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white, with a red breast, and orange co- his thirst with their blood, and never loured circles round the eyes.
drinks water but when he is fick. It is They have a long hooked beak, scaly said that the swan is the only bird that can legs, thick crooked talons, and are diftin refift him, and that he frequently does guished from the hawk by their bigners, it with success. An ancient author has and from the vulture by the bill, which left us an entertaining description of a is black at the tip, and blue in the middle, fight between these two birds, but it apthough in some yellow. The tongue pears rather to be founded on his own does not terminate in a point like that imagination than on truth. The whole of other birds, but is grily, and almost has the appearance of fable: for all the square at the end. At its root are two other birds are afraid of the eagle to a rohard points, like the iron ones of an ar- vereign degree; they quake and tremble row. Their eye is quick and threatning, at his cry; and even the dragon, when he a little funk in the head, and protected by hears him, takes refuge in his den. Nor the prominency of the forehead, resem- are the fitnes safe from his rapacity. He bling an eye.brow; underneath which is perceives them at the bottom, as he skims a hard and bony ledge, composed of seve- over the sea or lakes ; plunges immediateral substances, joined and placed one above ly down with the rapidity of an arrow ; another like scales. The stomach thews and drags them to the bank, where he dethe voracity of this bird ; for, when tho. vours them. On this account, the Indians, roughly inflated, it is two inches in diame. according to Philoftratus, carried on a ter. The bones are very hard, and have mortal war against him, thooting at him very little marrow in them. The blood with poisoned arrows. is thick and fibrous, the bill, sharp, biting, and very corrosive.
- - - - . - - - The eagle This bird is so voracious, that he ravages That bears the thunder of our grand-fire all the neighbouring places, which are scarce fufficient to furnish him with prey With joy beholds his hardy youthful offnecessary for his support. Hence it is re
spring marked, that two eagles are not to be Forsake the nest, to try his tender pinions found but at a great distance from each In the wide untracted air; till, bolder grown, other. Aristotle and Pliny fay, that the Now like a whirlwind on the shepherd's eagles chace their young ones not only
fold, out of the airies, or nests, but even out of He darts precipitate, and gripes the prey ; the country they inhabit, as soon as they Or, fixing on some dragon's scaly hide, are able to fly. They are not contented Eager of combat, and his future feast, with the larger birds, as hens, geere, and Bears him aloft, reluctant, and in vain cranes, but pursue rabbits, hares, lambs, Wreathing his fpiry tail. Rowe's Uly/jesu and kids, which they lift from the ground, and carry off. Ælian relates something still The eagle is oftentimes as good as a more extraordinary, which happened in the game-keeper, since many a gentleman's island of Crete : “An eagle of prodigious table is often supplied with game of fize attacked the bulls, with as much bold their providing : for, till their young is ness as the weakest and most fearful ani. able to fly, they carry provision of all kinds mals; and his fury supplied him with ad. to the airy, or neft, consisting of partriddress to overcome them. After placing ges, pheasants, woodcocks, hares, lambs, himself between their horns, he tore their kids, fawns; or whatever prey the counhead with the strokes of his bill; frequent- try affords. If the rock where the neft is ly he beat out their eyes, or covered them built be not quite inaccessible, it is usual with his wings, till the furious bull, after for the shepherds to climb up to it, and doing all in his power to free himself from take away the provifions from the young his enemy, threw himself into a marth, or eagle while the old ones are absent ; leave over a precipice, when the cagle complet- ing the entrails of animals, or some such ed his death by tearing out his intrails, food, in the room of what they take: and and made him his prey."
thus the table is furnished with the best of As the eagle lives wholly on the flesh of game, though perbaps deprived of a leg or such animals as he kills, so he quenches wing, by the voraciousness of the parent Auguf, 1761.
eagle, or their offspring. M. de Thou, this kind of instinct, which the Scripture in the memoirs of his life, tells us, that he has chosen as an expreffive symbol of the himself once dined with a certain great tenderness with which God protects his man; and observed with some surprize, people in the wilderness : that all the wild fowls brought to table The Lord's portion is his people ; Ja. wanted a leg, wing, or other part, till he cob is the lot of his inheritance. was inicrmed they were taken from an
“ He found him in a desert land, and in eagle's airy in the neighbourhood.
