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property; almost every man is a freeholder. Their 2,500 men; their time of service was to expire in a supreme rulers thought such men, living at ease few days, nor was there any prospect that they in their farms, would not become soldiers under could be induced to stay longer. This, such as it long enlistments; nor, as all that was then aimed was, appeared the only force that could be opposed at was a redress of grievances, did they think there to the British, which seemed to halt only to give 'would be occasion for their military services, but time to the American vigor to dissolve of itself, for a few months. Hence the continental army and display us to the world as an inconstant pea was formed upon short enlistments.. a policy that ple, noisy, void of public virtue and even shame. unexpectedly dragged America back to the door of. But, it was in this extreinity of affairs, when no slavery. As tbe times of enlis:ments expired the human resource appeared in their favor, that the last year, the American army decreased in power, Almighty chose to manifest his powers to shew 'till it possessed scarce any thing but its appella the Americans that he had not forsaken them; and tion. And Washington, a name which needs no to convince the states that it was by him alone they title to adorn it, a freeman above all praise, having were to be maintained in tbeir independence, if evacuated Long-Island and New York to a far su- they deserved to pussess it. perior force, having repeatedly baffled the enemy Like Henry the fourth of France, one of the at the White Plains, who, quitting that scene of greatest men who ever lived, Washington, laying action, suddenly took fort Washington (Nov. 16 ) aside the generalissimo, assumed the partizan. and bending their course to Philadelphia, he, with He hud but a choice of difficulties. lle was even but a han!ful of men, boldly threw himself in their in a more desperate situation than that in which front, and opposed their progress... With a chosen teking of Prussia was before the baitle of Torgau; body of veterans, who had no near prospect of when there was no stop which rashness dictated, discharge, it is a difficult operation to make an bur prudence advised him to attempt. The ene. orderly, leisurely and effectual réfreat before aj u my were now in full possession of the Jerseys. A perior enemy; but with Washington's little army, nor principal body of the.n were posted at Trenton on exceeding four thousand men, raw troops, who bad the Delaware: Washington occupied the opposite but a few weeks to serve, to make such a retreat, for banks. His army, our only apparent hope, now eighty miles, and through a populous country, with somewhat short of 2,500 men, was to be disbanded out being joined by a single neighbor, a most dis. in a very few days: he resolved to lead it to batile couraging circumstance, nothing in the whole science before that fatal period; and at least afford it an of war could be more difficult; yet it was most opportunity of separating with bonor. He precompletely performed. Washington caused the pared to attack the enemy at the dawn of day, on Delaware to bound the enemy's advance. He the 26th of December. The weather was severe. summoned general Lee with the corps under his The ice in the river prevented the passage of a command to join him. That veteran, disobeying part even of his small force. But with those (1,500 bis repeated orders, for which I presume rigid men) that he transported across the river, through inquisition is yet to be made, loitering when he a violent storm of snow and bail, le marched should have bounded forward... be allowed himself against the enemy. The unavoidable difficulties to be surprized and made a prisoner, ( Dec. 13,) in passing the river, delayed his arrival at their at a distance from his troops. Wushington, in the advanced posts till eight in the morning. The abyss of distress, seemed to be abandoned by bis conflict was short. About thirty of the British officer next in command-by the Americans them. troops were killed; 600 fed, 909 officers and priselves, who seemed appalled at the rapid pro. vates surrendered themselves prisoners, with six gress of the enemy. Rape and massacre, ruin and pieces of brass artillery and four pair of colors. devastation indiscriminately overwhelmed whigs and
This brilliant success was obtained at a very lories, and marked the advance of the British forces.
small price-only two officers, and one or two The enemy being but a day's march from Philulel
privates wounded. In a word, the victory in effect phiu, the quakers of that city, by a public instru.
re-established the American affairs. The consent ment, dated the 20th of December, declared their
of the victors to continue six weeks longer under attachment to the English domination—a generall their leader and the elevation of the spirits of defection was fearedible congress removed to
the people were its immediate consequences-Baltimore-- American liberty evidently appeared as most important acquisitions at that crisis. The in the last convulsive agony!
