would be a little bloody ; but that seemed besides, the elephant was forced to be strict. even to render the taste more agreeable ; ly upon his guard, left the rhinoceros and these small wounds, to appearance, should nip his horn into his belly, and rip made no other impression on his tongue him up, as they often do in their fights than the particles of salt and pepper do on with cach other. The governor, well ours. If they touch any flesh with their knowing that he could not pierce the rhi. Lague, it carries all before it, leaving the noceros on the back, by reason of the thick. bore quite bare ; so that this is a very dan nefs of his hide in that part, or any where Gerous weapon.

but on the sides near the belly, watched Tbough the greatest part of his body is an opportunity when he should take a Wapt up in armour, and those wbo attack leap, and by that means expose the place him are exposed to great danger, yet the which alone was penetrable. This the Indians hunt him as they do other ani. creature presently did, to avoid a stroke mals, because his carcase is of great use to aimed at him by the elephant, and the gothem; and, however hard it may be, the vernor immediately cast a dart, which Moors eat his flesh, which they account a dexterously struck him through from fide fine repaft. The inhabitapts attribute a to fide; upon which the beast fell down, variety of phyficial virtues to every part amidst a loud thout of the people, who of this creature, from the tip of the horn were very numerous, and had begun to be to the calcined bones and hoofs, in which in pain for the governor's safety. They the Portuguese do not fall sort of them ; then laid the body upon a pile of wood, but there is good reason, perhaps, to doubt and setting fire to it, leaped and danced of many of them. That the horn sweats about, whilst the hard skin was burning at the touch of poison, and is esteemed and the fieth coasting, cutting pieces as fast for many other qualities, seems to be uni- as it roasted, and eating them with great versally allowed ; and whether some other satisfaction. Of the heart, liver, and parts may not be used with success, as a brain, they made a more dainty dish, and cure for particular diseases, we have no presented it to the governor, who was authorities to contradict; and, on the upon a rising ground, diverting himself other hand, we have not sufficient to with their merriment. Father Borri, who vouch for the veracity of thore numerous was present at the whole scene, obtained virtues attributed to every part of the rhje the hoofs by the governor's leave. In all noceros. At the Cape of Good-Hope the engagements between the elephant and Europeans hang up the fresh blood in the thinoceros, the victory to the latter chiefly guts to dry in the sun, and afterwards take depends upon the good fortune of striking it in wine, coffee, or tea, to open obftruc- the former with his horn in the belly; for tions, and for inward fores. Their fleth if he fails in this, or misses his aim, the is often eat among the Hottentots; and elephant is generally too hard for him, by Kolben says he himself car fome, and found means of his proboscis. the taste very agrecable.

As the rhinoceros is but feldom seen, we Father Borri relates, that when he was may conclude either that they are as scarce at Nuocmon, in the province of Pulucam. as the elephants are numerous, or else, bi in Cochin-china, the governor went out which is more probable, they chiefly harto hunt a rhinoceros, that was in a wood bour in deserts and unfrequented places, near their dwelling-place. The governor their common diet being thistles, docks, had with him above a hundred men, fome and other such like coarse rare. Some have on foot, some on horseback, and eight or imagined that the rhem, so often menten elephants. The beast came out of the tioned, in Scripture, was no other than this wood, and, seeing so many enemies, was animal; but, on a close examination, there So far from giving any tokens of fear, that are but little grounds for such a supposition. he furiously encountered them all, who, Others imagine, that the beast commonly opening and making a lane, let the rhino- called the unicorn is no other than the ceros run through. He came to the rear, rhinoceros; though, if authors may be where was the governor, mounted on an credited, there are various one-horned ani, elephant, waiting to attack him. The mals in Africa, which have an equal, and elephant endeavoured to lay hold with his fome a far better, right to this conjecture, trunk, but could not, by reason of the as coming nearer to the commonly received thinoceros's swiftness and leaping; and notion of the figure and chape of the uni

March 1763.

COIN. corn. Others, on the contrary, and par. then advances, pronounces certain words, ticularly Dale, think that the rhinoceros is and then piffes upon him from head to the only one-horned quadruped, and that foot. The deputy afterwards lights a pipe the accounts of all the others are ficti- of tobacco, and, having smoked two or tious.

three whiffs, delivers it to be smoked out Very few of these animals have been in turns by the assembly, and the ashes are brought to Europe. There was a female scattered by the deputy on the hero, who one shewn in London in the year 1752; inftantly rises, and the whole circle with but this was not near full-grown, being no him, receives the personal compliments more than five feet and an half in ftature, and thanks of the village for the signal and the horn was but short.