the waste-howling-wilderness : he led him Mr. Ray mentions an eagle's nest, found about, he instructed him, he kept him as near the river Darwent, in 1668, confifting of large sticks, one end whereof was “As an eagle stirreth up her nest, futlaid on a rock, and the other on two tereth over her young, spreadeth abroad birch trees. It was two yards square, her wings, taketh them, beareth them on and had a young eagle in it, with the her wings; carcasses of one lamb, one hære, and three “So the Lord alone did lead him, and grygalli. And, it appears from Sir Robert there was no ftrange God with him. Sibbald, that the eagle will sometimes seize
Deut. xxxii, ver. 9, 10, 11, 12," even children; for he gives us an instance The reason why eagles, who have not of one that took up a young child, at a the fibres of their eyes stronger than other place called Houghton-head, and carried it animals, can look so steadfastly on the fun, to its neft in Hoy, one of the Orkney and support the fplendor of its rays to islands, four miles diftant; but being im- easily, is, because, they have two sets of mediately followed by four men in a boat, eye-lids; the one is thin and fine, which who had observed an eagle's airy in that they draw over the eyes when they look island, and knew the place perfectly well, upon a luminous object, and which renthey brought back the child unhurt, before ders the glaring light much more supthe furious bird had begun his intended portable; the other thick and close, with repast. He had carried the child there, which they shut their eyes entirely. By by sticking his talons in his cloaths only. this means he rises to that prodigious
Sharpness of light is also a quality of beight fo astonishing to the beholder, the eagle, which sets him above all other birds. He seems even to be sensible of. The eagle thus prepar'd to mount the sky, 2 that advantage, and to preserve it in his To the sun's orb undazzl'd turns his eye, species. As soon as his young begin to And fpurns the ground with awful dig. / have strength, he turns them towards the
nity ; fun, and makes them fix their eyes upon Exulting in his pride, he's pleas'd to view it; and if any one cannot bear the heat The feather'd tribe admiring where he flew. and force of the rays, he chaces himn With failing strength they tempt the wonfrom the nest, as if he judged him un
d'rous height, worthy of his protection and affiftance; But faint beneath the radiant load of light; but attaches himself to the rest with re. While he alone enjoys the sovereignsway, markable affection, even to the exposing Alone fupports the fun's encreating ray, his own life to preserve them, and fight. And joyous revels in the blaze of day. J. ing obstinately against all those who would
Martin's Timoleon, take them from him. He is seen fluttering in various ways, round his nest, to The eagle fometimes carries his flight teach them to fly. He takes them after in the regions of the air to such an imward on his back, carries them higher at mense height, as to vanish from our fight, different times, quits them in the middle notwithstanding his bulk and the length of his course, in order to prove them; and, of his wings, which, when stretched out, if he perceives that they cannot as yet are nine feet and more from the tip of support themselves alone, and that they one wing to the other ; and from the ex. are in danger of falling, he darts himself tremity of the bill to that of the tail, the below them with the greatest rapidity, distance is three feet and upwards. Bocand receives them again on his back, be- hart tells us that this bird lives a century, tween his wide expanded wings. He is and encreases in bulk to his death. If the only bird in whom nature has instilled this be true, we may credit the relation of Athenæus, who says that eagles were there was an eagle's nest found between carried by way of ornament at the triumph Misena and Dresden, in which were three of Prolemy, whose wings were 20 cubits young ones. This bird was always long; but we are in some doubt, notwith- reckoned a good omen. The story of the standing, as to the truth of this point. eagle's nest with seven young ones, which From the stupendous swiftness of this Marius pretended fell into his robe as he bird, he has had the highest honours paid was one day in the country, is well him by the poets. He is the armour-bearer known; from whence he inferred, he of Jupiter, and is painted at the end of bishould seven times be poffefTed of the fuscepter. Ganymede was carried off by an preme power in Rome. This Plutarch eagle to serve the gods with nectar ; and thinks was not true ; because, as is the eagle always conveyed the souls of above-mentioned, he says the eagle never heroes to heaven. Many other fables lays but two eggs before the fits upon might be related to the same purpose, and hatches them. The eagle was so bigh
The hand of Providence is particularly ly esteemed among the ancients, that it remarkable in the formation of the eagle's was a great mark of respect to be called eye; for besides the two eye-lids, the eye by that name. After the engagement beitself is very ftrong, and he can discover tween Demetrius's general Pantauchús his prey at a great distance. This is taken and Pyrrhus, the Epirots called the latter notice of in the excellent book of Job: eagle: to which he replied, " By your “She dwelleth and abideth on the rock, means it is that I am an eagle ; for how on the crag of the rock, and on the Atrong Mould I not be such, while I am borno place : from thence she seeketh her prey, up by your arms as on wings !" Plutarch, and her eyes behold afar off. Job xxxix. in the life of Aristides, says, that kings 28, 29."
