin, Jacob Reade, and heavy penalties inflicted, even on the innocent Thomas Buston, Philip Neyle, among their countrymen, to the subversion of every Edward Bancroft, Edward Fenwicke, principle of justice, without their being heard. By Thomas Bromfield, Edward Fenwicke, jr. this alarming procedure all property was rendered Jobn Boylston,
John Peroneauf, insecure; and they now see in two bills (for altering Joba Ellis,
William Middleton, the government of the Massachusetts Bay, and John Williams, William Middleton, jr. the impartial administration of justice there) the John Alleyne,
Ralph Irard, jr. Intended subversion of the two other grand objects 'Ralph Irard,