not only all future generations of men, but the work thought it dangerous to publish. The adGreat Judge of all the earth, will finally condemn dress appears to have been delivered about May, their measures as a scene of tyranny and murder. I 1776. It may be worthy of remark here, that the therefore conceive myself as having taken up arms declaration of independence is published in the in defence of innocence, justice, truth, honesty, same work, with many such blanks.] honor, liberty, property, and life; and in opposition to guilt, injustice, falsehood, dishonesty, ignominy, List of the forces on lakce Champlain October 1776. slavery, poverty, and death; not that I have any

ROTAL. fondness for the bloody profession; not that I delight Ship Inflexible, lieut. Schank, 18 twelve pound. in the carnage of my species; or sigh for an occa.ers. Schooner Maria, lieut. Starke, 14 sis pound. sion of proving my courage: Heaven and you are ers. Schooner Carleton, lieutenant Dacres, 12 sis my witnesses, that my voice was some time, pero pounders. Radeau Thunderer, lieut. Scott, 6 tvenbaps too long, and with too much earnestness, ty-four, 6 twelve pounders, 2 bowitzers. Gondola against any military preparations; but the times Loyal Convert, lieut. Longcroft, 7 nine pounders. are altered; 'tis a dreadful necessity that calls me, Twenty gun-boats, each a brass field piece, some and calls every man who can be spared from his twenty-fours to nines, some with bowitzers. Pour other occupations.

long.boats, with each a carriage gun, serving as

armed tenders. Twenty-four long boats with proI will not however fight as one who beateth the

visions. air. I speak plainly; I consider this year as the grand and final period of British administration in

CONTINENTAL. this American world; I see no probability of their Schooner Royal Savage, 8 six pounders, and 4 proffering such terms as we can accept of con. four pounders, burnt the 11th of October, at Vali. sistently with our safety, honor, and peace; nay, cour. Schooner Revenge, 4 six pounders, and fours, should they grant all that our public councils have escaped to Ticonderoga the 13th October. Sloop heretofore claimed, we should still be in a most

10 four pounders, escaped to ditto the 13th dangerous situation, liable to renewed encroach of October. Cutter Lee, 1 nine pounder in ber ments and renewed hostilities. What else can be bow; 1 twelve pounder in her stern, and 2 sis poun. supposed from such a situation, and from the views, ders in ber sides; abandoned the 13th of October. temper, and prejudices that must, and will, prevail Galley Congress, 2 eighteen pounders in her box, in the British court and parliament: besides, who 2 twelve pounders in her stern, and 6 six pounders in that case will reimburse our losses; or how shall in her sides; run on shore and burnt the 13th of our public debts be paid? I do solemnly declare, October. Galley Washington, 1 eight and I twelve and that with respect to the best reconciliation pounder in ber bow, 2 nine pounders in her stern, that can reasonably be expected, with so corrupt, and 6 sis pounders in her sides; taken the 13th of treacherous, and tyrannical an administration, that October. Galley Trumbull, like the Washington, if I thought we should again revert to a dependence escaped to Ticonderoga the 13th October. Eight on Britain, I should, from this day, lay down my Gondolas, carrying 1 eight pounder in the bor, sword, and weep that I was born in America. But and 2 nine pounders in the sides; some of of these far other prospects are before us: glory, empire, bad 4 guns in their sides-one taken the 12th, one liberty and peace, are, I am persuaded, unless we sunk the 11th, four burnt the 13th; one escaped, are lost to ourselves, very near at hand. And, on and one missing. Schooner -, taken from every consideration of the present state and pro-major Skeene, was gone for provisions. Galley gress of our public affairs, compared with the spirit Gates, expected to join them in a few days. of Britain, and the spirit, the interest, and the

A list of the seamen detached from his mojesty's shi$ internal advantages of America, meihinks, I hear

and vessels in the river St. Lawrence, to serve on a voice, as if an angel from leaven should proclaim,

lake Champlain. "come out from among them, and be ye separate from them. Come out of her my people, that ye

Isis, 100 seamen; Blonde, 70; Triton, 60; Garbe not partakers of her sing, and ye receive not of land, 30; Canceaux, 40; Magdalen, Brunswick, Gas. her plagues."

pee 18 seamen each; Treasury, and armed brigs,

90 men each, [The preceding is coped from Almon's Re. membrancer; we cannot supply the blanks. Words Province armed vessels-Fell, 30, lately wreck were weed--no doubt, which the editor of that ed; Charlotte, 9; volunteers from no ship, 9; ditto

from the transports, 214. Total, 670; exclusive of by ineft'ectual complaints and petitions for redress. 8 officers, and 19 petty officers.

