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tive station. He fancied himself made for in the conclufion) intreat you to review another scene, and another conversation, the groundless and pernicious doctrine you and that he was losing time every minute have unwarily taught on this subject : conhe staid there. These were his own words fider if charity ought to be founded upin a letter he wrote to his father, three on a temper incontistent with innocince, years before his death, dated the 24th of and an unspotted conscience; as productive of
October 1690; wherein he told him, “That vice, folly, and madres ; as leading to the ** he was perfectly wearied with the nause- negieet of the principal brancbes of itself, and
ous circle of small affairs, that could now the like ; and whether it becomes a Cbri. neither divert nor instruct him. The only ftian divine to set the several parts of God's benefit he ever proposed to himself by the law at variance, and to make the perforplace was studying, and that he was not able mance of one of them an atonement for the to accomplish. His pupil, Mr. Boyle, took neglect of others as indispenfibly required." up half his time; college and university We shall not enter into any part of the business took up a great deal more; and controversy, nor of Mr. Hoadley's reasons besides, he was forced to be useful to the to thew that Mr. Atterbury had mistaken dean in a thousand particulars, so that he che meaning of the text; but only observe, had very little time." Having long re- that the author of the sermon did not volved in his mind what course he Mould think fit to make any reply to the exceptake, he made London his refiderce; and tions. foon distinguished himself in such a man. The same year (1694) he was warmly ner, that he was appointed one of the attacked for his sermon, preached before chaplains in ordinary to king William and the queen at Whitehall, intitled, Tbe score queen Mary, and was elected preacher at ner incapable of true wisdom. But the Bridewell, and lecturer of St. Bride's. In largest field of controversy in which he 1694 he preached a remarkable sermon at ever engaged was that which opened itself Bridewell chapel, before the governors of in the year 1700, and continued four years, that and Bethlem hospital, on the power between him, Dr. Wake, (afterwards archof charity to cover fin; to which Mr. Ben- bishop of Canterbury) and others, concernjamin Hoadley (late bi mop of Wincher. ing the rights, powers, and privileges of ter) fome years after published some ex- convocations; in which he asserted, with a ceptions. Mr. Atterbury's text was from very high hand, the prerogatives and imthe 4th chapter of St. Peter's first epistle, munities of the church. However the and 8th verse: Charity shall cover the multie truth of the question may be, he displayed tude of lins; which words he explained in so much learning and ingenuity, as well as this fenre : « That the virtue of cbarity is zeal for the interests of his order, that the of so great price in the light of God, that lower house of convocation returned him those persons who possess and exercise it their thanks; and the university of Oxford in any cminent manner, are peculiarly entit- complimented him with the degree of docled to the divine favour and pardon, with tor in divinity. January the 29th, 1700, regard to numberless hips and failings he was infalled archdeacon of Totness, in their duty, which they may be otherwise by Sir Jonathan Trelawny, then bishop of guilty of: this great Christian perfection of Exeter. The same year he was engaged which they are masters, Mall make many with some other learned divines, in revising little imperfeétions to be overlooked and un- an intended edition of the Greek Teftaobserved; it shall cover tbe multitude of fins," ment, with Greek fobolia, collected chiefly Mr. Hoadley, in the postscrips to his second from the fathers, by Mr. arch-deacon letter to Dr. Atterbury, published in 1708, Gregory. excepted against this doctrine, as farther Upon the accession of queen Anne, in enlarged and explained by Dr. Atterbury. 1702, Dr. Atterbury was appointed one Among other things, he says; “If God will of her majesty's chaplains in ordinary ; accept of one duty in lieu of many o: bers; and and in October 1704, he was advanced to if our performance of obat Mall be our jul- the deanery of Carlisle. About two years tification, notwithstanding our omission of after this, he was engaged in a difpute with many others; this is a sort of salvation, in Mr. Hoadley, concerning the advantages of my judgment, unworthy of the nature of virtue, with regard to the present life, ocman to receive, and unworthy of the nature casioned by his fermon preached at the of God to offer.---Ler me sherefore (adds he funeral of Mr. Thomas Bennett, a book
seller. seller. In 1707 Sir Jonathan Trelawny, many things ran into great disorder ; for bishop of Exeter, appointed him one of the it is an unhappy truth, that there was a canons-refidenciaries of that church; and kind of haughtiness, and passion for finguin 1909 Sir John Trevor, a great discerner larity, in Dr. Atterbury, that where-ever he of men, and their abilities, was fo ftruck came, there seldom failed of being some conwith his fame, and charmed with his elo- tention. Under the notion of asserting his quence, that he made him preacher of the rights and privileges, he fomented so many Rolls chapel. This year he was engaged discords, that it was not easy to allay them. in a fresh dispute with Mr. Hoadley, con- This made Dr. Smalridge, his fucceffor in cerning obedience, occafioned by his Latin two of his preferments, complain of his fermon, intitled, Concio ad clerum Londinen- hard fate, in being forced to carry water fem babita in ecclefia S. Elpbegi.