service and honour rendered to his country The rhinoceros is among the number of by his bravery: and thus ends the cerethose animals, which if a Hottentot can mony. Straightway the hero returns to have the happiness of killing, he has the his hut, where he is three days sumptuouf. dignity of an hero conferred upon him. ly entertained, at the expence of the vilThe performance of the ceremony, and Jage, with the nicest rareties, (that is, what the cleanliness of it, may prove entertain- they term nice); during which time he is ing, and therefore we here' subjoin it, called to no public action; nor is his wife though not properly belonging to the na- admitted till the evening of the third day, tural history of this beaft.

when the hero receives the lady with the « The rhinoceros being killed, the Hot greatest marks of fondness and affection : tentot runs to his village, acquaints all his a fat sheep is killed, and the neighbours neighbours of his good fortune, and then are entertained, who congratulate the lady goes to his hut, and squats down in the upon her being restored to the arms, and middle of it. Presently comes an ancient become a partner in her husband's glory, Hottentot, deputed by the village, and &C." compliments him in their name; at the On the whole, the rhinoceros is a very same time giving notice of their expecting noble and famous creature; and 'though his coming to reccive the honours due to vastly inferior to the elephant in strength, his exploit. The hero rises upon the mer- docility, and those other qualities peculiar sage being delivered, and attends the de- to that famed animal, yet superior to it in puty to the middle of the village, where he comelinefs of rape, and beauty of skin; squats down on a mat, spread for the so- and both alike serve to display the wonders lemnity, in the center of the men, who all of Providence in the creation. squat round him in a circle. The deputy

Some REFLECTIONS on the SPIRIT of Party.

· Medio tutiffimus ibis.----
1 All neither wholly false, nor wholly true.


To the Authors of the BRITISH MAGAZINE.


have never been so fortunate as to mest THE happy spirit of unanimity, which with or peruse; and tracts have been writ.

hath lately sublisted amongst us, may ten on it much more copious, diffusive, appear to render any reflections on the and full, than any I am equal to. Howfpirit of party unseasonable ; yet, as Chrif- ever, I have ventured to draw up a few tianity pronounces a blessing on the peace - lodfe immethodical thoughts, and address maker, it seems no unreasonable deduction, them to you, flattering myself they will that he who honestly endeavours to estas neither be disagreeable to you, nor incomblish and copfirm such principles as tend patible with your plan. I shall fay but to peace, will be intitled to an adequate little of the spirit of party as it regards degree of the Divine Blessing. Perhaps the politics, consequently a discussion of the subject I have chosen hath been already German war (which I wish happily and Futriciently exhausted by authors, whom I honourably ended) must not be expected

in this essay. Some of the sentiments in importance to the happiness and order of it, which I honestly esteemed originals, the world, will not preponderate against a when I entered them in my common-place, straw. Violent party-men make the same I have lately found expressed by men who degree of pother about the most infignifihave thought like me, long before I was cant matters, when they think, or chuse to capable of thinking. But to haften into think themselves right, as concerning those the midst of things.

of the highest importance, and, generally As the strenuous man of, party not often speaking, much more in the former casa miffes of warm friends, the sect he espouses than in the latter. generally efpoufing him and his interests It is true, that every right position ought in turn with equal ardour ; fo, on the con. to be asserted and defended with a degree trary, the moderate man, who seldom finds of warmth equal to its importance : to go

occafion to exhibit zeal, (as indubitable further, is commencing a zeal without - points are but rarely contested) is often knowledge, and runs us headlong into ab

looked upon as treacherous to all fides, and surdity. But, say they, right is right, therefore meets with disregard from all: truth is truth, and ought to be maintained he incurs the charge of infipidity and loose with equal earnestness and perseverance, thinking, because he is not an enthusiast in whether it regards the Thape of a shoematters which appear to him ambiguous buckle, or the government of the world ;-and undetermined.

