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Where the stress falls naturally on the italic syllable, it will be left unmarked, as, e.g.
In the great wa - ters; Without the assistance thus given, it is perhaps difficult for a congregation to adapt the principle, though known, in every case.
The application of this principle will make some slight variations in the cadence of some of the tones, chiefly in the endings of the first and fourth ; but, besides that such variations are not carried beyond what is agreeable to the ear, it may be said to be suitable with higher proprieties, that, when words are inspired and holy, the music should give way a little to the words, rather than (as in profane song) the words to the rigid music; the same notes, however, and general proportion being of course kept, but the quantity of each respective note varying slightly with the sacred verses.
It should be observed, that the accent is intended more for the avoidance of false stress, than for di. recting much positive stress on marked syllables.
There should be no jerking or effort, but the evenness of speech. Gregorian chanting indeed is musical recital, not singing; it is a reverent speaking in tune. Hence also there should be no break between the recitation-note and those which follow : e.g., in the Magnificat,' the word “magnify” should be smoothly uttered, not hurrying over the preceding words and then coming to a pause and abruptness before the italic syllable. This is quite wrong.
Moreover, no pause should be allowed between the several verses of a psalm; but either side of the choir should be ready at the instant to take up its alternate part, reverently tossing the chant from side to side with kindling energy (though with no hurry or indistinctness), till all the voices mingle together in the fulness of holy zeal in the 'Gloria.'
II. The other differences between this and the former edition are these : 1.) The Easter Anthems are inserted after the other Canticles; 2.) The Psalms in the Occasional Services in the Prayer Book have been added to the Table of Proper Psalms; 3.) Each Psalm in this Table has been also marked as Proper in its place in the Psalter; 4.) The size of the book has been altered for supposed convenience in many
W. B. H.
OXFORD, WHITSUNTIDE, 1849.
The object of this little publication is to furnish at a small cost, for congregational use, the Canticles in the Prayer-book, with the whole Psalter, pointed for chanting to the pure Gregorian Tones in their simplest form.
1. The forms of the Tones are taken from Mr. Christie's “ Day-Hours of the Church;" but with these differences:
First; The notation has been altered to the old character in which the tones used to be written; both as being more removed from common and secular music, and also to prevent the confusion of ideas which is apt to arise under the ordinary notation, when applied to these Tones, from having semibreves, minims, &c. represented to the eye, with at the same time the necessity of getting rid of all notion of their customary value. The recitation-note, however, has been drawn at greater length than has been usual, in order to convey more clearly the idea of holding out the note for many words, and to enable persons (as it were to see the melody, and observe more distinctly the changes of the respective Tones.
Secondly ; The Tones have been transposed, so as
to give always the same note (G) for the recitation. note of each Tone, as the one most easy and convenient for the generality of voices in a large congregation.
2. There are eight Tones properly Gregorian. A ninth is generally added, which is made up of the fourth, sixth, seventh, and third Tones, and hence called 'Mixed :'-Another name for it is · Peregrine,' or · Foreign,' as having been borrowed from the Gallican Church. This Tone is usually sung to the 114th and 115th Psalms; and it will accordingly be found in this book, with an adaptation to those Psalms, in their place in the Psalter.
3. The addition also of the Creed of St. Athanasius, as pointed for the eighth Tone, was thought likely to be useful to many congregations where the Canticles, &c. are chanted.
4. The following rules (which are taken mutatis mutandis from the same source as the forms of the Tones, by Mr. Christie's kind permission) will be of service by way of explanation to persons quite unacquainted with chanting.
I. Each verse is divided into two parts by a colon (:) corresponding to the bar in the middle of the lines of Music ( ). The greater part of each half-verse is chanted upon one note, called the recitation-note; as, for example, in the following Tone