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In June, 1782, when congress were about to form Thepyramid on the reverse, signifies strength and an armorial device for a seal for the union, Charles devotion; its unfinished state refers to the infancy Thompson, esq. then secretary, with the honorable of the American government. The eye over it, and Dr. Arthur Lee and E. Boudinot, members of con- the motto, “Annuit cæptis," she sanctions our gress, called on Mr. William Barton, and consulted endeavours," allude to the many and single interpohim on the occasion. The great seal, for which Mr. sitions of Providence in favor of the American cause. Barton fu:nished these gentlemen with devices, was
[. Nat. Recorder.] adopted by congress on the 26th of June, 1782. The device is as follows:
DOCTOR FRANKLIN. .Arms-Paleways of thirteen pieces, argent,' gules,
The author of the "Systeme de La Nature" says a chief azure, the escutcheon on the breast of the "What imports it to me, that Mauper iuis is a good American eagle, displayed, proper, holding in his geometrician, if be be a despotic and merciless pre. dexter talon an olive branch, and in his sinister a sident, and if I be obliged to live in bis domain or bunch of thirteen arrows, all proper; and in his beak his academy? A beneficent man is, in my opinion, a scroll, with the motto “E pluribus unum."
much more estimable, than a being who is learned, The crest-Over the head of the eagle, which ap- but cruel.”—Mirabeau the Eller. Not so uith our pears above the escutcheon, a glory, or, breaking Dr. Franklin--for, "Whatever he writes, his fellow through a cloud proper, and surrounding stars, form. citizens read with eagerness, delight and pleasure ing a constellation, argent, on an azure field.
--and wbatever he performs the civilized part of the Reverse-A pyramid unfinished.
world approves."- Targol to Dr. Price. In the zenith an eye in a triangle, surrounded From among “be political, miscellaneous, and with a glory. Over the eye these words, “Annuit philosophical pieces of Dr. Franklin, printed in Lon. cäplis."
don, 1779, p. 297,” is extracted the following, and Remarks and explanations The escutcheon is placed at your service.
Civis. composed of the chief and pale, the two most ho “At the conclusion of the peace of 1762, when norable ordinaries. The thirteen pieces pale, repre- certain projectors advised the English ministers to sent the several states in the union, all joined in one leave the French in possession of Canada, in order solid compact entire, supporting a chief which that they might check the too rapid increase of the unites the whole, and represents congress. The English colonies, the celebrated doctor Franklin ob. motto alludes to the union.
served 'It is a modest, word, this CHECK, for mas. The pales in the arms are kept closely united by sacreing men, women, and children; and for all the the chief, and the chief depends on that
and other horrors of Indian Warfare." It was being very the strength resulting from it, for its support, to de. far-sighted indeed, to feel so soon the necessity of note the confederacy of the states, and the preser. checking the excessive population of the then Engvation of the union, through congress.
lish colonies. But,'continues this truly great man, The colours of the pules are those used in the flag with that Socratic simplicity which is the peculiar of the United States of America. White signifies characteristic of his writings, 'If it be, after all, purity and innocence; red, bardiness and valor; and thought necessary to check the growth of our coloblue, the colour of the chief, signifies vigilance, per. 'nies, give me leave to propose a method less cruel. severance and justice. The olive branch and arrows 'It is a method of which we have an esample in the denote the power of peace and war, which is exclu. 'scripture. The murder of husbands, of wives, of sively vested in congress.
“brothers, sisters and children, whose pleasing socieThe crest, or constellation, denotes a new state ry has been for some time enjoyed, affects deeply taking its place and rank among other foreign the respective surviving relations: but grief for the
"loss of a child just born is short, and easily sup. powers.
The escutcheon, borne on the breast of an Ameri. 'porled. The method I mean is, that which was can eagle, without any other supporters, denotes dictated by the Egyptian policy, when the infinite that the U. States ought to rely on their own virtue increase of the children of Israel was apprehended as
dangerous to the state; und PHARAOH said unto his * In heraldry, argent signifies white, gules red, and azure blue; where these colors cannot be em.
