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"Come bither, ye soldiers, ye champions of Ame./ taining, in themselves, the best portrait of the rican liberty, and contemplate a spectacle which father of his country, drawn by hinself, that should inflame your generous hearts with even a we had the power to offer-though in detached new motive to glory. Remember, his shade still parts, they must needs be familiar to the Ame. hovers, unexpiated, among us.
Ten thousand rican people. ministerial soldiers would not suffice to com
The articles arepensate his death. Let ancient ties be no restraint: foes of liberty are no longer the brethren of free.
1. Washington's acceptance of the command of
the armies of the United States, June 16, 1775. men. Give edge to your arms, and lay them not
2. bis letter to the president of congress Sept. down, till tyranny be expelled from the British
24, 1776. empire, or America, at least, become the real seat of liberty and bappiness.
3. His general orders to the army, April 18, 1783.
4. His circular to the governors of the several "Approach ye also, American fathers and Ameri- states-June 18, 1783. can mothers; come hither, and contemplate the 5. On resigning his commission to congress, use first fruits of tyranny: behold your friend, the sembled at Annapolis, 1783. defender of your liberty, the honor, the hope of
6. His speech to the first congress, under the your country: see this illustrious hero, pierced constitution, April 30, 1789. with wounds, and bathed in his own blood. But To which we might have added his farewell ad. let not your grief, let not your tears be steril. Go,
dress on retiring from the presidency, but that hasten to your homes, and there teach your chil
is in the hands of every body; and it does not dren to detest the deeds of tyranny; lay before them
properly come within the scope of the contents the horrid scene you have beheld: let their bair
of this volume.
EDITOR. stand on end; let their eyes sparkle with fire; let Speech of gen. Washington to congress on accepting resentment kindle every feature; let their lips vent
his commission, June 15th, 1775. tbreats and indignation: then-then-put arms into
Mr. President-Though I am truly sensible of their hands, send them to battle, and let your last the high honor done me, in this appointment, yet I injunction be, to return victorious, or to die, like feel great distress, from consciousness that my Warren, in the arms of liberty and of glory!
abilities and military experience may not be equal
to the extensive and important trust: However, as “And ye generations of the future, you will often the congress desire it, I will enter upon the molook back to this memorable epoch. You will mentous duty, and exert every power I possess in transfer the names of traitors and of rebels from their service, and for support of the glorious cause. the faithful people of America, to those who have I beg they will accept my most cordial thanks for merited them. Your eyes will penetrate all the this distinguished testimony of their approbation. iniquity of this scheme of despotism, recently
“But, lest some unlucky event should happed, plotted by the British government. You will see
unfavorable to my reputation, I beg it may be regood kings misled by perfidious ministers, and
membered, by every gentleman in the room, that virtuous ministers by perfidious kings. You will
I, this day, declare with the utmost sincerity, I perceive that if at first the sovereigns of Great
do not think myself equal to the command I am Britain shed tears in commanding their subjects
honored with. to accept atrocious laws, they soon gave them. selves up to joy in the midst of murder, expect. “As to pay, sir, I beg leave to assure the con. ing to see a whole continent drenched in the blood gress, that, as no pecuniary consideration could of freemen. 0, save the human race from the last bave tempted me to accept this arduous employ. outrages, and render a noble justice to the Ameri-ment, at the expense of my domestic ease and hapcan colonies. Recall to life the ancient Roman and piness, I do not wish to make any profit from it. British eloquence; and be not niggardly of merited I will keep an exact account of my expenses. Those, praises towards those who have bequeathed you I doubt not, they will discharge, and that is all i liberty. It costs us floods of gold and of blood; it desire." costs us, alas! the life of Warren."
To John Hancock, esq. president of congress. Commander in chief- Washington.