enerny roused from their inactivity, and with a Washington was now at the head but of about ivicw of allowing ushington as little time as
possible to reap other advantages, they in a hurryf which, but a few days before, were in full possession collected in force, and marched against him. He of the Jerseys, he had closely confined to the was posted at Trenton. On the second of January environs of Brunswick and Amboy. In this situa. the front appeared in the afternoon---they halted cion both armies continued until the 13th of June with design to make an attack in the morning; and last, wben general Howe made an attempt to in the mean time, a cannonade was begun and proceed to Philadelphia; but being baffled, he continued by both parties till dark. Sanpinck suddenly abandoned Brunswick ( June 22 ) and in creek, which runs through Trenton, parted the a day or two after Amboy, and retired to Staten. two armies. Our forces occupied the south bank, island. and at night fires were lighted on both sides. At
In the mean time general Burgoyne was advanctwelve, Washington having renewed his fires, and Jing from Canada against Ticonderoga. He apleaving guards on the passages over the creek, and peared before the place on the 28th of June-a day about 500 men to amuse the enemy, with the glorious to this country and gen. St. Clair, who remainder of his army, about one in the morning, commanded in that important post, without waiting he marched to Princetown to cut off a reinforce till the enemy had completed their works, or ment that was advancing. Ile arrived at his destina. given an assault, to sustain which, without doubt, tion by sun-rise, and dislodged them: they left up he had been sent there, suddenly abandoned the wards of 100 men dead on the spot, and near 300 fortress and its stores to the enemy, (July 6th.) more as prisoners to the victors.
The public have loudly condemned this evacuation;
and the congress have ordered strict enquiry to be It was by such a decisive conduct that the king
made into the causes of it. of Prussia avoided being overwhelmed by a com. bined attack upon his camp at Lignit:, on the Gen. Burgoyne having thus easily possessed him. morning of the 15th of August, 1760, by three self of Ticorderoga, immediately began to meaarmies, led by Daun, Loudohn and Caernichew, who sure the distance to New-York. But being destitute were advancing against bim from different quarters.fof borses for his dragoons, waggons for tbe conveyIn the night the king marched, and in the morning, ance of his baggage, and in urgent want of pro. hy the time Daun arrived at his empty camp, he visions, be halted near Saratoga, to give time for lad defeated Loudohn in his advance. So the he operation of the proclamation he had issued Roman consul, C. Claudius Nero, dreading the June 23d) to assure the inbabitants of security, junction of Hunnibal and his brother Asdrubal, wbound to induce them to continue at home with their was in full march to him with a powerful reinforce effects. But, regardless of public engagements ment, left his camp before Ilannibal, with such an August 9th) he suddenly detached lieutenant col. appearance as to presuade bim he was present, and Baum, with 1,500 men, and private instructions with the nerves and sinews of his army privately to strip the people of their borses, waggons and quitting it, he rapidly marched, almost the whole provisions; and gave "stretch” to his Indians to length of Italy, while Rome trembled at his steps, scalp those whom he had exhorted to “BEMAIN and joining the other consul, be defeated Asurubal, QUIETLY A'T TAZIB HOUses." who, hałhe with his forces joined his brother, had Things now wore a dreadful aspect in that part inade him in all probability an over ma'ch for the of America: but general Stark soon changed the Romans. Thus equal geniuses prove their equallity, countenance of affairs. With a body of 2000 men, by wisely adapling their conduct to their circum. principally militia, he attacked (August 16th) stances.
lieutenant col. Baum at Bennington, stormed his
works, killed about 200 of his men, took 656 priThe action at Trenton was as the making of the flood. From that period success rowled in upon considerable quantity of baggage; losing only
soners, together with four brass field pieces and a us, with a spring tide. That victory gave us an about 30 men killed and 50 wounded. This success. army.--the affair of Princetown procured us a force, ful attack at once rescued the country from masand the re prossession of all the Jerseys but Bruns
sacre and ruin; and deprived general Burgoyne of wick and Amboy. For the enemy, astonished at those supplies that alone could enable him to au. Washington's vivacity, dreaded the loss of those posts in which they had deposted their stores, and time at which it was made. For at this juncture,
vance: nor was it less important in respect to the ran back to hide themselves behind the works cort Stanwiz was hard pressed by gen. Si. Ledger, they had thrown up arjund them. Washington who, having advanced from luke Ontario, hud laid pursued, and by the fifth of January those forces
siege io it on the second of August. Gen. „1.nold
had been preparing to march to its relief, and he fence of the Brandy-Wine, the American army fell bad now full liberty to continue his rout. His back six and twenty miles to the Schuylkill: nor near approach compelled the enemy with precipita- did gen. Howe derive any advantage from the tion to raise the siege, ( Aug. 22) leaving their possession of the field of battle. This is the 40th tents, and a large part of their ammunition, stores, day since the engagement, and we have heard from provision and baggage, nor did he lose any time in Philadelphia, in less than half the time, circum. set:ing out in pursuit of them.