*priests, behold the people of the children of Israel are blazoned, they are represented on seals, &c. as fol. 'more and mightier than we; come on, let us deal wisely lows: Argent, by a perfect blank: red by perpen with them, lest they multiply, und it come to pass that dicular, and azure by borizontal lines. The chief "when there falleth out any war, they join also unto our in our arms, on the horizontal lines in the upper quarter of the escuicheon, or eagle's breast. enemies, and fight against us, and so get them up on?
of the land:- And the king spake unto the llebrew the remainder, all in the country were closed. In a *midwives, &c.—Exo. Chap 1. Now says the doctor, war of such atrocity there was no safety, where mem'let an act of parliament be made, enjoining the co. bers, however peaceful, were collected; we bave 'lony midwives to stille, in the birth, every third seen that the British tories* violated the sanctity for fourth child. By this means may you keep the of private dwellings by their murders, and how 'colonies to their size. And if they were under the could it be expected they would be awed by the ho. Shard alternative of submitting to one or the other liness of a church? In a camp where was no permaof these schemes for checking their growth, I dare nency, and but little rest, there was no place for "answer for them they would prefer the latter.' chaplains—and at home there was no security, even
Note by the transcriber.—They seem to have found for the pastors of the church; consequently they out since that time,another method or scheme which, were compelled to go into exile. Had they gone out bye the bye, they never have dared to own, and have of their own families to administer comfort, it always disavowed'it personally to our ambassadors, would have been said they were stirring up sedition; "though they ‘have never discontinued it in practice, and, like some bigots of old, they would have until general J. made an example of two of their made themselves voluntary martyrs. Tbey took notorious assistants; and could he have been so for the wiser course of retiring with their families from tunate as to have caught the two principal agents, the murderous rage of the times." col. W-e and Col. N-s, and made them also the objects of “exact justice,' we should not bear for a "Near the close of the year 1780, there took place length of time of any more 'secret schemes for the de- a skirmish between a small patrole of whigs, under 'population of the frontiers of the United States.' capt. Melton, and a large party of tories, under
Bost, Par. major Ganey, near White's Bridge, two miles from
Georgetown; a few shots were exchanged, and GENERAL MARION.
Melton was obliged to retreat. But, in this short A biography of this revolutionary hero, it ap.
affair, Gabriel Marion, nephew to the general, was pears, by an article in the Southern Patriot, has first taken prisoner, and when his name was announbeen written by judge James, of South Carolina; ced, inhumanly shot. The instrument of death was and the following extract has been given in that placed so near that it burnt his linen at the breast. paper as a specimen of the work about to be pub. He was a young gentleman, who had received a good lished:
education-of whom high expectations were formed, "To people of good principles, particularly the and who was much beloved in the brigade. The religious, at this period (1780 and 1781), was truly general had no children, and he mourned over this distressing. Those fit for military service, includ- youth, as would a father over an only child, and all ing men of sixty years of age and boys of four. bis men condoled with him, but he soon publicly teen, few of whom dared to stay at home, were en. expressed this consolation for himself that his de. gaged in active warfare, and bad their minds in con- phew was a virtuous young man--that he died in de. stant occupation, which, in whatever situation man
fence of his country, and that he would mourn over may be placed, brings with it a certain degree of
him no more. satisfaction, if not content. But to the superanuat.
At that same place a worthy man, Mr. Swaineau, ed and the female sex, no such satisfaction was af. was killed. Ere this he had been a schoolmaster, forded. Most of those had relatives to whom but, finding there was no emyloyment for men of bis they were bound by the most 'tender and sacred peaceful profession now, he boldly shouldered the ties, who were exposed to constant danger, and for musket and died a soldier. But so prone are man. whose fate they were unceasingly anxious. As a
kind to pass over the merits of this useful class of comfort in this situation, they might employ them. citizens, that, had he not fallen by the side of : selves in household affairs, or resort to private de Marion, perbaps his memory would have been forvotion; but those refined pleasures, which arise gotten. About the same time Mr. Bently, another from social intercourse, were waniing; and particu. *The British, under Tarlton, had already, (in larly that faint picture of heaven, the consolation May, 1780), cut to pieces Mr. Samuel Wyley, in his which is derived from meeting one's friends in pub. brother, John Wyley, who was sheriff of the district;
own house, at Camden, whom they mistook for his lic worship, was wholly denied them. Most of the and the tories, under Harrison, bad murdered in churches in towns and in the country were burnt or their dwellings, the two Mr. Bradleys, Mr. Roberts, made depots for the military stores of the enemy-Lynch's creek. Lord Cornwallis soon made Matri.