Colonel Morris's on the Tepis ,} It seemed right that we should collect the follow SIR-From the hours allotted to sleep, I will
ing articles, and present them together, as con-borrow a few moments to convey my thoughts, on
sundry important matters, to congress. I shall such allowances as will enable them to live like, offer them with the sincerity which ought to cha. and support the characters of, gentlemen. Besides, racterize the man of candour, and with the free. something is due to the man who puts his life in dom which may be used in giving useful informa your bands, bazards his bealth, and forsakes the tion, without incurring the imputation of presump- sweets of domestic enjoyment. Why a captain in tion.
the continental service should receive no more
than five shillings currency per day, for performWe are now, as it were, upon the eve of another dissolution of our army. The remembrance of the ing the same duties that an officer of the same difficulties which happened upon the occasion last rank in the British service receives ten shillings year, the consequences which might have followed sterling for, I never could conceive, especially
when the latter is provided with every necessary the change, if proper advantages had been taken
he requires, upon the best terms, and the former by the enemy, added to a knowledge of the pre
can scarcely procure them at any rate. There is sent temper and situation of the troops, reflect but
nothing that gives a man consequence, and renders a very gloomy prospect upon the appearance of
him fit for command, like a support that renders things now, and satisfy me beyond the possibility
him independent of every body but the state be of doubt, that, unless some speedy and effectual measures are adopted by congress, our cause will be lost.
With respect to the men, nothing but a good It is in vain to expect, that any, or more than bounty can obtain them upon a permanent estab.
lishment; and for no shorter time than the contrifling part of this army will again engage in
tinuance of the war, ought they to be engaged, as the service on the encouragement offered by con
facis incontestibly prove that the difficulty and gress. Wben men find that their townsmen and
cost of enlistments increase with time. When the companions are receiving twenty, thirty, and more, dollars for a few montbs' service (which is truly army was first at Cambridge, I am persuaded the
men might have been got, without a bounty, for the case) it cannot be expected, without using
the war. After this, they began to see that the compulsion; and to force them into the service,
contest was not likely to end so, speedily as was would answer no valuable purpose. When men
imagined, and to feel their consequence by remarkare irritated, and the passions infamed, they fly
ing, that, to get in the militia in the course of the hastily and cheerfully to arms: but after the first last year, many towns were induced to give them emotions are over, a soldier reasoned with upon
a bounty. the goodness of the cause he is engaged in, and the inestimable rights he is contending for, hears Foreseeing the evils resulting from this, and the you with patience, and acknowledges the truth of destructive consequences which unavoidably would your observation, but adds, that it is of no more follow short enlistments, I took the liberty, in a importance to him then others. The officer makes long letter, (date not recollected, as my letter book you the same reply, with this further remark, that is not here) fo recommend the enlistments for and his pay will not support him, and he cannot ruin during the war, assigning such reasons for it as himself and family to serve his country, when every experience has since convinced me were well foundmember of the community is equally interested and ed. At that time, twenty dollars would, I am per. benefited by bis labors.
suaded, have engaged the men for this term. But
it will not do to look back: and, if the present opIt becomes evidently clear then, that, as this
portunity is slipped, I am persuaded that twelve contest is not likely to be the work of a day; as months more will increase our difficulties fourfold. the war must be carried on systematically; and to I shall therefore take the freedom of giving it as do it you must bave good officers; there are, in my my opinion, that a good bounty be immediately judgment, no other possible means to obtain them, offered, sided by the proffer at least a bundred, or a but by establishing your army upon a permanent hundred and fifty acres of land, and a suit of clothes footing, and giving your officers good pay. This and blanket, to each non-conomissioned officer and will induce gentlemen, and men of character, to soldier; as I have good authority for saying, that, engage: and, till the bulk of your officers are com however bigh the men's pay may appear, it is barely posed of such persons as are actuated by princi. sufficient, in the present scarcity and dearhess of ples of honor and a spirit of enterprize, you have all kinds of goods, to keep them in clothes, much little to expect from them. They ought to bavel less afford support to their families.