He enumerated the multitude of addresses from SCARCITY OF SALT.

every part of Scotland for the blood of the Ame

ricans. He stated the general zeal and alacrity In convention for the state of Pennsylvania, Satur.

of that people in and out of parliament, and in day, August 24, 1776.

Great Britain and America, for the destruction and Whereas, it appears to this convention, upon due

subjugation of the colonies. He reminded them enquiry and information of the circumstances, that

of the treachery and uncontrolable enmity of the the salt now in this city, has been imported at low

Scotch against them, recently experienced in the prices, and under moderate insurance. And whereas, divers persons, in contempt of the just and provinces of New York, Virginia, and the Caroli

nas; where, in direct violation of every principle wholesome regulations of the committee, &c. of

of gratitude, and of their faith expressly pledged, Philadelphia, under directions of congress, have continued to dispose of their salt at most exorbi- they had joined the enemy, and openly attempted;

by taking up arms, to destroy the liberties of those tant prices, to the great grievance and distress of who had generously guaranteed theirs. their fellow subjects of this state: it is therefore resolved, that the said regulations be hereby con To this, a southern delegate replied, after some firmed, and all persons whatever, are hereby strict. general observations, nearly in the following words: ly enjoined to pay due obedience thereto. And

It is impossible, sir, not to feel the justice of the the said committees are authorized and direct. honorable mover's zeal and resentment. The facts ed to seize, and take into their possession, the

upon which they are founded, unhappily for hu. salt belonging to such persons as have refused, or manity, are not to be denied. I myself stand here shall refuse, conformity to the regulations so es. as one of the representatives of the colony, which tablished: or shall altogether withhold, or refuse bas experienced every effort of Scotch violence, to sell their salt during the continuance of such perfidy, and ingratitude. They petitioned to be regulations, allowing to the said persons, upon the protected in a neutrality during these unhappy sale thereof, the ixed and settled prices, first de commotions. They pledged their faitli, in the most ducting the expenses incurred upon the sale.

solemn manner, that they would not aid or inform And whereas, it is but reasonable that every part those who might appear in arms against us. Upon of this extensive state should be accommodated, as these terms, neutrality was indulged; protection nearly as may be, with their proportion of this ar. was given them. They enjoyed it till our enemies ticle, so justly esteemed a necessary of life:

appeared, and instantly took up arms for our de.

struction. That Providence, in wliom the justice Be it resolved, that the committee of Philadel. of our cause inspires confidence, enabled us to de. phia are hereby farther directed to distribute the feat their purposes. They remained, in consesalt, that may, as aforesaid, come into their pos. quence, at our mercy; yet we exercised no greater session, in equal quantities in the several counties, act of severity, than that which was unayoidable kaving regard to the reputed number of the inha- - the obliging them to quit a colony, to which it bitants contained in the said counties,

was plain they were irreclaimably hostile. Extract from the minutes, JOHN MORRIS, Jun. Sec.

In the other colonies, they have manifested a sj.

milarly unprincipled enmity and rancour against Fragment of a speech in the general congress of Ame the lives and liberties of a people, who, in a pecurica1776. [Names of the speakers unknown.]

liar manner, have been profitable to them, and to Upon a motion to resolve, "That all Scotch pri. their country. As they have thus distinguished soners be treated with the utmost severity, as the themselves for ingratitude and hostility to us, they rancorous abettors of this inhuman war, which has seem to merit a severity of treatment as distinoriginated in Scotch principles, and from Scotch guished. councils:'

