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The LIFE of Dr. WILLIAM JUXON, Archbishop of

CANTERBURY, and Lord High-Treasurer of ENGLAND, in the Reign of King CHARLES I.

* *3*11. LIAM JUxon was the the degree of doctor of laws. In the course

2 Ton of Richard Juxon, of 11 or 12 years, he became vice-chan

of Chichester, in Surfex, cellor of Oxford, chaplain in ordinary to and born within that city, king Charles I. prebendary of Chichester, in the year 1582. Having dean of Worcester, and clerk of the closet

received his education at to his majesty. All these preferments Merchant Taylors school in London, he were chiefly owing to his very great friend was from thence elected fellow of Saint bishop Laud; and, through his interest, John's college in Oxford, where applying he was nominated and elected to the himself to the study of the civil law, he bishopric of Hereford, in 1633 ; but, betook the degree of batchelor in that facul- fore confecration, was transated to the fee ty, and became a student in Gray's Inn. of London, vacant by the advancement of But law did not so wholly engross his bishop Laud to the archbishopric of Canthoughts, as to make him neglect other terbury. Here, as he had many difficulbranches of learning, particularly divinity, ties to Atruggle with, he used St. Paul's which became his favourite ftudy: till ac method, became all things to all; and overlength he resolved to enter into orders, and came by yielding. He was so mild and not long after was vicar of St. Giles's, near affable, and withal so vigilant, that he was his college ; where he officiated about fix called a lamb and a shepherd, and became years, and was much admired for his plain the delight of the English nation; " Who and improving way of preaching. He (to use Mr. Lloyd's words) notwithstandwas also for some time rector of Somer- ing the many fa&tions that divided it at ton, in Oxfordrhire. On the resignation of that time, all agreed in paying reverence Dr. William Laud, newly promoted to the to him, and allowing that honour to the bishopric of St. David's, he was elected sweetness of his manners, which foms depresident of St. John's college, and took nied to the sacredness of his function ; be. July, 1671.




ing by love, what another is in pretence, self was infinitely pleased with what was an universal bishop." Much about the done, and unhappily believed he had pro. same time, he was also made dean of the vided a stronger support for the church." royal chapels, and sworn of the privy. To the same purpose (peaks Dr. P. Heycouncil.

lin. “Upon the death of Jerom Weston, Thus far his preferments were very earl of Portland, lord treasurer, archsuitable, and seemed to have given um- bishop Laud being appointed one of the brage to no one: but his exaltation to commissioners of the treasury, carried on the office of lord-high-treasurer procured the commission the whole year about, and him much envy, as it did implacable rage acquainted himself with the mysteries and and malice against his promoter; for this secrets of it, namely, the honest advantages high office was also obtained for him, by which the lord treasurers had for enrichthe means of archbishop Laud . Though ing themselves, (to the value of seven thou. bishop Jaxon had abilities for that place, fand pounds a year, and upwards, as I and an integrity that his enemies could have heard from his own mouth) without never question, yet his education and or- defrauding the king, or abusing the fubder made it a most invidious honour to. ject. He had observed that divers treahim; the nobility thought themselves in- surers of late years had raised themselves jured ; and most of the courtiers had their from very mean and private fortunes, to peculiar indignation. This promotion, the titles and estates of earls, which he therefore, was but a wrong and unadvised conceived could not be done without step, even in the judgment of king wrong to both ; and, therefore, he resolv. Charles's friends. “The treasurer's is the ed to commend such a man to his majesty greatest office of benefit in the kingdom, for the next lord treasurer, who having no (says the earl of Clarendon) and the chief family to raise, no wife and children to in precedence next the archbishop's, and provide for, might better manage the inthe great feal ; so that the eyes of all men comes of the treasury to the king's advanwere at gaze, who should have this high tage, than they had been formerly. And office; and the greatest of the nobility, who more likely to come into his eye for who were in the chiefest employments, that preferment than Juxon, his old and looked upon it as the prize of one of them; trusty friend, then bishop of London ; a such offices, commonly making way for man of such a well tempered disposition, more removes and preferments'; when on as gave exceeding great content both to a sudden, the Naf was put into the hands prince and people, and one whom he of the bihop of London, a man so un- knew capable of as much instruction as known, that his name was scarce heard of by a whole year's experience in the comin the kingdom, and who had been, with mission for the treasury, he was able to in tivo years before, but a private chap- give him. It was much wondered at, lain to the king, and the president of a when first the staff was put into this poor college in Oxford. This infamed man's hand; in doing whereof the archmore men than were angry before, and bishop was generally conceived, neither to without doubt, not only sharpened the have consulted his own present peace, nor edge of envy and malice against the arch- his future safety. Had he studied the forbishop (who was the known architect of mer, he should have given lord Cottington this new fabric) but most unjustly indif- leave to put in for it, who being chancelpored many towards the church itself; lor of the exchequer, pretended himself to which they looked upon as the gulph, be the next in that ascendant, the lord treaready to swallow all the great offices, there surer's affociate, while he lived, and the being others in view, of that robe, who presumptive heir to that office after his were ambitious enough to expe&t the rest. decease. And had he studied his own In the mean time, the archbinhop him- safety and preservation for the times to