after him, to extinguish the flames which In 1710 came on the famous trial of the turbulence of Dr. Atterbury's temper Dr. Sacheverel, whose remarkable speech had unfortunately raised. Some fay, that on that occafion was generally supposed the strifes and disturbances were lo vioto have been drawn up by our author, in lent between him and the canons, who conjunction with Dr. Smalridge and Dr. had long been used to the mild and gentle Friend. The same year Dr. Atterbury was government of dean Aldrich, that it was chosen prolocutor of the lower house of thought adviseable to remove him sooner convocation, and had the chief management than was at first intended, by preferring of affairs in that house. His favourite nos him to the first vacant bishopric. Howtion was, that the proceedings in convo- ever that be, the next year saw bim at the cation were to be just the same as those in top of his preserment and reputation : parliament ; and he endeavoured to main- for in the beginning of June, 1713, the tain, “That as in a session of parliament, queen, at the recommendation of the earl a prorogation puts an end to all matters of Oxford, advanced him to the bishopric of not finished, so that they were to begin Rochester, and deanery of Westminster; all anew, the same rule was to be ap- and he was consecrated at Lambeth the plied to convocations." This being con- 4th of July following. It has been said, trary to precedents, and the express words (though we know not with what truth) of the royal writ, the bishops did not agree that he had in view the primacy of all Engto it, but resolved to adhere to the me- land, and that his credit with the queen thod of former convocations. And this and ministry was so considerable, and his occafioned a dispute between the two schemes so well laid, as probably to have houses, which put a stop to all business ; carried it upon a vacancy, had not her maso that they could not determine those jesty's death, upon the ist of August, points which had been recommended to 1714, prevented him. At the beginning them by the queen. The eleventh of May, of the succeeding reign bis tide of pror1711, he was appointed by the convoca- perity began to turn; and he received a tion, one of the committee for comparing sensible mortification presently after the Mr. Whifton's doctrines with those of the coronation of king George I. when, upchurch of England ; and in June follows on his offering to present his majesty (with ing, he had the chief hand in drawing up a view no doubt of standing better in his A representation of the present state of religion, favour) with the chair of state and royal which was to be laid before her majesty. canopy, his own perquisites as dean of This piece was, by the moderate members Westminster, the offer was rejected, not of the convocation, regarded as a very par- without some evident marks of dinike to tial and exaggerated account of the wicked his person. ness of the times : however, it was agreed He was very intimate with the duke of to by the lower house; but the bishops laid Ormond, whom he advised to fly out of it afide, and ordered another representa- the kingdom, which he accordingly did. tion to be drawn, in more general and About the same time broke out the rebel. more modest terms. This occafioned great lion in Scotland, during which bishop Atdisputes; but, in the end, Dr. Atterbury's terbury gave an instance, if not of growing draught was not presented, though it was disaffection, at least of the highest impru. printed and dispersed about. Me
d ence, as well as unpardonable coolness In 1712 he was made dean of Christ and luke-warmness; at a time, when every church, where by his imperious conduct, friend of their country, when every man,
who had not an absolute averfion to the of the University, and endeavoured to julestablished government, should have over- tify the proceedings of that learned body. looked all animofities and distinctions, When the South-Sea affair came to be exadisregarded all nights and neglects, though mined, and the conduct of the directors inunprovoked, and have given the fincereft quired into, he spoke with great energy prools in their power of their good inten- against them,and compared thatfatal scheme tions; at a time, when every one should to a pestilence. When the bill for allowing have eagerly sought, and gladly seized an the Quakers to leave out in their folemn opportunity of serving that government, of affirmation the words, “In the presence giving all possible assurance of their allegi- of Almighty God," was under confidera. ance and fidelity to it, and have taken the tion, he made a speech, wherein he said, utmost care that there might not be the he was not for allowing that people any smallest exception made to their conduct--- further indulgences than those they already Yet in such a time, bifhop Atterbury, and, poffeffed, which were very great, since by his instigation, bishop Smalridge, refur- they could hardly come under the denoed to fign the paper intitled, The declara. mination of Chriftians. The earl of Ilay tion of the arcbbishop of Canterbury, and the late duke of Argyll) answered, “He bisbeps in and rear London, teftifying their ab. wondered that reverend prelate should call borrence of the rebellion ; and an exbortation to in question, whether the Quakers were the clergy and people under their care, to be Christians, fince they were so at least by zealous is the discharge of their duties to bis act of parliament, being included in the majesty king George. They grounded their toleration act, under the general denomirefusal on pretence of a just offence, taken nation of Protestant diffenters.” The at some unbecoming reflections cast on a bishop replied, “ It was against the stand. party, not inferior to any (they said) in point ing orders of that august affembly to make of loyalty. The reader will find the words any personal reflections; and he thoùght objected to in the note *; and then he it a much greater indecency, to make a must be left to judge whether there be any jest of any thing that was sacred ; and that thing in them so exceptionable, as to coun- the calling the Quakers Cbriflians by aft of tenance such a behavicur in so critical a parliament, was a sort of fide-wind reflecjuncture of affairs, when the pretender's tion upon Christianity itself: however, declaration was posted up in most market he would let that pars, and reserve to antowns, and in some places his title pro- other opportunity what he had to offer claimed ; and whether this refusal was not against the bill.” Accordingly, he after: one of the greatest affronts ever offered wards endeavoured to prove from fcripby a subject to a sovereign ?