But, sir, let us remember, tbat we are engaged The mover of this resolution prefaced and en- in a general war. Not in a war with Scotland, forced it by a review of public transactions, both but with Great Britain. To general objects, gene. respecting England and America, since the com.ral rules are applicable. Such a selection for semencement of the present reign. He sbewed they verity, would savor more of the vengeance of inkad been a series of violent grievances, followed i dividuals, than of public justice. We are contend

ing in the noblest cause that can enlarge and exalt, to suppose our cause did not continue to risethe human heart. Let the magnanimnity of our The complete triumph of liberty, undoubtedly conduct be proportioned to the nobleness of our draws nearer every bour. When we review the pursuits. We are now forming a national charac- state of America, and that of our enemy, we behold ter. Spite of the misrepresentations of our ene eminent and growing advantages on the part of our mies, the truth will at length prevail. Like the country. The valor and discipline of our troops glorious sun, it will be more splendid from the are constantly improving, as every late action with cloud that has obscured it. Let us then take care, the enemy testifies; this circumstance, considered that, when it does come forth, it may be the won- with that of our superior numbers, affords a bright der of nations. Let us mould it; not on the de prospect of success. It was always supposed, that merits of our enemies, but on our own dignity.- the enemy would have the greatest advantage in Let generosity, justice, and humanity, be the illus- the beginning of the war, and it must be acknow. trious characteristics of the states of America.

ledged, (with gratitude to Heaven) that they have He ended with these lines from Cæsar's speech, done much less, and our success bas been muca in Sallust:

greater, than might have been expected. At this

period, we have so many experienced men of tried Item bellis punicis omnibus, cum sæpe Cartha- valor, such magazines of warlike stores, such a giniensis et in pace, et per inducias, muita nefaria military system formed, such a disciplined militia, facinora fecissent, nunquam majores nostri, per (as no other nation can produce), and such an union occasionem talia fecere; magis quid se dignum and fervor of spirit in support of the righteous foret, quamquid in illis jure fieri posset, quærebant. cause of our country, as must damp the malevolent lloc idem providendum est, patres conscripti, ne spirit of our enemies, and give vigor to every vir. plus valeat apud vos, Publii Lentuli et cæterorum tuous mind. When we survey our naval departscelus, quam vestra dignitas; neu magis iræ quam ment, such are our preparations, such our amazing famæ consulatis.

progress in fitting out armed vessels, and so vonThe motion was immediately rejected.

derful our success in taking the ships, the persons, and the riches of the enemy, that even our antago

nists are almost ready to exclaim, "God is on that London, Nov. 1776.-The great number of cap. i side!" tures, raised the insurance on vessels bomeward bound, from the West Indies, to twenty-three per Another bappy circumstance in our favor, is the cent. The losses upon the West India trade, a. fruitful season and plentiful harvest with wbich mount, at this time, to sixty-six per cent. viz.

Heaven bath blessed our country. In truth, so auInsurance,

1. 23 merous are the favors of Providence, and so encouFall in price of rum and sugars, owing to

raging our prospect of success, that we have much the North American demand being cut Sil. ott.

greater cause for thanksgiving than for petitioning; One fourth of the ships taken,

25 and it is unmanly, unchristian, and unwortlty of Delays to market,


any free mind, to discover the least degree of timi1. 66

dity. Our difficulties and sufferings, in supporting

the great cause of liberty, bave been little, if com. New London, ( Con.) Aug. 23, 1776.—By means of the great number of prizes carried into the dif pared with what other nations have suffered in de.

fence of their freedom. The Switzers fought sixty ferent ports of this continent, Jamaica rum is sold

battles in defending their liberties, and finally, at 48. 4d. per gallon, by the hogshead; and sugar drove all the murdering tyrants out of their coun. at five dollars per bundred weight, in Boston,

try, set up independent states, and have fourished Boston, Nov. 14, 1776. in freedom to this day, in spite of all the tyrants in To the Independent Sons in Massachuset!s state. Europe. They are a striking proof of the superior "Our bless'd forefathers," is the grateful sound,

virtue and strength of a free people, for their whole From age to age, the world will echo round!

country is not larger than the Massachusetts state, And every future tongue that speaks your name, not half so fruitful, por any ways comparable for Will brighten the hours with your growing fame.

happiness of situation, and commercial advantages. Our losses this year are small, when compared Wat then may not the United States of America with the advantages we have sained, and it would accomplish? We may rationally suppose, upon s be extreme folly, even in the weakest American, ( survey of the present state of all nations, that these


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per diein,

ited States will make swifter progress in arts EXPENSE OF THE AMERICAN CONTINENTAL ARMI. and an

STATE- STERLING MONEY.) and in all that adorns and dignifies bu. man societyo-han any people or nation ever yet

1. s. d. bave done.