* This appears by the entry in the archbishop's diary: "1635, March 6, Sunday, William Juxon, lord bishop of London, made lord-high-treasurer of England ; no churchman had it fince Henry the Vith's time : I pray God bless him to carry it so, that the church may have honour, and the king and the state service and contentment by it. And now is the church will not hold up themselves, under God, I can do mo more;"

come, come, he might have made use of the Laying therefore prejudice aside, bishop power, by recommending the staff to the Juxon is universally allowed to have been carls of Bedford, Hertford, Essex, the lord one of the best, and most unexceptionable Say and Sele, or some such man of popu- persons that ever filled the place of highlar nobility ; by whom he might have treasurer in England. How great bis been receiprocated by their strength and honesty and abilities were, appears from interest, with the people in the change of this undeniable instance, that by his protimes. But he preferred his majesty's ad- dent managment, in less than five years, vantages before his particular concern- he lodged nine hundred thousand pounds ments, the safety of the public before his in the Exchequer. He enjoyed this office own. Nor did he want some reasonable till the beginning of the troubles, in May confiderations in it for the good of the 1641, when he resigned the treasurer's church : the peace and quiet whereof de- staff; finding it unsafe to stand in so high pended much upon the conformity of the and nippery a post any longer. Then he city of London, and London did as much shared the common fate of the episcopal in its trade and payments, upon the love clergy; but by reason of his meeknels, and justice of the lord treasurer of Eng- pious and inoffensive behaviour, was spared land. This, therefore, was the more like- longer than any of his brethren, not being ly way to conform the citizens to the di- deprived till 1649. And so well bad he rection of their bishop, and the whole behaved in his employments, that neither kingdom unto them; no small encourage- as bishop or treasurer, came there any one ment being thereby given to the London accusation against him in the long parliaclergy, for the improving of their tythes : ment, whose ears were open and itching for with what confidence could any of the after such complaints. As he wisely and old cheats adventure, on a public examina- timely withdrew from the storin, he ention in the court of Exchequer, (the proper joyed the greatest tranquility of any man court for suits and grievances of that na- in the three kingdoms, throughout the ca. ture) when a lord-bishop of London fat lamities of the civil wars : for he con. therein as the principal judge ? Upon tinued mostly undisturbed at his house in these counsels he proceeded, and obtained Fulham ; where he was sometimes visited the staff, which was delivered to the bishop by the greatest persons, and found respect of London, Sunday March 6th, sworn on from all, tho' he walked steadily in his the same day privy-counsellor, and on old paths : and he retained so much of the first of the next term, conducted in the king's favour, that his majesty consultgreat ftate from London-house to Weft- ed him upon many occasions. Sir Philip minster-ball; the archbishop of Canterbury Warwick relates in his memoirs that the riding by him in the coach, and most of the king, being busy in dispatching some letlords and bishops about the town attending, ters with his own pen, commanded him with many gentlemen of chief note and qua- to wait on the bishop, and to bring back lity following, to make up the pomp. It his opinion in a certain business. Sir was much feared by some, and hoped by Philip prayed his majesty, that he might others, that the new treasurer would have rather, bring the bishop with him, left he funk under the burden of that place, as mould not express his majesty's sense ful. Williams did under the custody of the ly, nor bring back his so significantly, as seal : but he deceived them both in that he meant it ; besides, there might be ocexpectation, carrying himself with such casion for the bishop further to explain an even and steady hand, that every himself; and perhaps he would not speak one applauded, but none envied his pre- fo freely to Sir Philip as to the king : to ferment to it; insomuch that the lord this king Charles replied, Go, as I bid you, Faulkland, in a bitter speech against the if be will speak freely to any body, be will bishops, about the beginning of the long speak freely to you: This (continued the king) parliament, could not help giving him I will fay of bim, I never for bis opinion freethis testimony: That in an unexpe&ted place ly in my life, but when I had it I was cuir and power, be expressed an equal moderation tbe better for it. His advice was always and bumility, being neither ambitious before, plain and sincere, and if followed, pronor proud after, eitber of the crozier or wbite bably might have preserved the king from faff.


those most dangerous precipices in which

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