and others, in that part of Salem which lies on some, in fact, were converted into stables; and, or son a colonel.
schoolmaster, was killed in action. The suspension times white satin breeches. Buckles were fashionof all public education, which led to the fate of such able till within 15 or 20 years, and a man could not men, and the fact stated above, that all public wor. have remained in a ball room with shoe-strings. It ship was now at an end, most forcibly shewed the was usual for the bride, bridegroom and maids, and calamitous state of the country during this eventful men attending, to go to church together three sucperiod."
cessive Sundays after the wedding, with a change
of dress each day. A gentleman who deceased not “Men at this time, and their general too, had no. long since, appeared the first Sunday in white broad tbing but water to drink-they commonly wore
cloth-the second in blue and gold; the third in homespun clothes, which lacked warmth-they slept peach bloom and pearl buttons. It was a custom in damp places, according to their means, either to hang the escutcheon of a deceased head of a with or without a blanket; be was well off who had family cut of the window over the front door, from one to bimself; the one half of the general's had been the time of his decease until after the funeral. The burnt-they were content to feed upon sweet po.
last instance which is remembered of this, was in tatoes, either with or without beef; there being the case of gov. Hancock's uncle, 1764: Copies of neither mills nor leisure to grind corn-but all sigh-the escutcheon, painted on black silk, were more ed for salt-for salt! that article of the first neces. anciently distributed among the pall-bearers-rings sity to the human race. Little do the luxurious of afterwards—and, until within a few years, gloves. the present day know of the pressure of such a Dr. A. Eliot had a mug full of rings which were want. Salt, when brought from the sea-shore off presented to him at funerals. Till within about 20 Waccanaw, where it was coarsely manufactured, years gentlemen wore powder, and many of them brought at that time ten silver dollars, each more sat from thirty to forty minutes under the bar. than len at present; thus bay salı,one balf brine,sola ber's hands, to have their hair craped; suffering no for at least one hundred dollars value of this day. inconsiderable pain most of the time from hair-pul. As soon as general Marion could collect a sufficient ling, and sometimes from the hot curling tongs. quantity of this desirable article, he distributed it Crape cushions and hoops were indispensable in full out from Snow's Island, on Pedee, in quantities not dress, till within about 30 years. Sometimes ladies exceeding a bushel, to each Whig family, and thus were dressed the day before the party, and slept in endeared himself the more to bis followers." easy chairs, to keep their hair in fit condition for the
following night. Most ladies went to parties on
foot, if they could not get a cast in a friend's carTHE OLDEN TIME.
riage or chaise. Gentlemen rarely had a chanca There is in course of publication, in the Boston to ride. Gazette, the long-boarded literary treasures of an The latest dinner hour was 2 o'clock; some offi. accurate observer's common.place-book, giving us cers of the colonial government dined later occm an amusing view of the society and manners of Bos. sionally. In genteel families ladies went to drink ton, rather less than a century ago-differing some tea about 4 o'clock, and rarely staid after candle what, it will be seen, from those of the present day. light in summer. It was the fashion for ladies to These sketches, one of the numbers of which will propose to visit-not to be sent for. be found below, are appropriately headed
The drinking of punch in the forenoon, in public houses, was a common practice with the most re
spectable men, till about five and twenty years; and Dress, &c.-Seventy years ago cocked bats, wigs,
evening clubs were very common. and red cloaks, were the usual dress of gentlemen,
The latter, it
is said, were more common formerly, as they af. boots were rarely seen, except among military men.
forded the means of communion on the state of the Shoe strings were worn only by those who could not
country. Dinner parties were very rare. Wine was buy any sort of buckles. In winter round coats
use; convivial parties drank punch or were used, made stiff with buckram; they came
toddy. Half-boots came into fashion about 30 years down to the knees in front.
ago. The first pair that appeared in Boston were Before the revolution boys wore wigs and cocked
worn by a young gentleman who came here from bats; and boys of genteel families wore cocked New York, and who was more remarkable for his bats till within about thirty years.
