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credit of the money. 'Tis well enough that they member his interest annually, and his principal ac. should alarm the people, that every exertion may be cording to the terms of lending. made by them to support congress in their mea
This is the mode the friends of the cause are ensures for raising the value of the money—but if
deavoring to promote here, that all persons whatcongress be too much alarmed themselves, they
ever may have an opportunity of subscribing. will not be so likely to direct these exertions in The best manner to answer effectually the purpose When I see large societies formed in your city intended. Congress, in my humble opinion, ought to promote their own particular sentiment about to be cool, uniform and firm, in what they do on the constitution of government, I cannot think they this head. Taxation, if not impeded by other would be backward in a measure of this sort, wbich means, will restore the money much soon er per- possibly may be the means of saving the very exist. baps than congress apprehend; for, by this means, ence of that government. without destroying one bill, one half the money,
The mode that I would advise in your city would at least, will be taken out of circulation, and the
be this: Let each class of people, according to people will soon be amazed to see the money
their calling, associate together—and let the mer. appear, without hearing that any of it is destroyed.
chants, who we may suppose the monied men, be. This position will appear evident to you when you
gin-their example will soon be followed by the consider, that, from the moment the present tax is
rest. collected, (if the plan is pursued), there will always be at least sixty millions of dollars locked up This would convince both our friends and ene. in the treasuries—and as fast as any part of this mies, as well abroad as at home, that the people sum is dealt out to supply the exigencies of the are determined to support the public credit, and war, it ought to be supplied by the tases coming the only hope that Britain now has would vanish in in. I think there can be no doubt but a sum, equal a moment. to wbat I have mentioned, will always remain in the
Once this example is set, he that is able, and treasury; that is, between the hands of the first col. does not follow it, will give the strongest proof of lectors and those that pay it out to the people his disaffection, and ought to be regarded accordagain: and while it is there, it will be out of sight
ingly. · and out of circulation.
There are few evils but what have benefits proBut if taxation has been too long neglected, and
portionate attendant on them. War cannot be caris now too slow to supply your present demand, it ried on without supplies, and the high prices given is better to borrow, than emit any more money for them for twelve months past, has encouraged but not upon unusual interest;~a higher interest the merchant and the farmer in such a degree, that than usual, holds out that the people are not ready
we see industry, enterprize and plenty abound eve. and willing to support the public credit, and that
ry where-so that, in my private view, (notwiththe security is doubtful. An accumulating inte
standing the state of our finances), our circumrest, to be in proportion to the increase of the
stances are the most flourishing that they have been quantity of money, holds out that you intend to since the war began. emit more--that is, that you will make the monster
THOMAS RODNEY. yet more terrible, that has frightened every body Casar Rodney, esq. almost out of their wits already. Borrowing is a measure I never would advise, if
Philadelphia, July 22d, 1779. the necessity of our circumstances did not drive us
Dear SIR-I have received your favor of the into it, by being past the opportunity of better 17th, for which and the enclosure I am much oblig. means; but as we are now circumstanced, borrow.ed, as I shall always be for a communication of ing may have an extraordinary good effect, if the your sentiments on public affairs. measure is wisely conducted that is, if the friends I so much agreed with you concerning the exto America would form themselves into bodies, or pediency of acceding to the confederation, though, small societies, and every man subscribe according as you justly observe, in several particulars escepto his abilities to lend the public at usual interest, tionable, that I used what little influence I had to and each society to appoint one or more of their forward its ratification by our state; advising, at members to take a certificate for the gross sum the same time, a strong declaration upon the parts they all subscribe, in trust to receive and pay each objected to, addressed to congress, and pointedly
expressing our expectation of a revision and alter.jdemands as possible, that the mediating powers, ation thereof at a more convenient season. may thereby receive favorable impressions of our
Your reflections on our loan, and on some other equity and justice. The same mediating applicaproceedings, I fear, are too well founded.-Our dif- tion was made to the court of Spain, and their an. ficulties are prodigious. We see the wisdom of swer was, that they could not do any thing but in your proposal to stop the presses-we perceive conjunction with their ally, the king of France-so taxation to be of as much importance as you men.