Commander in chief, general ?

Wasbington, C for table) 5 2 0 0 The tyrants of Britain, ano she abject slaves

4 Aids.de-camp, 4s. 6d. each 18 0 wbom they can bire, are all the enenione we have

1 Alju'ant general,


12 to encounter; the rest of the world will be air

1 Quarter master general,

1 Assistant quarter Master friends. As we wish to injure no people, other general,

4 6 nations will naturally be our friends, some from

1 Pry master general, 13 6

7 interest, and others, whose interest is no ways con

0 Majors brigade, 4s, 6d.

Secretary to commander cerned, froin motives of humanity. As America

in chief

9 6 is so very extensive, capable of supporting so ma

Directors of hospitals, 18

8 06 ny millions of inhabitants, more than she has at

4 Surgeons, 6s.

1 4 present; and as the virtuous part of mankind love

1 Apothecary,

6 freedom, they will transplant themselves from the 2 Mates, and 1 clerk, 38. 9 slavish dominions of Europe, to this land of liber

1 Commissary general, 12

2 Major generals under ty, whereby the industry, the virtue, and the wis.

commander in chief, dom of the world will centre in these free and

243. 9d.

2 96 independent states. Such being our field of hope,

4 Aid.de camps, 4s. 6d. 18

6 Brigadier generals, 18s. such our prospect of happiness, not only for our.


5 12 6 selves, but for millions of others, by what name 1 Engineer,

9 shall we call that folly which would abate your ar

4 Sub.engineers, 4s. Od 18

4 Major generals, com. dor, and discourage your efforts, to maintain tbe

manding separate entire independence of America?

armies, 49s. 6d.

8 aid-de-camps, 4s. 6d. 1 16 The following was thought to be a pretty accurate 8 Majors brigade, 46. 6d. 1 16 state of the provincial forces in May, 1776.

4 Secretaries, 48. 9d.


4 Deputy adjutant geneIn Canada, 9000 continental troops; commanded

rals, 9s. 4!!.

1 17 6 by major general Sullivan, and brigadiers Arnold 4 Deputy quarter master and Wædkle. The generals Schuyler and Wooster

generals, 6s.

1 4

4 Deputy commissary ge. are at Albany, with a body of militia, number not

nerals, 6s. exactly known.

8 Sub-engineers, 4s. Od. 1 16

9 Brigadier generals, 18s. At New York, 12,000 continental, troops 11,000


8 8 5

41 17 0 militia, and the Jersey brigade consisting of 3300

60 REGIMENTS. commanded by general Washington, major gene

60 Colonels, 13s. 6d. 40 10 rals Putnam, and Gates, and brigadiers Heath, 60 Lieutenant colonels, 9s. 27 Green, lord Sterling, Waterbury, and Mercer.

60 M jors, 6s.

540 Captains, 4s. 6d. 121 10

In Jersey and Pennsylvania, a Aying camp of 10,000 1080 Lieutenants, 3s.
men, commanded by brigadiers Mifflin, Deau, and 2160 Serjeants, 1s. 3d.

540 Ensigos, 2s.


135 Jobnson.

2160 Corporals, ls. 1d. 117

540 Drums, 1s. 1d. and 540 In Virginia, 8000 continental troops. In North

fifes, 1s. 1d.

58 10 Carolina 4000 ditto. South Carolina 1000 dixo. 30600 Privates, 1s.


(Chaplains, surgeons, Commanded by major general Lee, brigadiers and surgeon's mates, Armstrong, Howe, Moore, and Lewis.

not included)

2263 10

9 18

2313 8 6

At Boston, 2000 continental troops, commanded by major general Ward, and brigadier general Speacer.

By this account there were 36,000 continental troops, and 24,300 militia, ready for, and in the field; but tbere are 20,000 more of the militia, the stations of which are not exactly known. In all above 80,000 men.


FLYING CAMP 14 Colonels, 13s. 6d.

9 9 14 Lieutenant colonels, 9s. 6 6 14 Majors, 68.

4 4 128 Captains, 4s. 6d.

28 16 256 Lieutenants, 3s.