boots than any thing else. Within 20 years gentle. Ball dress for gentlemen was silk coat, and breech.men wore scarlet coats with black velvet collars, es of the same, and embroidered waistcoats- some.' und very costly buttons, of mock pearl, cut steel, or
very little in
painted glass--and neckcloths edged with lace, and a tradesman-- it was not a common thing in those laced ruffles over the ha .ds. Before the revolution, days for tradesmen to eat fresh mest-)the justice from 5 to 6001. was the utmost of annual expendi-, went out, saying, he would send the tradesman a ture in those families where carriages and corres. sallad for his lamb. He sent an overdue and un. por.dent domestics were kept. There were only paid tax-bill. Soon after, the tradesman met the two or three carriages, that is, chariots or coaches, justice near this place, and told him be would rein 1750. Chaises on four wheels, pot pbætons, turn his kindness; which he did, by hanging the juswere in use in families of distinction.
tice up by the waistband of his breeches to the The bistory of Liberty Tree is said to be this: butcher's hook, and leaving him to get down as he That a certain capt. McIntosh illuminated the tree,
cuuld. and hung upon it effigies of obnoxious characters, and that these were taken down by the liberty boys FROM BOTTA'S AMERICAN REFOLUTION. and burnt; and the tree thus got its name.
One of the most interesting works that has ever apThe Popes--A stage was erected on wheels; on peared as a bistory of "the war of the indepen. this stage was placed a figure in the chair, called dence of the United States of America," was writ. the pope; behind him a female figure, in the atti. ten by Mr. Charles Botia, an Italian, a translation tude of dancing, whom they called Nancy Dawson; of which has been made by Mr. George Alexander behind her Admiral Byng hanging on a gellows; and Osis. From these volumes we extract the two behind him the devil. A similar composition was speeches that follow-previous to the insertion of made at the south-end, called south-end pope. In which, it is necessary to give the “potice of the the day time the processions, each drawing with author" in relation to them. By way of preface them their popes and their attendants, met and to his work, Mr. Botta sayspassed each other, on the mill or drawbridge, very “There will be found, in the course of this his. civilly; but in the evening they met at the same tory, several discourses, of a certain length. Those points, and battle ensued wiih fists, sticks, and I have put in the mouth of the different speakers stones; and one or the other of the popes was capo have really been pronounced by them, and upon tured. The north-end pope was never taken but those very occasions which are treated of in the once, and then the captain bad been early wounded work. I should, bowever, mention that I bave, and taken from the field. These pope conflicts sometimes, made a single orator say what has been were held in memory of the powder-plot of Nov. 5, said in substance by others of the same party.and were some sort of imitation of what was done, Sometimes, also, but rarely, using the liberty, grant. in England on the same anniversary.
ed in all times to historians, I have ventured to add A man used to ride on an ass, with immense jack & small number of phrases, which appeared to me boots, and his face covered with a borrible mask, to coincide perfectly with the sense of the orator, and was called Joyce, Jr. His office was to assem- and proper to enforce bis opinion: this has happenble men and boys in mob style, and ride in the mid. ed especially in the two discourses pronounced dle of them, and in such company to terrify the ad- before congress, for and against independence, by herents to royal government, before the revolution. Richard Henry Lee and John Dickinson. The tumults which resulted in the massacre, 1770, “It will not escape attentive readers, that in some was excited by such means. Joyce, Junior, was said of these discourses are found predictions which to bave a particular whistle, which brought his ad. time bas accomplished. I affirm that these remark. berents, &c. whenever they were wanted.