stances furnishing reasonable ground to conclude,
that for at least three weeks after his victory, gen. Such unexpected strokes utterly disconcerted Howe made no impression upon the army of the general Burgoyne. Our militia began to assemble United States; and that he purchased his passage in considerable numbers. He now anxiously cast of the Brandy. Wine at no small price. He carried bis eye behind to Ticonderoga; and wished to Bunker's hill, but he lost Boston. I trust he has trace back his steps. But while gen. Gates was passed the Brandy-Wine but to sacrifice his army, advancing against his front, at Still-Water, with a as it were in presence of our ilustrious congress, superior force, the fruit of Bennington and Stan. as an attonement for his ravages and conflagrations wir, a part of the American troops had occupied in America. the posts in his rear, and were penetrating to
Having thus taken a general and concise view of T'iconderoga. In their advance they took 200
the progress of the war in the north, let us now battaux and 293 prisoners; and having seized the
turn our attention to our situation at home. In old French lines near that fortress, on the 181b September they summoned the place to surrender. respect of our government, it is affectionately Later advices which, though not indisputable, yet tion, we are in a truly respectable condition. As
obeyed. Wiib regard to cannon, arms and ammuni. well authenticated say, gen. Burgoyne is totally to trade, we are the grand emporium for the defeated and taken prisoner, and that Ticonderoga continent. On! that I could but give as good an with all its stores is in our possession. Indeed, from
account of the public vigour of the people. Alas! the events we already know, we have every reason it seems to have been exported in the same bottoms to believe that the American arms are decisively with the growth of their lands. What! are we triumphant in that quarter.
sensible that we are yet at war with Great Britain? As to gen. Howe, at the head of the grand Bri. We proceed as if we had totally vanquished the tish army, even when the campaign was far advanc. enemy. Are we aware, that to continue such a ed, he had not done any thing in aid of his mas. conduct is to allure them to act in this state, that ter's promise, in June last, to his parliament, that TRAGEN? they performed the last winter in the his forces would "effectually crush” America in the Jerseys? Do we intend to acquire an experimental course of "the present campaign.” Driven froin knowledge of the horrors of war? Do we desire the Jerseys, and having embarked his troops on to be driven from this beautiful town—to be disthe 23d of July, he put to sea from Sandy. Hook possessed of this valuable seat of trade--to see with 226 sail; and having entered the Chesapeake, ourselves flying we know not whither-our heirs he landed his army (about 12,000 men) the 30th of uselessly sacrificed in our sight, and their bodies August, on Turkey-point, at the head of the bay. mangled with repeated stabs of bayonets? Tell Skirmishing with the American light troops he me, do you mean that your ears shall be pierced pushed on to Brandy.Wine creek, behind which with the unavailing shrieks of your wives, and the Washington was posted to obstruct his passage. agonizing screams of your daughters under the By a double onset on the 11th of September, at brutal violence of British or Brunswick ruffians?Chad': ford and Jones' six miles above, where, be-Rouse, anuse yourselves into an activity capable cause of uncertain and contradictory intelligence, of securing you against these horrors. Washington bad not made a disposition adequale quarter the enemy are vanquished or baffled. They to the force with which the enemy attacked, they are at a stand; cease, my beloved countrymen, crossed, first at Jones' and then at Chad's. The cease, by your langour in the public defence, and engagement was long and obstinate. The bighest your ardor after private gain, to invite them to account does not make our whole loss exceed 1000 turn their steps this way and seize your country men and 9 field pieces; the lowest state of the ene. as rich and easy prey. The states of America my's is not so low 48 1000 killed — a slaughter from are attacked by Brituin. They ought to consider which we may torm some idea of the proportion of themselves as an army drawn up to receive the their wounded. Not having made good the de.i shock of assault, and from the nature of their