that the congress of mediation is likely to be de. tion-we are desirous of borrowing on the lowest layed till our despatches reach France. lIowever, terms—but, while we have so many thousands to
the king says that, if he is so pressed that he cansupply with necessaries, and wbile the demands up.
not decently delay sending a plenipotentiary till on us for the articles we must purchase are daily
that time, he shall insist on the preliminary before and hourly rising upon us, with such a boundless
mentioned, and then only proceed in the negocia
tion so as to bave it in such forwardness as will stretch-to what purpose are loans and taxes?.
not injure America against their plenipotentiaries I have esteemed it my duty since I have been in and instructions arrived. The king of France thinks congress, to keep my eyes constantly fixed on the that very equitable terms of peace may be obtainpreventing further emissions—and several steps ed through this mediation, but urges us strongly have been taken towards that point, that are to exert ourselves this campaign-as the wresting known but by very few to lead towards it: some the southern states out of the hands of the British, others are now under consideration—and I am im- will contribute greatly to lessen their demands and patiently waiting for the moment, when a prospect make them more readily incline to equitable terms of carrying on affairs without further emissions, of peace; and that our exertions ought to be quick and a likelihood of succeeding in the attempt, will and vigorous, lest a truce should take place: and permit me to move for stopping the presses. to ensure the success of this mediation we ought
Mrs. Dickinson and Sally, with myself, desire to to make the most ample and vigorous preparations De very affectionately remembered to your family. for carrying on the war. Britain made an attempt, I am, sir, your sincerely affectionate and very
through a Mr.Cumberland, to negociate a separate humble servant,
treaty with Spain; but this bas failed, though Mr. JOHN DICKINSON, Cumberland is still at Madrid. Spain would not To Thomas Rodney, esq. Dover.
treat but in conjunction with France, and France
cannot treat but in conjunction with America. Philadelphia, June 14, 1781,
Thus are we linked together, so that the indepenSIR-You will find by the contents of this, that denceof America now stands on prosperous ground, it is a confidential letter, conveying you very im. and no further doubt need to remain about it: for portant and pleasing intelligence.
this much is certain-all the powers of Europe, Congress has received a letter from the king of (Britain excepted), wish us to be independent. France, and are also otherwise ofhcially informed Thus far in confidence, with this addition, that by his minister bere, that the empress of Russia congress bave appointed Dr. Franklin, J. Adams, tbrew out an invitation for the belligerent powers J. Jay, H. Laurens and governor Jefferson, their to apply for her mediation, at which the court of plenipotentiaries for settling the peace. They first London eagerly caught, and mentioned the empe. agreed to appoint but one, and Adams was apror of Germany as another mediator—and a con. pointed before I came up; they then agreed to add gress was proposed to be opened at Vienna, for the two more, then Jay was appointed-then Jefferson purpose of settling a general peace. The answer had five votes, Franklin four, and Laurens one. of the court of France was, that they could send the states voted the same way three times. Theo no plenipotentiaries to said congress, till they had I proposed to the members of Virginia and Peno. consulted their allies; but, as the mediators are sylvania that we should appoint them both, which such respectable powers, and may be so fully relied being generally agreed to, this day was appointed on for justice, the king presses the United States for the purpose, and then Laurens was includedto submit to the mediation—and that the first pre- so the appointment now consists of five. New liminary he will insist on, previous to any other ne- Hampshire, Pennsylvania, Delaware and Maryland, gociation, shall be, the independence of the United were for Franklin, South Carolina for Laurens, and States, in full—and upon obtaining this, request Massachusetts, Connecticut, Jersey, Virginia and that the states may be as moderate in all other North Carolina for Jefferson, Rhode Island and
New York unrepresented; Georgia absent. Mr.fing whipped. Their desertions, I believe, have M'Kean wanted to alter in favor of Jefferson and been rare, and their sickness but little. When leave Franklin out, which, upon Georgia's coming will our army bear the comparison? in, would bave carried him; but I would not give
JAMES TILTON. up Franklin, and by the manner of proposing to
Thomas Rodney, e8q. appoint them both, got him appointed-though
British Parliament. this was exceedingly against the grain of several members. He will now be put at the head of the Extract from the speech of John Wilkes, delivered commission. His abilities, character and influence in the house of commons, on the 6th of Feb. 1775, are what will be of most use to us in Europe. on lord North's propositions 10 declare, that a re. I am, your most obedient,
bellion existed in the colony of Massachusetts, &c. THOMAS RODNEY. From Botta's history. His excellency
"I am indeed surprised, tbat, in a business of so Cesar Rodney, esq. Dover.
