History of Civilization in England, 第 1 巻

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Their operation on the distribution of wealth 3847
38
After the Revolution the ablest men confined themselves to secular
43
PAGE
45
Illustration of these principles from Ireland
47
Illustration from the early history of Christianity
49
From Egypt 5966
59
From Central America
67
And from Mexico and Peru 68
74
Influence of the general aspects of nature upon the imagination
85
Influence of government on the progress of society
89
Also by an unhealthy climate making life precarious 9193
91
Further illustration from Central America
105
CHAPTER VI
109
The historical method of studying mental laws is superior to
113
Hooker contrasted with Jewel
116
Examination of the two metaphysical methods of generalizing men
118
Scepticism and spirit of inquiry on other subjects
123
Conclusions arrived at by the preceding investigations
124
The progress of society is twofold moral and intellectual
125
Intellectual truths are the cause of progress
131
The diminution of the warlike spirit is owing to the same cause 137139
137
Chillingworth compared with Hooker and Jewel
142
Illustrations of this from ancient Greece and modern Europe 143144
143
A change of religion in any country also tends to corrupt its early
146
But was weakened by the dissenters headed by Wesley and White
147
CHAPTER V
164
Subsequent movement in the same direction and increasing indiffer
173
Great advantage of this
180
But the most active cause of all was the influence of the clergy 222223
222
Illustration of this from the history of Charlemagne by Turpin 231232
231
Cnder James I and Charles I this opposition to authority assumes
259
It causes the establishment of the Royal Society
269
These improvements were due to the sceptical and inquiring spirit 27928C
280
This alliance was dissolved by the Declaration of Indulgence 286287
286
Political meetings and publication of parliamentary debates
295
But discouraged by George III under whom began a dangerous
319
Importance of the Revolution
324
He opposed the views of George III and was neglected by him 330333
330
Policy of George III respecting America
354
The nobles displace the clergy and celibacy is opposed by the prin
360
Greater power of the church in France than in England 364365
364
Hostility between them and William III
435
But notwithstanding all this there was a great difference between
438
In England the nobles were less powerful than in France
444
AND ENGLAND
446
Centralization was in France the natural successor of feudality 419
450
Illustration from the history of chivalry
456
Analogy between the Reformation and the revolutions of the seven
462
In the reign of Elizabeth both classes were weakened 403468
468
The English rebellion was a war of classes 4094476
477
As such men were the leaders of the Fronde the rebellion naturally
483
CHAPTER XI
490
Servility in the reign of Louis XIV
498
Also in zoology and in chemistry
505
Universal decline of France during the latter part of the reign
511
CHAPTER XII
517
Convocation first despised and then abolished
519
Admiration of England expressed by Frenchmen
528
Gloomy political prospects of England late in the eighteenth century 351355
531
In France literature was the last resource of liberty
541
CHAPTER VIII
542
Importance of the question as to whether the historian should
548
Still further progress early in the seventeenth century 557560
557
Historical literature in France before the end of the sixteenth
566
Immense improvements introduced by Voltaire
575
His views adopted by Mallet Mably Velly Villaret Duclos
581
He weakened the authority of mere scholars and theologians
588
The discourses of Turgot and their influence
596
About the eleventh century the spirit of inquiry began to weaken
602
Abolition of the Jesuits
608
Jansenism being allied to Calvinism its revival in France aided
614
But was averted for a time by the most eminent Frenchmen direct
618
And in Condillac
627
In England during the same period there was a dearth of great
636
Relation between inventions discoveries and method and immense
645
Great and successful efforts made by the French in botany 652654
652
All these vast results were part of the causes of the French Revolu
658
And in the establishment of clubs 664666
664
Coinciding with this the feudal system and an hereditary aristocracy
669
General reflections 670
670
And in the predictions of Stoefller respecting the Deluge
676

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335 ページ - The storm has gone over me; and I lie like one of those old oaks which the late hurricane has scattered about me. I am stripped of all my honours, I am torn up by the roots, and lie prostrate on the earth!
24 ページ - Indeed, the progress of inquiry is becoming so rapid and so earnest, that I entertain little doubt that before another century has elapsed, the chain of evidence will be complete, and it will be as rare to find an historian who denies the undeviating regularity of the moral world, as it now is to find a philosopher who denies the regularity of the material world.
247 ページ - For men to be tied and led by authority, as it were with a kind of captivity of judgment, and though there be reason to the contrary not to listen unto it, but to follow like beasts the first in the herd, they know not nor care not whither this were brutish. Again, that authority of men should prevail with men either against or above reason, is no part of our belief. Companies of learned men...
333 ページ - ... distinctly the true nature and the peculiar circumstances of the object which we have before us: because, after all our struggle, whether we will or not, we must govern America according to that nature and to those circumstances, and not according to our own imaginations...
39 ページ - Wages depend, then, on the proportion between the number of the labouring population, and the capital or other funds devoted to the purchase of labour; we will gay, for shortness, the capital. If wages are higher at one time or place than at another, if the subsistence and comfort of the class of hired labourers are more ample, it is, and can be, for no other reason than because capital bears a greater proportion to population.
29 ページ - Soil, have, so far as we are aware, had no direct influence of this sort ; but they have, as I am about to prove, originated the most important consequences in regard to the general organization of society, and from them there have followed many of those large and conspicuous differences between nations which are often ascribed to some fundamental difference in the various races into which mankind is divided.
329 ページ - The people are the masters. They have only to express their wants at large and in gross. We are the expert artists; we are the skilful workmen, to shape their desires into perfect form, and to fit the utensil to the use. They are the sufferers, they tell the symptoms of the complaint; but we know the exact seat of the disease, and how to apply the remedy according to the rules of art.
372 ページ - ... chacun appelle barbarie ce qui n'est pas de son usage ; comme de vray, il semble que nous n'avons autre mire de la vérité et de la raison que l'exemple et idée des opinions et usances du païs où nous sommes. Là est tousjours la parfaicte religion, la parfaicte police, perfect et accomply usage de toutes choses.
112 ページ - Europe, the population of the towns is everywhere outstripping that of the country; and it is evident that the more men congregate in great cities, the more they will become accustomed to draw their materials of thought from the business of human life, and the less attention they will pa,y to those peculiarities of nature, which are the fertile source of superstition, and by which, in every civilization out of Europe, the progress of man was arrested. From these facts it may be fairly inferred, that...
20 ページ - In a given state of society, a certain number of persons must put an end to their own life. This is the general law; and the special question as to who shall commit the crime depends, of course, upon special laws; which, however, in their total action, must obey the large social law to which they are all subordinate. And the power of the larger law is so irresistible, that neither the love of life nor the fear of another world can avail anything towards even checking its operation.

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