and tyrants are fonder of the title of eagle, It is agreed among all the learned and or vulture, than the appellation of the critics, that every ten years he renews his juf, as Aristides was called ; meaning, as · strength and youth. His feathers at the we suppose, that the former are more
end of every ruch period become more like to themselves in rapacity and cruelheavy, and less proper for fight. He ty. then approaches nearer the fun than usual; In Africa they reckon seven forts of and after being excessively heated, he eagles, all differing in fize, shape, and plunges immediately into the fea; his colour. It is probable there are more ; feathers fall off, and new ones fupply their for at the Cape alone are four, which auplace, which' restore him to his former thors particularly describe. The firft is strength. It is this, which perhaps David fimply called the eagle, of the ignoble intended to express in these words: “Thy kind, from their feeding upon fish and youth thall be renewed like that of the dead animals; the second is the duck.
eagle, whose prey is chiefly ducks; the Ælian attributes to him a peculiar in third is termed the bone-breaking-eagle, ftinct of gratitude. If he may be relied from their carrying up the land-tortoises a on, that eagle which Pyrrhus had brought great height into the air, and letting them up, and which followed him every where, fall to break their shells; and the fourth was so sensible of the death of that illuf- the sea-eagle, from living always near trious warrior, that he would not quit his that element. Others add a fifth fort of body, or receive any nourishment : and eagles, called dung-birds ; who, if they another threw himself into the pile where find an ox or cow laid down, fall upon the corpse of him, who had kept him till the beast in great numbers, make a hole that moment, was burning. Plutarch, in in the belly of it with their bills and tathe life of Numa, relates, that Pythago- lons, and perfectly scoop out the inside ras had so far tamed an eagle, that upon of it, leaving but a bare skeleton covered his pronouncing certain words, it would with the hide. stop in its fight, and come down to him. In Virginia are three sorts of eagles. He also, in the life of Marius, says, the The largest is called the grey eagle; the eagle never lays more than two eggs at a second is the bald eagle ; for the body time : but in this, it Mould seem, he must and part of the neck being of a dark have been mistaken; for Ruysch tells us, brown, the upper part of the neck and
head is covered with a white fort of down, down it, to view the filhing-hawk; for which makes it look as if it was bald, when they see this bird has struck a fish, from whence it is so named. The third is immediately they take wing; and it is the black eagle, resembling most the Eu- sometimes very pleasant to observe the ropean eagle. They build their neft most fight; for when the fishing-bawk pertimes at the top of some old tree, naked of ceives herself pursued, The will scream and boughs, and near the river side. The peo- make a terrible noise, till at length the ple generally fell the tree when they take lets fall the fish to make her own escape, the young. They are frequently observed which the eagle frequently catches before fitting by some tall tree near a river, it reaches the earth or water. whence they may have a prospect up and i
HISTORY of CANADA. (Continued.) Anno IT was lucky for the French co- governor-general, the bishop of Petræa, 1663. lony, that the Iroquois did not apostolical vicar in New France, Mr. Rotake advantage of the consternation bert, intendant, and four counsellors to be which the earthquake bad produced: but named by these three gentlemen, changethey themselves were terrified by the same able at their pleasure ; there was likewise visitation. They, moreover, received se- a procureur-general, and a principal no. veral petty checks from some other Indian tary. The number of counsellors, how. nations; and the small-pox, had made ever, was augmented in the sequel. The great ravages among their cantons. For council was held every Monday at the these reasons, they were more than ever palace, where the intendant resided ; and disposed to peace, and sent deputies to there justice was administred according to Montreal with very advantageous pro- the laws of France. To this, there were posals : but the negotiation was interrup- three subordinate tribunals, established at ted by a report spread among the Indians, Quebec, Trois Rivieres, and Montreal, that a great number of forces was arrived each composed of a lieutenant-general, from France at Quebec, the governor of private lieutenant, and king's procureur, which was on the point of taking the with a secretary, and proper officers. field to exterminate all the tribes of the [An. 1664.] During these transactions, Iroquois. The bishop of Petræa bad in the Iroquois repeated their incursions with deed returned to Quebec, accompanied by various success : but, in the course of this M. de Mery, whom the king had sent over fucceeding year, they sent another deputato succeed the baron d'Avangour, in the go- tion to Quebec, in order to effect a pacifivernment of Canada, together with a small cation. These met with a cool reception body of troops, and the Sieur Gaudais as from the new governor, who was elated commiffary, to take poffeffion of that with the consciousness of his own strength, whole country for the French king, to and, in all probability, had resolved to en, whom the company had transferred the Nave, or exterminate those hoftile Indian
