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easy to the apprehension of those, tude of Cambridge in time west. who, not having made much pro- ward from Greenwich.. gress in subjects of this nature, are yet disposed and qualified to

II. A memoir on the latitude of attend to them; and it may with

the University at Cambridge : With propriety be recommended to their

observations of the variation and perusal.

dip of the magnetick needle. By The longitude of Cambridge is

Samuel Williams, F. A. A. Hollis deduced, from observations of two

professor of mathematicks and natsolar eclipses and one transit of Ural philosophy in the university. mercury over the sun's disc. The

This memoir contains the obfirst of these eclipses happened

servations and calculations, by Aug. 5, 1766; the other, June 24,

which the author determined the 1778; and the transit of Mercury,

latitude of Cambridge. For this Nov. 5, 1743. The observations

purpose meridian altitudes of the used are those of the beginning

sun, six stars near the equator, and and end of the two eclipses by

the pole-star, were observed in the . Dr. Maskelyne, the British royal philosophy chamber. in Harvard astronomer, at Greenwich ; the

? Greenwich : the hall with an astronomical quadrant beginning and end of the former

of a radius, equal to 2 feet, made by Dr. Winthrop at Cambridge,

vidoe by Sisson. The mean of the re, and the end of the latter by the

sults from observations of the stars Rev. Phillips Payson at Chelsea,

is 42° 23' 28" north, which, he 26" in time eastward from Cam

concludes, is the true latitude of bridge, according to a terrestrial Har

to terrestrial Harvard hall. measurement, made by President

• President No mention is made of the firmWillard and Mr. Payson : and the ness or stability of the floor, on observations of the first and second which the instrument was placed. internal and the second external

It is however of great importance, contacts of Mercury, at the said

that the support of the quadrant transit, by some eminent French

should be entirely secure from astronomers at Paris : and the se- motion, at the time of making obcond internal and external contacts

servations of this kind. by Dr. Winthrop at Cambridge.

A few facts, relative to the va. The mean of the results of these

riation and dip of the magnetick calculations, which appear to have

needle at Cambridge, are mentionbeen made with great accuracy,

ed at the close of the memoir. gives 4h. 44' 31" * for the longi. III. A table of the equations to

On the 60th pare the difference of equal altitudes, for the latitude of meridians between Paris and Greenwich the University of Cambridge, 42° is considered as 9 16" in time. This is 23' 28" N. with an account of its the difference according to the Tables of construction and use. By the Rev. M. De La Lande, in the second edition

erend Joseph Willard, President of of his Astronomie, published in 1771. But later observations have shown it to

the University. be 20". The difference therefore be The importance of regulating a ing called 9' 20" instead of 9 16" the a clock, that is to be used in making bove mean result becomes 4h. 44' 29". astronomical observations, or de. The mean of the three results in the Me

termining the rate of its motion, moir and that of observations on the solar eclipse of April 3, 1791, is 4h. 44

is well known to astronomers. In 28", which is now considered as the lon

this memoir is the method of acgitude of Cambridge.

complishing this purpose by olis gerring equal or corresponding al- of Long Island in Penobscot Bay, titudes of the sun, which is gen- where it was nearly total. Severally used by astronomers, who eral gentlemen, belonging to the have not an observatory. The university, accompanied Professor reason of applying a correction to Williams, whose observations he the middle point between the times relates. When viewing the subof the forenoon and afternoon ob sequent eclipses, namely three of servations, in order to obtain the the moon and two of the sun, he true noon, is clearly shown by a was at Cambridge, and some other stereographick projection. Also gentlemen, connected with the the manner of obtaining the equa- university, were associated with tion by the solution of two spherick him on these interesting occasions, triangles is explained. And then and in addition to his own he has Wales' formula for determining published their observations. this equation is given and exem- The transit of Venus over the plified. By this formula the table sun the 3d of June, 1769, was obo was constructed. It contains the served at Newburyport; and that equations in seconds and thirds of Mercury the 9th of Nov. 1769, for the latitude of 42° 23' 28" at Salem. When a transit of Mer- * north, the arguments being the cury happened the 12th of Nov. half interval between the times of 1782, Professor Williams being at Observation and the sun's longi. Cambridge, he and two other gen.' tude. Small equations are also tlemen of the university in com-' subjoined, by the addition or sub. pany with him observed this curi. traction of which the equations ous phenomenon. Some deducin the table may be adapted to tions from the observations, they any northern latitude between 400 made, conclude this memoir, which 23° 98 and 44° 22' 28".

