may be varied in the following manner; “The authority of the Druids was superseded by that of the Romans.”

EXERCISES. - Vary the verbs and the dependent words in the following sentences ; —

1. The Romans formed settlements and planted colonies in the island.

2. Camulodunum, the first Roman colony, was destroyed by the Britons.

3. The Britons did not foresee that their deliverers were to be their conquerors. • 4. In the course of their wars, the Saxons established many separate kingdoms.

5. England was kept in continual alarm by the incursions of the Danes.

6. Ethelwolf elevated and enriched the church by ordering a tenth part of the produce of landed property to the clergy.

7. The favoured child of nature who combines in himself these united perfections may be justly considered the masterpiece of creation.

46. ROLE 4.-The same idea may be expressed by the employment of a periphrasis or circumlocution, that is, the use of several words to express the sense of one. Thus, instead of the word “death," we may say, " the close of our earthly career,” or the separation of the soul from the body.

So, instead of using the word “sky," I may employ the adjectives and words descriptive of it, and say, " The azure vault above."

EXERCISE. — Let the pupil express the following words by a periphrasis ; 1. Geography.

7. Winter. 2. Solitude.

8. The populace. 3. Civilisation.

9. A ship. 4. Wealth.

10. A watch. 5. Industry.

11. Astronomy. 6. Grammar.

12. The ocean.

LESSON 16. 47. In this Exercise, the pupil is required to express by single terms the ideas contained in the following circumlocutions ; thus," the bright luminary of day,” may be expressed by the term," the sun."

EXERCISE. — One who leads the people by exciting their passions. A lover of wisdom. Want of government. The descent of persons through a succession of ancestors. System of government by the different orders of the clergy. An account of an individual's life and character. A descrip. tion of the earth as it appears to the eye. A nice discernment directed by circumspection. To come to the knowledge of something before existing but unknown. To produce something that did not before exist. Indulging in ease. Regularly occupied in something. He cleared himself by words from a charge of fault. He was debarred from participation. They were delighted beyond measure. Very desirous of power. It had the power of living in two elements. He was apt to change his opinions suddenly. He had formed a conclusion and acted upon it. He was subject to change. Repairing the waste of the animal frame. Ripe before the natural time.

LESSON 17. 48. RULE 5.- The same idea may be varied ; 1st, By applying adjectives and adverbs instead of nouns, and the contrary ; thus, for “ The generality of people," we may say, “ most people,” or “ people in general or generally.

2dly, By a negation of the opposite, instead of a simple, direct, or positive affirmation; and the reverse; thus, "John is adverse to falsehoodis

the same as “John admires, loves, or is attached to truth.

3dly, By the use of different words ; thus, “ Industry contributes to health” may be varied by saying, “ Health is promoted by active exertion," or “ Active exertion promotes health.:

4thly, By reversing the order of the correspondent parts of the sentence ; thus, “ He who lives always in the bustle of the world, lives in a perpetual warfare,” may be thus transposed, “ He lives in a perpetual warfare, who lives always in the bustle of the world.”

EXERCISES. - 1. In the following phrases, for the nouns printed in Italics substitute appropriate adjectives or adverbs ;

He remonstrated with firmness against their measures.. The honourableness of his character was soon apparent. With justice his liberality has been praised. Familiarity sometimes breeds contempt.

2. Convey the same idea by a negation of the opposite, or the reverse;– A wicked son is a reproach to his father. Titles and ancestry render a good man illustrious. I have perused the book with pleasure and profit. Innocence confers case and freedom on the mind. Be armed with courage against flatterers. Religion does not require a gloomy aspect. No station is so high as to exempt men from rashness. I venerate the man whose heart is pure. Too great a variety of studies weakens the mind.

3. Substitute different words for those printed in italics; Folly may laugh, but guilt will sting. Christianity is auspicious to the cultivation of the intellectual powers, as well as beneficial in its moral effects. The duties which it prescribes indeed are admirably calculated to produce that docile temper

and soberness of thought, those habits of perseverance and patient investigation, which are absolutely necessary in the pursuit of general knowledge. To keep the spirit of religion warm and operative in your hearts, persevere in the duties of public and private devotion, and in the regular perusal of the Holy Scriptures. In them you will find that the Saviour of the world has illustrated his precepts by the most pleasing and striking parables, recommended them by his own greatest and best of all examples, and enforced them by the most awful sanctions. There he unfolds the great mystery of redemption, and communicates the means by which degenerate and fallen man may recover the favour of his offended Maker.

4. In the following, reverse the order of the correspondent parts of the sentences ; - She who studies her glass neglects her heart. If we have no regard for religion in youth, we have seldom any regard for it in age. Full of spirit, and high in hope, we set out on the journey of life. Poor were the expectations of the studious, the modest, and the good, if the reward of their labours were only to be expected from man. Virtue were a kind of misery, if fame only were all the garland that crowned her.

LESSON 18. 49. RULE 6. — Sometimes a writer or speaker wishes to avoid the harshness conveyed by a plain expression; on such occasions, he can employ a softened mode of expression, called a euphemism. Thus, instead of saying, “ he told a lie,” “he is idle," we may express ourselves more mildly by saying, “ He told an untruth,or “misrepresented the case ; ” “ He is not noted for industry.

EXERCISES. -Let the pupil employ euphemisms in the following sentences, instead of the words in italics ;

1. I hate that man.

8. He has no money. 2. He was turned out of office. 9. He has run into debt. 3. He cheats and she lies. 10. He is a great glutton. 4. He is a thief, a rascal. 11. He turns up his nose at 5. John is a couard.

every thing. 6. He has been sent to prison. 12. The man was drunk. 7. He was sent to the mad


50. RULE 7. — Another mode of varying the expression, is by the employment of terms called synonymous. Synonymous words are so called, because they agree in expressing one principal idea. Many of these have precisely the same import, but others express the leading idea with some diversity of circumstances. Thus, puerile and childish are the same in signification ; but conceal and dissemble, while they both agree in expressing “hiding the object ” from our view, yet differ in this; the former expresses an action done accidentally, the latter, one done intentionally. The clouds may conceal the sun from our view, but the hypocrite designedly dissembles his real motives.

EXERCISES. - In the following sentences, write synonymous terms for the words printed in italics;

Their situation had no effect in inducing them to surrender. Walker continued his daily exhortations from the pulpit, assuring them that the Almighty would grant deliverance, and entreating them to defend the place to the last extremity, and reminding them of the importance of their perseverance to the cause of the Protestant religion.

Observing that the pirates had diminished in number, it was resolved next day, to regain possession of the wreck ; but the enemy, on perceiving the approach of the boats, instantly

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