for who knows but the destruction of this The spirit of party is an odd mixture of seemingly minute link may undo the great pride and implicitude ; its primary foun- chain of all things, and infringe the order dation may be honesty, but pride and im- of Providence? But these people thould plicitude compose che superstructure: they have a sublimer notion of the great Difseem to be contrary difpofitions, but are poser of all things, than to imagine bim so eafily reconciled. Thus an honest man careless about the concatination of events, fets out with what he believes a convic- as to make the strength of it to depend on tion of the truth of any fundamental prin- a few private opinions ; or that his honour siple of a sect or society, either religious or is much, if at all, concerned in the ob. political : from this conviction he espouses servance of injunctions, which Providence, it, and, being thus swayed, thinks himself in his infinite wisdom, orders fall be obliged to fight for it through thick and deemed indifferent by the generality of thin; and from thenceforward never exa- calm-thinking men. mines into the truth of the subordinate That “ the wisdom of the world is opinions of his fraternity, or the rectitude foolishness with God," I readily grant ; of their pra&tices, nor will admit into his that « Chriftianity was deemed foolithness mind any doubts about them; but busies by the wise Greeks," I as readily grant ; himself in fishing for the most feasible ar- and I am not in the least doubt but that guments, to plaifter over and defend them these texts will be applied to me: yet wirfrom the attacks of counter-arguments; dom is still wisdom, and reason is still reaalthough, for aught he knows to the con- fon. Each party, when any thing that is Crary, such counter-argument may bave undeniably good fares it in the face, from its ground in reason and good sense; and that which is opposite, doubtingly exclaims, fo, for fear of being obliged to retract his Can any good ibing come oxt of Nazareth ? opinion, and destroy what he hath been And as in religion ro in politicks, the chaa long time, and at great pains, in con- racters of kings, and those of adminiftrafructing, for fear of unsettling his mind, tions, are canvaffed, villified, or applauded, and incurring the imputation of fickleness, in this partial, difingenuous, and unequior of disobliging his adopted feet, and table manner. The great argument, and marring private friendships, he resolves to one which seems to carry benevolence in content himself, without further enquiry, it, and is therefore most cogent against and to defend his party with all his free inquiry, is, that it tends to perplex Atrength : hence arise the numerous party- and upsettle the minds of men ; but the turies, invectives, and acrimonious fare question remains, whether it does not uncalms, concerning trifles; and the perfecu. settle them to the benefit of themselves, as tions which have been exercised on the well as the public good? For (though minds as well as bodies of mankind, con- some dishonest and weak minds may be serning opinions, whose real value, and distracted and unbinged, by ambitiously


soaring foaring above their capacity in impertinent Winds waft fhips to their respective researches) it generally tends to the clear. ports, although they sometimes wreck and ing up truth, and obviating error. But free demolish them: wine banishes gloom, and inquiry needs but little discouragement, gladdens the heart; although, in some inbecause the number is, and is likely to be, ítances, it maddens and inebriates. but small, who, with sincerity and assiduity, But to return to the spirit of party: 1 seek after truth, in comparison of those define it to be “ an over-fondness for, or who are wholly paflive from indolence, attachment to, any fect, principle, or set of and suffer themfelves to be carried along principles, for this reason, viz. because by the tide of education, and blind impli- we ourselves have thought proper to adopt citude ; and I question whether the sophis. and espouse them, either with or without . try of Lord Bolingbroke, and come other lucrative views.". The effect of this difwriters in that strain, may not have made position of mind, carried to any height, is many converts to religion. However de an averfion, diftante, and shyness in behafireable a general uniformity in sentiment viour, to people of different fentiments; may appear to be, it cannot be brought and, when it influences in religious matters, about by coercive and penal laws, by runs into superstition, stops the current of bloodshed and desolation ; for there have benevolence, where it ought to have the always arisen, and always will arise, come largest diffusion, and farthest extent; inmen of spirit, who voluntarily chose to jures equally the fociety and the individual sacrifice their lives rather than their mental begets a pharifaical self-righteousness; and, liberty; and these will make converts to in a word, becomes a bondage, not thatheir opinions, in spite of all the means dowed out sufficiently terrible in that of that can be used to counteract them. This Egypt of old. From profligacy, fociety deGreable end can be no more attained by by accident derives some benefits; from. religious deceits, or pious frauds; for Pro- superstition none : yet this monfter, under vidence, to thew that its cause has no need the disguise of extraordinary fanctity, finds of such despicable resources, always per- her way into the recesses of the most pious mits them to be detected, and to fall into hearts, overspreads them with fullen gloom, contempt. The guile used by St. Paul, P preys upon the natural benignity which the take to be no other than a backing his ar- finds in their dispositions, and fo confounds. guments with some seasonable appeal to herself with their piety, that the is seldom their passions; and, however dispassionate dispofTefTed, after once received: at length ly people affect to talk, it must be owing the unhappy votaries of this splenetic dcity to a too superficial view of human nature, deal condemnation around them with a that they imagine any man can be wrought liberal hand, and are mighty angry with upon to a change of his sentiments, or his all those who are not equally devoted to practice, by cool argument, diverted of all her with themselves, nor will relinquith regard to passions or affe&tions. Revela. their claim to mental liberty. Religion, tion itself appeals to our hopes and our praised be her almighty Author, is absofears, our love and our hatred, and now lutely impregnable to all the efforts of the and then even inspirits 'our ambition; and powers of darkness; was the not, she could herein confifts the great energy of its are never have stood revered and beloved for guments, with those especially who have so many ages; in spite of this intruding not capacities to weigh their force, and ape, who affumes her name and some parts consider their connexion.