property of it; and the new governor nations. If this was really his design, two had also brought over about one hundred incidents prevented it from succeeding. families of settlers, and some officers of The Englith became masters of New Beljustice. This commissary having taken the gia, and called it New York ; so that the oath of fidelity of all the inhabitants, be- Iroquois, as their allies, were better sup. gan to regulate the police, and establish ported than they had been by the Hollan. rules for a more regular adminiftration of ders; and the council of Canada began to justice. Hitherto, the governor-general be distracted by diffenfions, which arose had acted as supreme justiciary ; and in all between the new governor de Mery, and important affairs convoked a kind of coun- the bishop of Petræa, by whose interest de cil, composed of the Great Seneschal of Mesy had been promoted This last was a New France, the chief ecclefiaftic of the man of a violent temper, who could not country, and some of the principal inha- brook the authority which the clergy had bitants : but the council was not per- assumed in Canada; and the bishop would manent, until the king assumed the go- not bate an inch of the footing they had vernment of it into his own hands. He gained. Mutual complaints and recri. now eitablished a council composed of the mination were preferred to Mr, Colbert,
who thought proper to recal Mesy; but galed, and dismissed with many marks of he never returned to France. Before this the viceroy's bounty. The tribe of the Onevent, the French king had invested the neyouths submitted ; but a resolution was marquis de Fracy, with the power and taken to chastise the Agniers, a party of authority of viceroy in America ; and or whom had Nain the viceroy's nephew, dered him to fail from the Windward and two other officers. M. de Sorel hayislands to Canada, with the regiment of ing taken the field, and begun his march Carignan Salieres, which had served with towards the district of those savages, fell in reputation in Hungary. He now appoint with one of their parties commanded by ed Daniel de Remi, lord of Courcelles, as the Flemish bastard, whom he resolved to fucceffor to de Mesy, in the government of attack, when he was diverted from his Quebec, and granted a commiffion to the purpose hy this leader's demanding a parmarquis and him conjointly, to enquire ley, and declaring he was so far on his into the conduct of his predeceffor, who way to Quebec with proposals of peace died before they could proceed to his trial. for the viceroy. In pursuance of this deThe marquis, arriving at Quebec in the claration, he was fafely conducted to that month of June, detached some of his settlement, and in a little time joined by troops against the Iroquois, who had pene- another deputy from the canton of Agnier, tried into the colony, from whence they in the midst of the negotiation, the vicewere immediately driven. Mean while, roy having invited these deputies to a the new governor landed with the remain- feast, the discourse turned upon the death ing part of the regiment, a great number of M. de Chaly, the viceroy's nephew, of families to people the colony, many when the Indian raising his arm, “This artisans and intended servants, and a con- hand (said he) gave him his death's
fiderable number of horses, sheep, and wound." The viceroy, incensed at his in. black cattle. The viceroy no sooner re- folence, told him it thould never be the ceived this reinforcement, than he took' death of another, and immediately ordered the field, and marching to the mouth of him to be strangled by the common exeche river Richelieu, superintended the cutioner; as for the Flemish bastard, he construction of three forts, one of which was detained prisoner at Quebec. During called Sorel, from the officer who com-' these transactions, M. de Courcelles set out manded in it, is now in ruins; but he on an expedition against the Agniers, gave his name to the river, which it still and arrived at their villages, which he retains. The second, built at the fall or found abandoned. He afterwards acrifft of St. Louis, took the denomination companied the marquis de Tracy, who of Chamby, from a captain of that name, had prepared a much more confiderable who directed the construction of it, and armament against the same people, and as afterwards acquired the property of the they once more forsook their habitations, ground where it is situated. The third he destroyed all their villages, with a very was built three leagues higher up the river, considerable quantity of provision, which and called the fort of St. Theresa, because they had amassed. At the beginning of it was finished on the festival of that winter they returned to Quebec with some saint ; and this post was commanded by prisoners, two of whom he caused to be M. de Salieres, colonel of the regiment. hanged, and sent back the Flemish bastard The design of these strengths was to defend with the rest, to their own country. His the French colony from the incurfions of last act of authority in Canada was the the Iroquois, who were at first intimidated investing the East-India company with all to find themselves thus hampered ; but the rights of this colony, which the former they soon found many other passes, through monopoly of an hundred associates had enwhich they poured occafionally into the joyed : then he embarked for France, and French settlements.
after his departure, M. de Talou exerted In the month of December, the Indian himself in extending the commerce of the chief Garakonthie arrived at Quebec, with colony ; while the missionaries laboured other deputies from the Onondagas, Goyo- without ceafiog, in converting the Inquins, and the Tsonnonthuans. They dians, and profecuted their mission as far brought presents for the general, and pro- as the lake Superior, among different na. posed conditions of peace, which were ac- tions of barbarians, by whom they were cepted: the deputies were sumptuously re- often treated with cruelty, and always