much moment as this before the house, respect.
ing the British colonies in America, a cause wbich AMERICAN AND FREXCU SOLDIERS.
comprehends almost every question relative to the Williamsburg, 16th Dec. 1781.
common rights of mankind, almost every question DEAR $18-After the departure of gen. Wush- of policy and legislation, it should be resolved to ington, the French quartered themselves upon the
proceed with so little circumspection, or rather people, of this and some other towns, a la mode with so much precipitation and beedless impru. militaire, and gave no small offence, but they are dence. With what temerity are we assured, that the now dancing them into good humor again by a ball
same men who bave been so often overwhelmed every week. I had myself a pelil guerre with a with praises for their attachment to this country, French officer, by which I was turned out of my for their forwardness to grunt it the necessary quarters, and, consequently, came off but second succours, for the valour they have signalized in best. Being summoned before count Rochamberu its defence, have all at once so degenerated from to answer for my rebellious conduct, I received their ancient manners, as to merit the appellation long lecture on the subject of politeness to friends of seditious, ungrateful, impious rebels! But if and allies, with intimations of his power to punish such a change has indeed been wrought in the obstinacy. Although I was put into quarters equally minds of this most loyal people, it must at least good with those I was compelled to leave, I must be admitted, that affections so extraordinary could confess, I did not perfectly understand the French only bave been produced by some very powerful politeness, in the mode of exchange. The old count, cause, But who is ignorant, wbo needs to be told I believe, has either forgotten or forgiven me, as a of the new madness that infatuates our ministers? day or two ago he gave me an invitation to dine - who has not seen the tyrannical counsels they with him.
have pursued, for the last ten years! They would
now have us carry to the foot of the throne, a It must be mortifying to our poor devils to ob. resolution, stamped with rashness and injustice, serve the comfortable and happy life of French fraught with blood, and a horrible futurity. But Boldiers. They appear on parade every day like before this be allowed them, before the signal of fine gentlemen, as neat as their officers, and hardly civil war be given, before they are permitted to to be distinguished from them. They are paid force Englishmen to sheath their swords in the once a week, and, by their happy countenance, ap. bowels of their fellow subjects, I hope this house pear to want nothing. A centinel is not allowed I will consider the rights of humanity, the original to stand upon duty without a warm watch-coat in ground and cause of the present dispute. Have addition to his other clothing. The officers treat we justice on our side! No: assuredly, no. He the soldiers with attention, humanity and respect, must be altogether a stranger to the British conand appear to employ all the means necessary to stitution, who does not know that contributions are inspire them with sentiments of honor. Except voluntary gifts of the people; and singularly blind, some horse-jockeying and plundering, at the re. not to perceive that the words "liberty and production of York, i bave beard of no stealing among perty," so grateful to English ears, are notbing them.-Theft is said to be a crime held in univer better thao mockery and insult to the Americans, sal abhorrence among them. I have not seen or if their property can be taken without their conbeard of any instance, yet, of a Frenck soldier besont. And what motive en there exist for this
"To deny that the legislative power of Great “As though the Americans were fearful of being Britain is entire, general, and sovereign, over all called, at a future day, to take part in the national parts of its dominions, appears to me too puerile representation, they pre-occupy the ground, and to merit a serious answer. What I would say is, warn you, in advance, that, considering their disthat, under this cover of rights, under this color tance, they cannot be represented in the British of privileges, under these pretexts of immunities, parliament: which means, if I am not deceived, the good and loyal Americans have concealed that they will not have a representative power in design, not new, but now openly declared, to