of her vesture; but may be generally But the practice of appealing to the known from the original by a greater depassions needs little encouragement, as all gree of oftentation, pageantry, and parade, parties naturally give into it; and the more numerous and more zealous external groffest absurdities, and most manifeft con- observations of meats, drinks, cloths, days, tradictions, are every day seconded and en. &c. And the enemies of the former could forced by such appeals : nevertheless they never have hit on a more plausible method are of service, when reason and truth are of driving her from the earth, than their

at the helm, by ensuring attention, and multiplication of fupernumerary principles, - confirming belief; and it is not to be fup- annexing to them the specious epithet of

posed that our passions were given us for effential, and persuading mankind to tag no other end, but to put us to the trouble them on to those which are really fuch, of totally mortifying or extirpating them. that the whole being jumbled and con

founded founded together, the whole might, with Where a free difcuffion of 'controverted, fome appearance of reason, be rejected as points is allowed, we fee and feel the force chimæra.---But these external crites are of reason on every fide, and thence are made the badges of parties, and by a hot gradually brought nearer to a concurring zal for these is the spirit of party kept point of mediocrity; whereas a contrary alive. To remain in a state of exact neu. procedure generates mutual diftruft, and trality, in all matters of controverty, is heart-burnings, that continually set us furcertainly a blameable piece of scepticism, ther at odds. And this holds good as well er indolence; and to justify, on the other in politicks as in religion. Nevertheless band, every opinion maintained by the malice, ignorance, and madness, will now pity we have adopted, without a thorough and then, by taking intolerable liberties, inquiry into its merit and reasonableness, call for the interpofition of exemplary is narrow meanness and bigotry: yet men penal laws, to which every one is juftly of sense too frequently give into this error, obnoxious who calumniates, or endeavours and thereby greatly impede the use of their to bring into contempt, the most sacred parts and abilities, and render themselves and universally received effentials, either a leaft blaaks, if not worse, to the com- in religion or government. The members munity. Every man, who hath not some of all christian dissenting fects thould learn, measure of biass in favour of the opinions at least, a quiet and pallive fubmiffion to which he hath received from education, as the establishment of their country, from well as of a spirit of patriotism, or honest the meek example whom they all pretend love to his country, and zeal for its intereft, to copy. They should likewise take an immust be devoid of one of the most natural partial review of the conduct of some of as well as noble characteristics of human their most famous leaders and founders, by nature: and I could entertain but a poor which they would discover, that the charge opinion of a Jew, or a Mahometan, who of fanaticism is not quite so groundless as trould renounce his principles, and em. many of them imagine ; nor would they brace our holy profeflion of Christianity, so highly extol-the characters of those without a strong and almost irresistible Quixotes in religion, as models of perfecconviction of its being his duty so to do. tion and infallibility. Such sanctions, as Prejudices are to be tenderly dealt with, they are founded in falshood, will never and never renounced, but from rational advance their cause; and they should reevidence. Thus all parties concur in look. fed, that facts are transmitted to pofte. ing aikant upon turn-coats, and being rity, by historians of other parties, equally fufpicious of the integrity of their motives; credible with those of their own. On the and I am very apt to think these precipitant other hand, the national christian eftatransitions are often owing to a mind. ena blishments, should consider that chriftimoured of novelty, a perverse and con- anity, itself, was deemed fanaticism, and tumacious rebellion against parental autho- christians, look'd upon as a peftilent sect, sity and society-government, or to fordid about teventeen hundred years since, and and pecuniary views : but when this na that every set of men who have made tural prejudice, originally honest and com efforts for reformation have been perfe. mendable, gains such strength and tenacity cuted and reviled as difturbers of society as to prevent free inquiry, and blind our hereticks and enthufiafts: for all attempts minds to truth and the nature of things, it towards reformation gall the pride and commences the spirit of party, ends in su. hurt the indolence of men, from which perstition, and becomes injurious, as be- they don't chuío to be disturbed. The fore described. The effects of honest and words whim, fanaticism, enthufarm, herefree disquisitions are obviously good upon sy, and nonsense, have been hitherto ape the whole; and a general toleration, such plied indiscriminately, by all eftablithas now takes place, is much likelier to pro. ments to any proposed change of religious duce a general uniformity, than the most opinions; and frequently without a calın fevere act of parliament for that purpofe ; ' confideration of the real nature and tepas the miod of man naturally rises against dency of the faid change. compulfion, and will always affert its na., I was lately introduced to a gentleman's tural right of exercising its faculties; and library, the disposition of which was fometo compel men to an hypocritical unifore what whimsical and extraordinary: beÁrity, is by no means a degreable thing. sides a number of well-choren books of


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