If this encouragement then is given to the men, \ject to them, and therefore take liberties which the and such pay allowed the officers as will induce soldier is punished for. This creates jealousy: gentlemen of character and liberal sentiments to jealousy begets dissatisfaction; and these, by de. engage, and proper care and precaution used in grees, ripen into mutiny, keeping the whole army the nomination (having more regard to the chain a confused and disordered state; rendering the racters of persons than the number of men they time of those who wish to see regularity and good can enlist) we should, in a little time, have an army order prevail, more unhappy than words can de. able to cope with any that can be opposed to it, scribe. Besides this, such repeated changes take as there are excellent materials to form one. But place, that all arrangement is set at nought, and while the only merit an officer possesses, is his abi. the constant fluctuation of things deranges every lity to raise men; while those men consider and plan as fast as adopted. treat him as an equal, and, in the character of an officer, regard him no more than a broom-stick,
These, sir, congress may be assured, are but a being mixed together as one common herd, no or.
small part of the inconveniences which might be der nor discipline can prevail; nor will the officer enumerated, and attributed to militia: but there is ever meet with that respect which is essentially ne.
one that merits particular attention, and that is the cessary to due subordination.
expense. Certain I am, that it would be cheaper
to keep fifty or a hundred thousand in constant To place any dependence upon militia is as pay, than to depend upon half the number, and suredly resting upon a broken staff: men just supply the other half occasionally by militia. The dragged from the tender scenes of domestic life; tiine the latter are in pay, before and after they unaccustomed to the din of arms; totally unac are in camp, assembling and marching: the waste quainted with every kind of military skill; which, of ammunition, the consumption of stores, which, being followed by a want of confidence in them. in spite of every resolution or requisition of conselves, when opposed to troops regularly trained, gress, they must be furnished with, or sent bome, disciplined, and appointed; superior in knowledge added to other incidental expenses consequent and superior in arms, makes them timid and ready upon their coming and conduct in camp, surpasses to fly from their own shadows. Besides, the sud. all idea, and destroys every kind of regularity and den change in their manner of living, particularly economy which you could establish among fixed in their lodging, brings on sickness in many, impa- and settled troops, and will, in my opinion, prove, tience in all; and such an unconquerable desire of if the scheme is adhered to, the ruin of our cause. returning to their respective homes, that it not
The jealousies of a standing army, and the evils only produces shameful and scandalous desertions among themselves, but infuses the like spirit into
to be apprehended from one, are remote, and, in others.
my judgment, situated and circumstanced as we
are, not at all to be dreaded: but the consequence Again; men accustomed to unbounded freedom of wanting one, according to my ideas, formed and no control, cannot brook the restraint which is from the present view of things, is certain and ine. indispensably necessary to the good order and go-vitable ruin. For, if I was called upon to declare vernment of an army; without which, licentiousness upon oath, whether the militia have been most ser. and every kind of disorder triumphantly reign. viceable or hurtful, upon the whole, I should sub. To bring men to a proper degree of subordination scribe to the latter. I do not mean by this, howe. is not the work of a day, a month, or even a year: ver, to arraign the conduct of congress; in so dos and, unhappily for us and the cause we are en ing I should equally condemn my owo measures, gaged in, the little discipline I have been laboring if I did not my judgment: but experience, wbich to establish in the army under my immediate com is the best criterion to work by, so fully, clearly, mand, is in a manner done away, by having such a and decisively reprobates the practice of trusting mixture of troops as have been called together to militis, that no man, who regards order, regu. within these few months.