cast common with England, but intend to enjoy one off every species of superiority, and become altoge by themselves, perfectly distinct from this of the ther an independent nation. They complained of parent state. But why do I waste time in these the stamp-act. It was repealed. Did this satisfy vain subtleties? Not content with exciting discord them? On the contrary, they embittered more at home, with disturbing all the institutions of than ever our respective relations, now refusing social life, they endeavor also to scatter the germes to indemnify the victims of their violence, and now of division in the neighboring colonies, such as to rescind resolutions that were so many strides Nova Scotia, the Floridas, and especially Canada. towards rebellion. And yet, in these cases, there Nor is this the end of their intrigues. Have we was no question of taxes, either internalor external. not read here, in this land of genuine felicity, the A duty was afterwards imposed on glass, paper, incendiary expressions of their address to the Eng. colours, and tea. They revolted anew; and the lish people, designed to allure them to the side bounty of this too indulgent mother again revoked of rebellion? Yes, they have wisbed, and with all the greater part of these duties, leaving only that their power have attempted, to introduce into the upon tea, which may yield, at the utmost, sixteen bosom of this happy country, outrage, tumults, thousand pounds sterling. Even this inconsidera- devastation, pillage, bloodshed, and open resist. ble imposi, Great Britain, actuated by a meekness ance to the laws! A thousand times undone the and forbearance without example, would have re- English people, should they suffer themselves to pealed also, if the colonists had peaceably ex. be seduced by the Aatteries of the Americans! pressed their wishes to this effect. At present, the sweet peace, the inestimable liberty, they they bitterly complain of the regular troops sent now enjoy, would soon be replaced by the most amongst them to maintain the public repose. Bu:, ferocious anarchy, devouring their wealth, annihilatin the name of God, what is the cause of their ing their strength, contaminating and destroying presence in Boston? American disturbances. If all the happiness of their existence. Already have the colonists had not first interrupted the general the colonists trampled on all restraints; already tranquility, if they had respected property, pub. have :hey cast off all human respect; and, amidst lic and private; if they had not openly resisted the their subtle machinations, and the shades in which laws of parliament and the ordinances of the king, they envelop themselves, they suffer, as it were, in they would not have seen armed soldiers within spite of themselves, their culpable designs to ap. their walls. But the truth is, they expressly excite pear. If they have not yet acquired the consistence, the causes, in order to be able afterwards to bemoan they at least assume the forms, of an independent the effects. When they were menaced with real nation, danger, when they were beset by enemies from
“Who among us has not felt emotions kindling within and from without, they not only consented deep in his breast, or transports of indignation, at to admit regular tro into the very heart of their the reading of the decrees of congress, in which, provinces, but urged us, with the most earnest with a language and a tone better beseeming the solicitations, to send them; but now the danger is haughty courts of Versailles or of Madrid, than the past, and the colonists, by our treasure and blood, subjects of a great king, they ordain imperiously are restored to their original security; now these the cessation of all commerce between tbeir coun. troops have becomenecessary to repress the factious, try and our own? We may transport our merto sustain the action of the laws, their presence is chandise and our commodities among all other contrary to the constitution, a manifest violation of nations. It is only under the inhospitable skies American fiberty, an attempt to introduce tyranny; of America, only in this country, dyed with the as if it were not the right and the obligation of the blood, and bathed in the sweat, we have shed for supreme authority, to protect the peace of the the safety and prosperity of its inhabitants, that interior as well as that of the exterior, and to repress English industry cannot hope for protection, caninternal as effectually as external enemies.