contains many important facts,

ascertained with care and ability, 17. Astronomical observations,

To be continued.
made in the state of Massachusetts.
By Professor Williams.
The observations and deductions

ART. 2. contained in this memoir, relate to nine lunar and four solar eclip- Report of the trial of the Hort. ses, one transit of Venus, and two Samuel Chase, one of the assotransits of Mercury. Two of the ciate justices of the supreme court lunar eclipses, namely, those of of the United States, before the November 12, 1761, and March high court of impeachment, com17, 1764, were observed at Walth posed of the senate of the United am. The rest, he remarks, were States, for charges exhibited aall that could be observed in this gainst him by the house of reprepart of America from Jan. 1, 1770, sentatives, in the name of them. 10 Jan. 1, 1784. The observations selves and of all the people of the of four lunar and two solar eclip United States, for high crimes ses, which happened within this and misdemeanors, supposed to period before October 1780, were have been by him committed ; made at Bradford. To view the with the necessary documents and solar eclipse of October 27, 1780, official papers, from his impeachwhich arrested much attention, a ment to final acquittal. Taken in. station was taken on the east side short hand by Charles Evans, and

the arguments of counsel revised republican system, not to be to by them from his manuscript. confident of its superior excellence. Baltimore, 1805. S. Butler For whatever may be its perfection and J. Keating.

in the visions of theory, we know

that it is liable to be disturbed by In ancient times, the offices of the whirlwinds of party rage, and king and judge were united in the that, in such commotions, the great same person; and it is certainly and the good, who are always the proper, that the father of a nation most conspicuous objects of popushould be the steward of its just- lar envy, are the first victims of ice, to dispense it among the popular madness. members of his family. But ex- No event of a domestick nature perience proved, that the union of has, since the adoption of the fedthe original branches of govern- eral constitution, excited in the ment, in the same person, tended United States a more universal into despotism, and that a magis- terest, than the impeachment of trate, with such prerogatives, was Judge Chase. It is not for us to too apt, in the plenitude of his arraign the motives of the tripower, to forget their legitimate umphant majority in the house of object. The wisdom of most representatives, who voted in favmodern legislators has therefore our of that measure. But whether separated the legislative, the ex- the charges against that citizen ecutive, and judicial departments, were well founded, or whether poto the end that their systems may litical intolerance, rather than a be " governments of laws, and not regard for the pure administration of men.” Of these departments, of equal laws, led to that prosecuthe most vulnerable is the judicia- tion, will appear from an examinary, and therefore it ought to be tion of the volume before us. We most strongly fortified by publick would however confide in the wisfavour. Any wanton attack on its dom and integrity of the constitut. independence, any thing malicious- ed authorities of our country ; and Jy contrived to intimidate a judge we wish to believe, that their conin the exercise of his office, or to duct always results from patriotick lessen the confidence of the people principles, far exalted above any in his wisdom or integrity, is a views of private interest or party crime against the state. This of rage. fence assumes a more terrific form, The book is well worthy the atwhen it is committed by either of tention of the law student, as it the co-ordinate branches of the contains an exhibition of judicial government, because of the great- proceedings, and much learning on ness of the oppressor and the ex- the law of impeachment, and as it tensiveness of the mischief. A will stand as a precedent for future firm and an independent judiciary times. The course of proceedings is the greatest security against at this trial was similar to that in that spirit of accommodation, cases of impeachment in Greatwhich varies according to times Britain. Great formality was and political occasions. Tyranny observed throughout the scene, may exist under any form of gov- suited to the dignity of the court, ernment. The voice of experi- and to the solemnity of the occaence has proclaimed this truth, and sion. After the reading of the should warn the advocates for the articles of impeachment, and the tion.

answer of the respondent, the man- jury, who wished to be excused agers proceeded upon the whole from serving on the trial, because of the charges, before the latter he had made up his mind as to the was permitted to enter on his de- publication. fence. When the evidence was III. For not permitting the evigone through, and the arguments dence of John Taylor, a material for and against the prosecution witness for Callender, to be given closed, the question was put to in, because his testimony would each member of the court on each not substantiate the truth of the article separately. We shall whole of one of the charges in the briefly analyze the articles of im- indictment, although it embraced peachment and the respondent's more than one fact. answer. The importance of the IV. For manifesting,during the subject will justify the attention whole of the said trial, injustice; which we shall pay to its exposi- partiality,and intemperance: 1. In