ture and reason, that the Quakers were no He diftinguished himself in several de Chriftians, and was seconded and supportbates; particularly when the riot at Ox ed by the earl of Strafford, lord North and ford, on the prince of Wales's birth day, Grey, and the archbishop of York f. The and the neglect of the Univerfity to cele- bill passed however, but not without being brate it with the usual rejoicings, came be protested against by several lords and fore the house of Lords : he spoke in favour bishops. Bishop Atterbury had a very
* They were as follow: “We are the more concerned that both the clergy and people of our communion should shew themselves hearty friends to the government upon this óccasion, to vindicate the honour of the church of England, because the chief hopes of our enemies seem to arise from discontents artificially raised among us; and because some who have valued themselves, and have been too much valued by others, for a pretended zeal for the church, have joined with Papists in these wicked attempts ; which, as they must ruin the church, if they fucceed, so they cannot well end without great reproach to it, if the rest of us do not clearly and heartily declare our deteftation of such practices." There was no occasion for bishop Atterbury, or bishop Smalridge, to take any notice of this passage ; for had they figned the declaration, the reflections here would have been their own on other persons.
+ The Quakers of these days are perhaps much altered from the first founders of their sect; who, if they believed in such doctrines as authors relate, were certainly a Arange fort of Chriftans. Consult To-fi's view of all religions, under the article Quaker.
great great share in drawing up the protests, would carry him away undrest as he was. which were frequent every day; many of Upon which he ordered his secretary to them he wrote himself with his own hand, see all his papers sealed up, and went and in general opposed the measures of the himself directly to the Cock-pit, where the court. It is no wonder then that he ob- council waited for him. The behaviour jected to the order for entering protests of the messengers upon this occasion seems in a limited time, namely, before two to have been very unwarrantable, as we o'clock of the next fitting day, which are assured that the persons directed by orwas moved for by the earl of Sunderland. der of the king and council to seize his He said, if protests were limited to fo short lordship and his papers, received a strict a time, this was at least the way to make command to treat him with great respect them crude and indigefted; and he thought and reverence. However this was, when it unbecoming the dignity of that august he came before the council he behaved assembly, to have any thing entered upon with a great deal of calmness, and they their journals, which were records for after with much civility towards him. He had ages, before it had been duly considered liberty to speak for himself as much as he and well digested. Lord Cooper alledged, pleased, and they listened to his defence that the time being so fhort, and very few with a great deal of attention; and what lords coming so early, such an order would is more unusual, after he was withdrawn, in effect put an end to all protesting, he had twice liberty to re-enter the counwhich was an ancient privilege of that cil chamber, to make for himself such rehouse. Other lords spoke to the same presentations and requests as he thought effect, but in vain; for the court had se- proper *. After three quarters of an cured a majority on their fide, who carried hour's stay at the Cock-pit, he was sent to every thing, without paying much re- the Tower privately in his own coach, gard to the arguments of the opposite without any manner of noise or observaparty. SKO
tion. This commitment of a bishop upon At last, in 1722, he was with several fufpicion of high treason, as it was a thing others apprehended, on suspicion of be- rarely practised since the reformation, so ing concerned in a plot in favour of the it occafioned various speculations among pretender. Two officers, the under-se. the people. Those who were the bishop's cretary and a messenger, went about two friends, and claimed the greatest intimacy o'clock in the afternoon, to the bishop's with him, laid the whole odium of the house at Westminster, where he then was, matter upon the ministry. They knew the with orders to bring him and his papers bifhop so well, they said, his love to our before the council. He happened to be in constitution, and attachment to the Protehis night-gown when they entered; and ftant succession; his professed abhorrence of being made acquainted with their bufiness, popery, and settled contempt of the prehe defired time to dress himself. In the tender ; and his caution, prudence, and mean time, his secretary came in, and the cirumspection to be such, as would never officers went to search for his papers; in allow him to engage in an attempt of subthe fealing of which the messenger brought verting the government, so hazardous in a paper, which he pretended to have itself, and so repugnant to his principles; found in a close-stool, and