not find an asylum! Are we then of a spirit te
endure that our subjects trace around us the “This is what I think of our present situation; circle of Popilius, and proudly declare on what these are the sentiments of a man neii her partial, conditions they will deign to obey the ancient or vehement, but free from all prepossessions, laws of the common country? But all succeeds 10 and ready to combat and shed the last drop of his their wish: they hope, from our magnanimity, that blood, to put down the excesses of license, to war will result, and from war, independence. And extirpate the germes of cruel anarchy, to defend what a people is this, whom benefits cannot oblige, the rights and the privileges of this most innocent whom clemency exasperates, whom the necessity people, whether he finds their enemies in the savage of defence, created by themselves, offends! deserts of America, or in the cultivated plains of
England. "If, therefore, no doubt can remain as to the projects of these ungrateful colonists; if an universal “And if there are Catalines among us, who plot resistance to the civil government, and to the laws in darkness pernicious schemes against the state, of the country; if the interruption of a free and let them be unveiled and dragged to light, that reciprocal commerce between one part and ano- they may be offered a sacrifice, as victims to the ther of the realm; if resisting every act of the Bri- just vengeance of this courteous country; that their tish legislature, and absolutely, in word and deed, names may be 'stamped with infamy to the latest denying the sovereignty of this country; if laying a posterity, and their memory held in execration, by strong band on the revenues of America; if seizing all men of worth, in every future age!" his majesty's forts, artillery, and ammunition; if exciting and stimulating, by every means, the
Eulogium on Warren. whole subjects of America to take arms, and to From Botta's history of the American war,--pubresist the constitutional authority of Great Bri. lished, he says, “in the Philadelphia papers," tain, are acts of treason, then are the Americans
but we know not when, or where, or by whom, it in a state of the most flagrant rebellion. , Where.
was delivered, which we should have been glad fore, then, should we delay to take resolute mea. to have ascertained. sures? If no other alternative is left us, if it is
“What spectacle more noble,” than this, of a necessary to use the power which we enjoy, un
hero who has given bis life for the safety of coun. der Heaven, for the protection of the whole em
try! Approach, cruel ministers, and contemplate pire, let us show the Americalis, that, as our
the fruits of your sanguinary edicts. What repara. ancestors deluged this country with their blood, to leave us a free constitution, we, like men, in
tion can you offer to his children for the loss of defiance of faction at home and rebellion abroad,
such a father, to the king for that of so good a
subject, to the country for that of so devoted a are determined, in glorious emulation of their
citizen? Send hither your satellites; come, feast example, to transmit it, perfect and unimpaired, to our posterity. I hear it said by these propagators your vindictive rage: the most implacable enemy of sinister auguries, that we shall be vanquished
to tyrants is no more. We conjure you respect
these his honored remains. Have compassion on in this contest. But all human enterprizes are
the fate of a mother overwhelmed with despair never without a something of uncertainty. Are
and with age. Of him, nothing is left that you high-minded men for this to stand listless, and
can still fear. His eloquence is mute; bis arms indolently abandon to the caprices of fortune the
are fallen from his hand: then lay down yours: conduct of their affairs? If this dastardly doctrine
what more have you to perpetrate, barbarians that prevailed, if none would ever act without assur.
you are? But, wbile the name of American liberty ance of the event, assuredly no generous enter.
shall live, that of Warren will fire our breasts, and prize would ever be attempted; chance, and blind
animate our arms, against the pest of standing destiny, would govern the world. I trust, how
armies. ever, in the present crisis, we may clierislı betier hopes: fur, even omitting the bravery of our soldiers "Approach, senators of America! Come, and and the ability of our generals, loyal subjects are deliberate here, upon the interests of the united not so rare in America as some believe, or affect colonies. Listen to the voice of this illustrions to believe. And, besides, will the Americans long citizen: be intreats, he ex'sorts, be implores you support the privation of all the things necessary to not to disturb his present felicity with the doubt, life, which our numerous navy will prevent from that he, perhaps, has sacrificed his life for a people reaching their shores!