ground, occupying thirteen towns and villages in a powerful nation of Indians, who, urged by Britain, the extent of their line. Common prudence dictates had attacked the United States. But such brilliant that the several corps, in their respective stations, proceedings, unless supported with propriety, will during the whole time they are in battalia, should cover us with infamy. They will appear as the use the utrnost vigilance and diligence, in being on productions of faction, folly and temerity; not of their guard, and in adding strength to strength patriotism, wisdom and valor. What a contrast! for their security. We are in the right wing of how humiliating the one--bow glorious the other! the American line, and at a distance from the main will not pride spur us on to add to the catalogue? body-are we doing our duty? No! we have in 8 Will you not strive 10 rival the vigour of the North? manner laid up our arms-nay, even prizes are Do we admire the great names of antiquity? Do prepared for the horse race! we can spare no la we wish for an opportunity to be equally celebrated borers to the public, because we are employing by posterity?.. Than the present, there never was them to collect on all sides articles for private a more inviting or certain opportunity of acquir. emolument. We amuse ourselves with enquiries ing an immortal name. A world to be converted into the conduct of those who permitted the loss into an empire, is the work now in hand.-a work of Ticonderoga, nor do we appear to have an idea whereon the names of the workmen will be engrav. that others will, in their turn, scrutinize our con. ed in indelible characters. Shall we not exert our. duct at this juncture-a crisis when we know that selves to be ranked in this most illustrious list? the enemy have collected their force, and are Nor is it so difficult a thing to acquire place in it, actually advanced against the main battle of Aine as may be imagined: it is in every man's power to rica; where, if they shall find they can make no exert himself with vigor and constancy. My dear impression, and we have now a flattering prospect countrymen, trifle not with an opportunity onthey will find their efforts abortive, it is but rea. exampled, and not to be recalled...it is passing sonable to imagine they will recoil upon our post. with rapidity. Let us put our hands to our breasts, They will sail faster against, than aid can be and examine what we have done in forwarding this marched to us. Their arrival will be sudden--. imperial struciore. How many must say, I have shall they find us shamefully occupied in the amuse youth---strength---activity.--an abundant fortune ments and business of peace? Why has the Almighty learning.--sense, or some of these blessings; but — Endowed us with a recollection of events, but that I have shewed my attachment to America only by we may be enabled to prepare against dangers, by a momentary vigour, to mark my in constancy— avoiding the errors and follies, the negligence and scrutinizing the conduct of others.-.good wishes, supiness, by which others have been ruined. I! and enquiring the news of the day. Such men must a sense of our duty to our country, or of safety to be sensible of a disgraceful inferiority, when they posterity, is too weak to rouse us into action; if hear those American names, which the trumpet of the noble passions of the mind have not force to fome now sounds through the world; a blast, that elevate us to glory--the meaner ones, perbaps, will reach the ears of the latest posterity. máy drive us into a state of security. The miser, Surely such men may have a desire to be relieved amidst all bis anxiety to add to his heap, is yet from so oppressive a sensation: the remedy is withcareful to provide a strong box for its safety. Shall in their own power; and if they will use it, while we neglect even such an example of prudence? it throws off their disgrace, is will operate for the Pride raised Cassius's dagger against Cesar, and benefit of their country. Let them enquire of the procured him the glorious title of the last of the president, whaT SERVICE THEY CAN RENDER TIE Romans. We were the first in America, who pub. STATE. To a rich planter, he would say, if you will licly pronounced lord North's famous conciliatory send 20, 30, or 40 laborers to the pubilc works, and motion, inadmissible~we raised the first regular for whom you shall be paid, you will do an essential forces upon the continent, and for a term of three service in a critical time. To another, if you will years--we first declared the causes of taken up diligently overlook and push on the construction arms...we originated the councils of safety--we of such a battery, or line, you will merit the thanks were among the first, who led the way to inde. of your fellow-citizens. To a third, it insiead of pendence, by establishing a constitution of govern. hunting you will ride about your neighborhood, or ment.--we were the first who made a law authoris. a little beyond, and endeavor 'o ir:siruct those who ing the capture of British vessels without distinc
se ignorant of the importance of the public con. tion...we alone have defeated a British fleet--- we zesto--reclaim the deluded, animate the timidalone have victoriously pierced through and reduced rouse the languid--and raise a spirit of emulation
who shall exert himself most in the cause of free-, mendation of their country, nor an I so ungenerous dom and America: you will deserve the applause as to attribute their absence to a disgraceful policy. of the continent. How many opportunities are But, even they must be so ingeniolis as to admit there, for a man to distinguish bimself; and to be that those wbo do not know them, have room to beneficial to his country!