38 8

87 30

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Waterlown, Nov. 20. , destruction might come upon our frontiers, have A PROCLAMATION FOR A PUBLIC TRAIRSGIVING, been almost miraculously defeated; that our un

Although, in consequence of the unnatural, cru- natural enemies, instead of ravaging the country el, and barbarous measures, adopted and pursued with uncontrolęd sway, are confined within such by the British administration, great and distressing narrow limits, to their owr, mortification and discalamities are brought upon our distressed coun. tress, environed by an American army, brode and try, and in this colony in particular; we feel the determined;—that such a bend of union, founded dreadful effects of a civil war, by wbich, America upon the best principles, unites the American cois stained with the blood of her valiant sons, who lonies,—that our rights and privileges, both civil have bravely fallen in the laudable defence of our and religious, are so far preserved to us, not with. rights and privileges; our capital, once the seat of standing all the attempts of our barbarous enemies justice, opulence and virtue, is unjustly wrested to deprive us of them. from its proper owners, who are obliged to flee

And to offer up humble and fervent prayers to from the iron band of tyranny, or beld in the

Almighty God, for the whole British empire; esunrelenting arms of oppression; our seaports great. pecially for the united American colonies:—That He ly distressed, and towns burnt by the foes who

would bless our civil rulers, and lead them into bave acted the part of barbarous incendiaries.

wise and prudent measures, at this dark and diffiAnd, although the wise and Holy Governor of the cult day; that He would endow our general court world has, in his righteous Providence, sent droughts with all that wisdom which is profitable to direct; into this colony, and wasting sickness into many that He would graciously smile upon our endeavors of our towns, yet we have the greatest reason to to restore peace, preserve our rights and priviadore and praise the Supreme Disposer of events, leges, and hand them down to posterity; that He who deals infinitely better with us than we deserve; would give wisdom to the American congress, and amidst all his judgments, hath remembered equal to their important station; that He would dimercy, by causing the voice of health again to be rect the generals, and the American armies, wherheard amongst us; instead of famine, affording to ever employed, and give them success and victory: an ungrateful people a competency of the neces. that He would preserve and strengthen the harnosaries and comforts of life; in remarkably preserv. ny of the united colonies; that He would pour out ing and protecting our troops, when in apparent his spirit upon all orders of men, through the land, danger, while our enemies, with all their boasted bring us to a hearty repentance and reformation; skill and strength, have met with loss, disappoint. purify and sanctify all His churches; that he would ment, and defeat;-and, in the course of his goud make ours, Emanuel's land; that He would spread Providence, the Father of all Mercies, bath be the knowledge of the Redeemer through the whole stowed upon us many other favors, wbich call for earth, and fill the world with his glory. our grateful acknowledgments:

And all servile labor is forbidden on said dey. Therefore-Wc have thought fit, with the advice Given under our hands, at the council chamber, of the council and house of representatives, to ap

in Watertown, the fourth day of November, in point Thursday, the 23d of November, instant, to be the year of our Lord, one thousand seven hunobserved as a day of public thanksgiving, through

dred and seventy-five.

By their honors command, out this colony; hereby calling upon ministers and people, to meet for religious worship on the

PEREZ MORTON, Dep. Sec. said day, and devout'y to offer up their unfeigned,

James Otis,

Benjamin Lincoln,

Walter Spooner, Michael Farley, praises to Almighty God, the source and benevo.

Caleb Cushing, Joseph Palmer, leni bestower of all good, for his affording the ne. Josepb Whitcomb, Samuel Ilolten,

Jedidiah Foster, Jabez Fisher, cessary means of subsistence, though our com.

James Prescott,

Moses Gill, merce has been prevented, and the supplies from

Eldad Taylor,

Benjamin White. the fishery denied us;—that such a measure of

GOD SAVE THE PEOPLE. bealth is enjoyed among us; that the lives of our officers and soldiers have been so remarkably pre. The following test passed the assembly of Massaserved, while our enemies have fallen before them;

chusetts in 1776. that the vigorous efforts, wbich have been used :o “We the subscribers do each of us severally excite the savage vengeance of the wilderness, for ourselves profess, testify and declare, before and rouse the Indians to arms, that an unavoidablei'God and the world, that we verily believe that

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