Larity and economy, or who has any regard for his
own honor, character, or peace of mind, will risk Relaxed and unfit as our rules and regulations them upon this issue. of war are, for the government of an army, the mi. litia (those properly so called; for of these we have An army formed of good officers moves like two sorts, the six months' men, and those sent in clock-work; but there is no situation upon eartbe as a temporary aid) do not think themselves sub- less enviable aor more distressing than that per
son's who is at the head of troops who are regard-would be ingratitude not to rejoice; it would be less of order and discipline, and who are unpro- insensibility not to participate in the general felia vided with almost every necessary. In a word, the city. difficulties whicb bave forever surrounded me,
The commander in chief, far from endeavoring since I have been in the service, and kept my mind to stifte the feelings of joy in his own bosom, of. constantly upon the stretch; the wounds which my fers his most cordial congratulations on the occafeelings, as an officer, have received by a thousand sion to all the officers of every denomination; to things which have happened contrary to my ex. all the troosis of the United States in general; and pectations and wishes; added to a consciousness in particular to those gallant and persevering men of my inability to govern an army composed of who had resolved to defend the rights of their in. such discordant parts, and under such a variety of vaded country, so long as the war should continue. intricate and perplexing circumstances, induce, not for these are men who ought to be considered as only a belief, but a thorough conviction in my mind, the pride and boast of the American army; and that it will be impossible, unless there is a tho. who, crowned with well earned laurels, may soon. rough change in our military system, for me to withdraw from the field of glory to the more tranconduct matters in such a manner as to give satis-quil walks of civil life. While the commander in faction to the public, which is all the recompense chief recollects the almost infinite variety of scenes I aim at, or ever wished før.
through which we have past, with a mixture of Before I conclude, I must apologize for the li. pleasure, astonishment, and gratitude; while be. berties taken in this letter, and for the bluts and contemplates the prospects before us with rapture, scratchings therein, not having time to give it more he cannot bely wishing that all the brave, of whatcorrectly. With truth I can add, that, with every
ever condition they may be, who have shared the sentiment of respect and esteem, I am your's and toils and dangers of effecting this glorious revolu
tion; of rescuing millions from the hand of oppres. the congress' most obedient, &c,
sion, and of laying the foundation of a great em. GEO. WASHINGTON.
pire, might be impressed with a proper idea of the General orders issued by general Ilashington, to the dignified part they have been calle i to aci, under
the smiles of Providence, on the stage of human army. Head Quarters, Chatham, April 18th, 1783.
affars; for happy, thrice happy! shall they be pro. The commander in chief orders the cessation of nounced hereafier, who have contributed any thing, hostilities between the United States of America who have performed the meanest office in erect. and the king of Great Britain, to be publicly pru- ing this slupendous fabric of freedom and empire,
on the broad basis of independency; who have as. claimed to-morrow at twelve o'clock, at the new building: and that the proclamation wiich will be sisted in protecting the rights of buman nature,
and establisbed an asylum for the poor and opprese communicated herewith, be read 10.morrow even. ing at the head of every regiment and corps of the sed of all nations and religions. The glorious tast army; after which the chaplains, with the several for which we first flew to arms being accomplish
ed--the liberties of our country being fully acbrigades, will render thanks to the Almighty God for all his mercies, particularly for his over ruling knowledged and firmly secured by the smiles of
heaven on the purity of our cause; and the honest the wrath of man to his own glury, and causing the
exertions of a feeble people, determined to be free, rage of war to cease among the nations.
gainst a powerful nalion disposed to oppress them; Although the proclamation before alluded to, ex. and the character of those who bave persevered, tends only to the prohibition of hostilities, and not through every extremity of hardship, suffering and to the annunciation of a general peace, yet it inust danger, being immortalized by the illustrious apafford the most rational and sincere satisfaction pellation of the patriot army-nothing now remains to every benevolent mind, as it puts a period to but for the actors of this mighty scene to preserve a a long and doubtful contest, stops the effusjon of perfect unvarying consistency of character through human blood, opens the prospect to a more splen- ' be very last act, to close the dr-ma with applause; did scene, and, like another morning star, promises and to retire from the military theatre with the the approach of brighter day than hatb bitherto same approbation, of angels and men, which bave . illuminated the western hemisphere. On such a crowned all their former virtuous actions. For happy day, which is the harbinger of pece, a day this purpose no disorder or licentiousness must be wbich completes the eighth year of the war, it tolerated. Every considerate and well disposed
soldier must remember it will be absolutely necessful nights, and whose happiness, being extremely sary to wait with patience until peace shall be de- dear to me, will always constitute no inconsideraclared, or congress shall be enabled to take proble part of my own. per measures for the security of the public stores,
"Impressed with the liveliest sensibility on this &c. As soon as these arrangements shall be made,
pleasing occasion, I will claim the indulgence of the general is confident, there will be no delay in
dilating the more copiously on the subject of our discharging, with every mark of distinction and
mutual felicitation. When we consider the maghonor, all the men enlisted for the war, who will
nitude of the prize we contended for, the doubirul then have faithfully performed their engagements
nature of the co:itest, and the favorable manner in with the public. The general has already inte.