cast this reproach upon them, and to be dissatisfied
at their conduct. Nor ought those who have labored much in the
It is necessary that I speak with boldness and public defence, to sit down at ease, if they can per- plaioness. In a time like this, that language should form other services. The enemy are repulsed in be as the thunder-not as the music of the spheres their attacks--they are at a stand—they seem -and that I discourse to grand jurors of other stunned. Let us now collect our whole strength-things, besides their mere duties in a court of jus. one effort more and they must be crushed. We are tice.' Hence, upon other occasions have I reasoned warned to expect the enemy; and it is probable, the upon tbe propriety of our revolution in March 1776 back country militia may be called to do duty in -upon the legal necessity of the American inde. this town, during the ensuing winter. I wish to pendence and now, upon the situation of affairs, extend some aid to such of their families, as may I do most earnestly recommend, that you arge be most distressed by their absence from home; these topicks, when you blend yourselves again and I do therefore declare, that I appropriate my among your neighbors. In every station that I last year's salary for that service. I am endeavor. have bad the honor 10 fill, I have counselled the ing to raise a spirit of emulation among my country, most decisive ineasures; nor have I been sparing men-the ungenerous will attribute this appropria- of my personal assistance in their execution! Tlie tion to other motives.--I know the world too well public service requires an unwearied application, to doubt it. But, let such follow their inclina. unabating vigor, and a readiness to make the tións---I rely upon the integrity of my conduct. I greatest sacrifices. I firmly trust, that we shall ought to endeavor, to discharge my duty to the act as men; and that pusterity will have no just public; nor is it a consideration with me, that my cause to reproach our conduct. conduct in the prosecution of my duty, may expose
THE PRESENTMENTS OF THE JURY. me to a reproach of vanity or ingratitude; a want
Souto CAROLINA. of sympathy for those in distress or natural affec. tion; I am always satisfied, when I know that I do it a court of 6 *NERAL SESSIONS OF THE PRACR, OTER
AND TERMIN.N, ASSIZE AND GENERAL GAO. DEnot deserve such censures. I feel for those, who
LIVERY, begun und holilen at Churleston, for the feel disagreeable effects from my conduct: but, diserict of Charleston, the 21st Ociober 1777, before
the honorable IJilliam Henry Draylan, esq. chief among the many things I regret, I cannot but thus
justice, and his associates, justices of the said court. publicly lament, that not the least attention is paid Presentments of the grand jury for the said district. to two important resolutions of our congress in
I. We the grand jurors of seid district, think it June 1775. One, that all absentees holding estates our duty to present as a great grievance, that most in this country, except the sick, and those above of the magistrates in the coinmission of the peace sisty, and under twenty.one years of age, ought for Charleston refuse to act, by means whereof forthwith to return---the other, that no person hold. many criminals, particularly slaves, escape punishing property in this couniry ought to withdraw ment, to the great encouragement of crimes and themselves from its service, without giving good offences: And we are of opinion, that this rerissness and sufficient reasons for so doing. The gentle in the magistrate, is owing to the law disallowing voice of legislative recommendation is not regard- any fees, for the most salutary services to the pubed---must the legislature, in order to be heard, lic. raise its voice to the tone of forfeiture? Our coun.
II. We present as a grievance, the number of try stands in need of the advice, the countenance, voluntary absentees from this state now in Europe, the personal support of all those who have promen of large possessions, that they are not particuperly in it. Nor is it just or reasonable, that any larly ordered to return, and join their countrymen, in should enjoy ease and safety by continuing at a dis- the present contest for liberty and independence. tance, while the people nere have put their all at
III. We present, by the information of Mr. Benjabazard. If we fail, they contique secure in life and min Edings, that the public road leading from estate; if we suceed, they, without toil or danger, Slann's island to Edisto island, has never been reap every benefit we shall procure. I know some finished, (for want of commissioners) and is now of those, who are absent, contrary to the recom-lin such bad crder, tbat it is very difficult for the