able passages belong entirely to the authors cited. About 1730 to 1740, there was no meat market; In order that these might not resemble those of there were only four shops in which fresli meat was the poets, always made after the fact, I have been sold-one of them was the corner of State.street so scrupulous as to translate them, word for word, and Cornhill, where Mr. Harishorn now keeps. from the original.” Gentlemen used to go the day before and have their On the 8th of June (1776), says Mr. Botta, a modames put down for what they wanted. Ouiside tion being made in congress to declare independence, of this shop was a large hook, on which carcasses Richard Henry Lee, one of the deputies from Vire ust.co hang. A little man wbo was a justice of the ginia, spoke as follows and was heard with profound peace, came one day for meat; but came too late. aitention: He was disappointed, and asked to whom such an! "I know not, whether among all the civil dissuch pieces were to go! One of them was to go to cords which bave been recorded by historians, and
which have been excited either by the love of lib, have found among all other nations. And as at erty in the people, or by the ambition of princes, first our forbearance, and then our resistance, have there has ever been presented a deliberation more proved equally insufficient, since our prayers were interesting or more important than that which now unavailing, as well as the blood lately shed; we engages our attention; whether we consider the fu must go further, and proclaim our independnece.ture destiny of this free and virtuous people, or Nor let any one believe that we have any other op. that of our enemies themselves, who, notwithstand- tion left. The time will certainly come when the ing their tyranny and this cruel war, are still our fated seperation must take place, whether will brethren, and descended from a commnn stock; or or no; for so it is decreed by the very nature of finally, that of the other nations of the globe, things, the progressive increase of our population whose eyes are intent upon this great spectacle, the fertility of our soil, the extent of our territory, and who anticipate from our success more freedom the industry of our countrymen, and the immensifor themselves, or from our def at apprehend heavi. ty of the ocean which seperates the two states.er chains and a severer bondage. For the question And if this be true, as is most true, who does not is not whether we shall acquire an increase of ter. see that the sooner it takes place the better; and ritorial domicion, or wickedly wrest from others that it would be not only imprudent, but the height their just pissessions; but whether we shall pre- of folly, not to seize the present occasion, when serve, or lose forever, that liberty which we have British injustice has filled all hearts with indigna. inherited from our ancestors, which we have pursued tion, inspired all minds with courage, united all opinacross tempestuous seas, and which we have defend. ions in one, and put arms in every band? And how od in this land against barbarous men, ferocious long must we traverse three thousand miles of a beasts, and an inclement sky. And if so many and stormy sea, to go and solicit of arrogant and inso. distinguished praises have always been lavished lent men either councils or commands to regulate upon the generous defenders of Greek and of Ro. our domestic affairs! Does it not become a great, man liberty, what will be said of us who defend rich, and powerful nation, as we are, to look at liberty which is founded not upon the capricious home, and not abroad, for the govern raent of its will of an unstable inutitude, but upon immutable own concerns! And how can a ministry of stran. statutes and tutelary la vs; not that which was the gers julge, with any discernment, of our interests, exclusive privilege of a few putricians, but that when they know not, and when it little imports which is the property of all; not that wliich was them to know, what is good for us, and what is not? stained by iniquitous ostracisms, or the horrible The past injustice of the British ministers should decimation of armies, but that which is pure, tem- warn us against the future, if they should ever perate and gentle, and conformed to the civiliza. seize us again in their cruel claws. Since it has tion of the present age. Why then do we longer pleased our barbarous enemies to place before us, procrastinate, and wherefore are these delays? Let the alternative of slavery or of independences us complete the enterprize already so well com. where is the generous minded man and the lover menced; and since our union with England can no of his country who can hesitate to choose? With longer consist with that liberty and peace which are these perfidious men no promise is secure, no our chief deligbt, let us dissolve these fatal ties, pledges sacred. Let us suppose, which heaven and conquer forever that good which we already avert, that we are conquered; let us suppose an enjoy; an entire and absolute independence. accommodation. What assurance have we of the
"But ought I not to begin by observing, that if British moderation in victory, or good faith in trea. we have reached that violent extremity, beyond ty? Is it their having enlisted and let loose against which no:hing can any longer exist between Ameri- us the fferocious Indians, and the merciless solca and England, but either such war or such peace diers of Germany? Is it that faith, so often pledged as are made between foreign nations, this can only and so often violated in the course of the present be imputed to the insatiable cupidity, ihe tyranni- contest; this British faith, which is reputed more cal proceedings, and the outrages, for ten years re. false than Punic? We ought rather to expect, that iterated, of the British ministers. What bave we when we shall have failen naked and unarmed into not done to restore peace, to re-establish harmony) their hands, they will wreak upon us their fury and Who has not heard our prayers, and who is igno. their vengeance; they will load us with heavier Pant of our supplications? They have wearied the chains, in order to deprive us not only of the powuniverse. England alone was deaf to our complaints, er, but even of the hope of again recovering our and wanted that compassion towards us which wel liberty. But I ara willing to adınit, although it is