desired that it and therefore they imputed all to the mamight be sealed up with the rest. His lice and management of a great minister of lordship observing it, and believing it to be ftate, or two, who were resolved to rea forged one of his own, defired the officers move him, on account of some personal not to do it, and to bear witness that the prejudices, as well as the constan't molestapaper was not found with him. Never- tion he gave them in parliament, and the theless, they did it; and though they be- particular influence and activity he had haved themselves with some respect to him, shewn in the late election. The friends they suffered the mefsengers to treat him to the ministry, on the other hand, were in a very rough manner; threatening, if he strongly of opinion, that the bifhop was did not make haste to dress himself, they secretly a favourer of the pretender's cause,
It is said, that while he was under examination, he made use of our Saviour's an(wer to the Jewish council, while he stood before them; If I tell you, you will not believe me; and if I also ask you, you will not answer me, nor let me go
And and had formerly been tampering with pery, and the pretender's bigotry to that things of that nature, even in the queen's religion, they talked of a new invented time, and while his party was excluded scheme of his, not to receive the prefrom power ; but upon their re-admiffion tender, whose principles were not to be had relinquished that pursuit, and his con- changed, but his son only, who was to be federates therein, and became a good sub educated a Protestant in the church of ject again. They urged, that the influence England, and the bishop to be his guarwbich the duke of Ormond had over him, dian, and lord-protector of the kingdom assisted by his own private ambition and during his minority. These and many revenge, might prompt him to many more speculations amured the nation at things contrary to his declared rentie that time ; and men, as usual, judged of ments, and inconsistent with that cunning things by the measure of their own affeca and caution which in other cases he was tions and prejudices. matter of. And to obviate the difficulty, ariling from the bishop's averfion to po
[To be concluded in our next.]
A DESCRIPTION of the MANNERS, RELIGION, Customs, &c. of
the Inhabitants of WHIDAH on the Slave-Coast.
T HE natives of Whidah are tall, then of an hundred weight upon his S well made, strait, and robust. Their head.
complexion is black, but not so jet Bosman says, that the Whidanese in geand giofly as those of the Gold-Coast, and neral exceed all the negroes he had seen, fill less than those of Senegal, and the river both in good and bad qualities. All ranks Ganibia. They excel all other negroes in and degrees of them treat the Europeans industry and vigilance. Idleness is the fa- with extreme civility, respect, and courrourite vice of the Africans in general; tely. Other negroes are eternally solicihere, on the contrary, both sexes are so ting presents : the Whidans had rather laborious and diligent, that they never de give than receive. When the Europeans firt till they have finished their undertake trade with them, they expect they should ing; carrying the same spirit of perseve. return thanks for the obligation, but their rance into every action of their lives. making a present to a white man, they va
Befides agriculture, from which only the lue as nothing, and are displeased at any king and a few persons of the first distinc acknowledgment for a thing so trifting. tion are exempted, they employ themselves They have an obliging and engaging manin several kinds of manufactures. They ner of addretling each other, and a degree fpin cotton yarn, weave fine cotton- of rubordinate respect proportioned to the cloths, make calabasses, wooden velels, quality of the person, that greatly astonish. plates, and dishes; likewise aflagayes, ed Bosman, among a rude people, as he at smiths work, and many cther things, in first imagined them to be. When any one greater perfeion than any other people viâts, or accidentally meets his superior, upon the count. Whilst the men are thus he immediately drops upon his knees, employed, the women brew pito, a kind kisses the earth three times, claps his hands, of liquor, and dress provisions, which, and wishes him a good day, or good night; with their husband's merchandize, they which the other returns in the posture he carry for sale to market. Both men and then happens to be in, by gently clapping women are employed in search of gain, and his hand, and wishing him the same. The their emulation is equal to their industry, other all this while remains fitting, or profHence it is that they live well, nay splen- trate on the earth, till the superior departs, didly, when compared with the other ne- unless fome urgent business calls him ; in groes of the coast. Labour is cheap here, which case he makes his apology in the the profits solely arising from the unwea. most submissive terms. The same respect ried industry of the labourer ; a common is thewn to the elder brother by the younger, porter will run all day long, with a bur. to fathers by their children, and by wog