which it has terminated, we shall find the greatest rested himself in their behalf, and he thinks he
possible reason for gratitude and rejoicing. This need not repeat the assurance of his disposition to
is a theme that will afford infinite delight to every be useful to them on the present, and every other
benevolent and liberal mind, whether the event in proper occasion. In the mean time, he is deter.
contemplation be considered as a source of pre. mined that no military neglects or excesses shall
sent enjoyment, or the parent of future happiness; go unpunished, while be retains the command of
and we shall have equal occasion to felicitate our.
selves on the lot which Providence has assigned The adjutant.general will have soch working us, whether we view it in a natural, a political, or parties detached, to assist in making the prepara- moral point of light. tions for a general rejoicing, as the chief engineer of the army shall call for; and the quarter-master
“The citizens of America, placed in the most en. general will, without delay, procure such a number riable condition, as the sole lords and proprietors of discharges to be printed as will be sufficient for of a vast tract of continent, comprehending all the all the men enlisted for the war-he will please to various soils an Iclimates of the world, and abound. apply to head quarters for the form. An exéra ra.
ing with all the necessaries and conveniences of tion of liquor to be issued to every man to-morrow life, are now, by the late satisfactory pacification, to drink "Perpetual peace and happiness to the acknowledged to be possessed of absolute freedom United States of America."
and independency: they are from this period to be
considered as the actors on a most conspicuous General Washington's circular ietter to the governortheatre, which seems to be peculiarly designed by of each of the states, dated
Providence for the display of human greatness and - Head Quarters, Newburgh, June 18, 1783.
felicity. Here they are not only surrounded with SSIRThe object for which I had the honor to every thing that can contribute to the completion bold an appointment in the service of my country, of private and domestic enjoyment, but heaven has being accomplished, I am now preparing to resign crowned all its other blessings. by giving a surer it into the hand of congress, and return to that do- opportunity for political happiness, than any other mestic retirement, which, it is well known, I lefi nation bas ever been favored with. Nothing can with the greatest reluctance; a retirement for which illustrate these observations more forcibly than a I have never ceased to sigh through a long and recollection of the happy conjuncture of times and painful absence, in which, (remote from the noise circumstances, under which our republic assumed and trouble of the world.) I meditate to pass the its rank among the nations. — The foundation of our semainder of life, in a state of undisturbed repose; empire was not laid in a gloomy age of ignorance but, before I carry this resolution into effect, I and superstition, but at an epocha when the riglits think it a duty incumbent on me to make this my of mankind were better understood and more clear. last official communication, to congratulate you on ly defined, than at any former period. Researches the glorious events which beaven has been pleased of the human mind after social bappiness have to produce in our favor; to offer my sentiments re- been carried to a great extent; the treasures of specting some important subjects, which appear knowledge acquired by the labors of philosophers, to me to be intimately connected with the tran. sages, and legislators, through a long succession quility of the United States; 10 take my leave of of years, are laid open for us, and their collected your excellency as a public character; and to give wisdom may be happily applied in the establishmy final blessing to that country, in wbose service ment of our forms of government. The free culI have spent the prime of my life; for whose sake Livation of letters, the unbounded extension of I have consumed so many anxious days and watch..commerce, the progressive refinement of manners,