compelling the counsel for the I. The first article charges prisoner to reduce to writing all Judge Chase with arbitrary, op- questions, which they meant to pressive, and unjust conduct on propound to Mr. Taylor. 2. In rethe trial of John Fries for high fusing to postpone the trial, on an treason, before the circuit court affidavit of the absence of a materiof the United States for the dis- al witness in behalf of the accused. trict of Pennsylvania, in 1800 : 1. 3. In using unusual, rude and conIn delivering an opinion in writing temptuous expressions towards the on the question of law, on the con- prisoner's counsel. 4. In repeatstruction of which the prisoner's edly and vexatiously interrupting defence materially depended, be- them, so that they were obliged to fore counsel had been heard in his abandon their cause and their clidefence. 2. In restricting the ent, who was thereupon convicted ; counsel for Fries from recurring and, 5. In manifesting an indecent to such English authorities, and solicitude for the conviction of the from citing certain statutes of the accused. United States, which they thought · V. In awarding a capias, instead favourable to his defence. And 3. of a summons, against Callender, In debarring the prisoner's counsel whereby his body was arrested, from addressing the jury on the contrary to the law of Virginia, law, as well as on the fact, which which, according to a law of the Was to determine his innocence or United States, should have regulaguilt. In consequence of which ted the process. conduct, Fries was deprived of the VI. In ruling and adjudging Calright of a fair trial, and was con- lender to trial, during the term, at demned to death, without having which he was presented and inbeen heard by counsel.

. dicted, contrary to the law of VirII. The second article alleges ginia. against the Judge, that at a circuit VII. The seventh article alcourt, held at Richmond, in 1800, leges against Judge Chase, that on the arraignment of one James at a circuit court of the United Thompson Callender, indicted for States, for the district of Delaa libel on John Adams, then pres ware, in 1800, he refused to disident of the United States, he over- charge the grand jury at their reruled the objection of one of the quest, though they had found lo

VOL III. No. 1,

bills of indictment ; that he stooped parts of the union, and at distant, to the level of an informer, by ob- periods of time. As the answer serving to the said jury, that a se. must disclose the whole defence, ditious temper had been manifested and as the defence must be confin. in the state of Delaware, which had ed to the matters stated in the anbeen inflamed by the publications gwer, much time was requisite for in a certain paper, called the “ Mir- the necessary preparation. He ror of the Times and General Ad- was to defend his name and his vertiser,” and that he at the same honour, and in some sense the time recommended to the district honour of the judiciary. The attorney to procure a file of the pa- court did not grant the request in piers, and select from them some- its full extent, but, in consequence thing for the ground of a prosecu- of this application, the 4th Feb. tion.

following was assigned for receive VIII. The eighth and last ar- ing the answer, and for proceeding ticle charges, that at a circuit on the trial. court of the United States, for On that day, Judge Chase prothe district of Maryland, in 1803, duced the answer, on which he be delivered to the grand jury an meant to rely for his justification. intemperate, imflammatory, and It contains a clear, concise, and political harangue, with intent to authentick explanation of his conexcite their fears against the state duct and of his motives, support government, and also that he de- ed by such a statement of his livered to them indecent and extra- proofs, as may be extensively judicial opinions.

read, clearly understood, and easiJudge Chase, having been sum- ly remembered.” The language is moned to answer to the foregoing glowing and nervous, and the ararticles of impeachment, appeared guments urged with the force of on the 2d January, 1805, before a strong and active intellect. If it the Senate of the United States, possesses any one pre-eminent then constituting the high court trait, it is the wonderful fulness, of impeachment. The senate with which the respondent replies assembled in their usual place of to every part of the charges, meeting, which had been prepar- which allege against him, either ed, in an elegant style, for the ses- negligence of decorum, or turpision of a court of justice. Being tude of heart, in the exercise of informed by Mr. Burr, the presi- his official duty. dent, that the senate were ready It will be impossible, in an ato receive any answer, which he bridgment, to do justice to this had to offer to the articles of im- masterly specimen of judicial elopeachment, Judge Chase moved quence. But as we have presente to be allowed until the first day of ed our readers with a view of the next session of congress, to the charge, we shall likewise atput in his answer, and to prepare tempt to draw an outline of the himself for trial. · This motion réply. was prefaced by a speech of some I. In reply to the first article length, in which he expressed a of impeachment, the respondent desire, to prepare an answer to admits, that the circuit court was the articles, which should contain holden before him and Richard a view of the whole merits of his Peters, Esq. the district judge, in defence. The charges embraced April, 1800, within and for the events, which happened in various district of Pennsylvania. At this

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