calyx, whose five divisions are overthrown when The multiplication of the spiræa ought also to the bud is unclosed; it dies away when the fertile | be immense ; each of the ovaries swell after the ovary carries and ripens the seeds.

fecundation, and when the Power is fallen, their The corol has five concave petals, white like | aggregation forms a sort of ball, slit like a sliced ivory, round, and holding to the calyx by a very melon, which had not been separated. This siender claw. They separate as much as pos- | aggregation ceases, and the seeds separate when sible, in order to give room to the little crowd of they are ripe, and the sap no longer nourishes stamina, who start up like electrical sparks. them; they fall, and are scattered around, and

In general the production of seeds is immense, the ruins of this fine empire form others. and proportioned to the waste, or rather to the The spiræa is placed in the Icosandria, and its use which men and animals make of them; one order is pentagynia. I do not, however, believe single poppy produces thinly two thousand seeds; that the number of its pistils is exactly ascerand was it to preserve the same fecundity for tained. four successive years, and none of the seeds to prove abortive, it would produce many more than

[To be continued.] the whole surface of the globe could contain.

(Continued from Vol. I. Page 545.]


where they are now brought to a very high de

gree of perfection. The piano-forte undoubtedly is one of the

The art of playing the piano-forte may be conmost important musical instruments hitherto

sidered, first with regard to the teaching and known, and very deserving the general use that learning of it; and secondly, with regard to the is made of it by the fashionable world. We

performance itself; as follows: therefore flatter ourselves that the present article

To teach the piano-forte, is not so easy as it on the art of playing it, will be equally accept

seems to be too frequently considered. For the able to our readers, as those we have given on

very great demands which are justly made on that singing, and on thorough-bass, in our former

instrument, require a particular method of exvolume.

plaining and facilitating the study of it, and The invention of the piano-forte is ascribed to

therefore we shall endeavour to point out the the late celebrated C. G. Schroeter, organist at

principles of that method. Nordhausen, in Germany. For when he studied

A great difficulty is immediately met with at at Jena, and also taught music, he was not

the first beginning. For there a learner is least satisfied with the nature of the harpsichord,

inclined to go through a serious of dry studies, because its sounds could not be modified by the

and shes for the enjoyment of playing tunes, touch of the performer. He therefore tried to

more than when he has made some progress. construct an instruinent, which might be as

And yet it seems to have hitherto been an univerpowerful as the harpsichord, but calculated to

sal maxim, that he cannot learn this regularly, shew the taste and feeling of the performer, like

and fundamentally, without knowing first the the clarichord, (a fine and very simple, but not

notes, and other rudiments. How much time powerful instrument, of which we shall give a

there is usually spent with the learning of such description in a sub-equent number )--And for

preliminary things, and how almost every begintunately he completed two sorts of mechanism,

ner has formerly been discouraged and disgusted by which a hummer could be made to strike || by them, we trust most readers of this article against the strings of a harpsichord, the one

will know from their own experience. But what from below, as in piano-fortes in general, and the

has a beginner to do with all the notes, before he other from above, or perhaps as in upright piano

can make practical use of a few of them ? and fortes. But as he could not afford the expence

with different sorts of length, before he can bring of having a whole instrument of each sort con

them regularly into some sort of an equal length ? structed, he only made two models of his in

Or why should he be troubled with the learning vented niechanisms, and in the year 1717 pre.

of any note, deff, rest, time, character, grace, and sented them to the Court of Dresden, being that

term, before lie has an inımediate opportunity of of the Elector of Saxony, who was then also

seeing the practical use of it? King of Pola'id. Since that time piano-fortes

The importance of these questions is evident; have been made not only in Germany, but also

and the first and only author who seems to have in other countries, and particularly in England, attended to them is Mr. Kollinann, whose dis

unguished inent in the higher branches of the which is to be prac.ised occasionally; and short science of music we have shewn in our last num cadences, in one, two, three, and four sharps and ber. The valuable, though small work, he has | fats. And then follow six sonatinas in one, two, published for that purpose, is entitle!: “ The and three sharps, and as many filars. The iwo first beginning on the Piano-Forte, according to last of which are made characteristic, and exan improved method of teaching biginners.” It press. No 5, “ Evening Repose, and Mrning con ains, first, a brief and very concise explana- | Serenity ;” and No. 6, “ The Falling Out, and tion of the rudiments of play ng, which it re. the making up." quires to be taught only occusionally, in that All these pieces shew the man who has preprogressive order in which they are wanted; and sented us with the first treatises on harmony thea proceeds to practical pieces, wi'h which and composition, as well as a most judicious and the beginning is to be made in the following experienced teacher of the piano-forte AS manner :

compositions, they are masterly, and full of the In the first lesson nothing is required to be best taste and expression; and as progressive learnt and explained, but the three notes C, E, lessons, they exceedany thing of that kind hitherto G, the lowest in the treble stave; and how they known. And it must also be observed, that can be found on the instrument. This being so throughout they require no greater stretch of the very simple and easy, it enables any learner, | hand than that of a sixth, which renders thein eren a sensible infant of five or six years of age, more calculated for young children, than practices to begin iminediately to play at sigit a short pre- which require the frequent stretches of a seventh, lude and tune, composed of those notes only. || and octave. But a brief general explanation of the gradual The other particulars which ought to be atorder in which all the notes and keys follow,tended to, not only at the beginning, but through both ascending and descending, is also given. all the stages of improvement in playing, are the

In the second lesson the three nutes D, F, A, proper sitting before the instruinent; and the between the former ones are introduced, which regular holding of the hands, and using of the enable; the learner to play immediately a prelude l fingers, as also explained in the work mentioned. and tune of the six notes, C, D, E, F, G, A; When the first and greatest difficulties are and the names of all the five treble lines and overcome, and a learner knows the notes and spaces are now set down to be git by heart. In other rudiinents, it must be considered what sorts a similar manner a few more nules are introduced of works will be most proper for his further im. at every new lesson, till all the treble notes are provement. Whether he ought to play geneknown; and then the bass notes are learnt in the rally, and often, with accompaniments? how same manner downwards.

long he should practise every day ? and whether Thus all the notes, with their simplest sorts of it is good to be long about the same lesson or not? divisions, and the rudiments of the rests, of These important questions we shall give some time, and of fingering, are learnt imperceptibly consideration.. in twelve lessons Each of those lessons con Concerning the first question, or what sort of sists of a short prelule and tune, or of two works are most proper for the improvement of movements; and they are written in the most players, it is certain, that original works, comprogressive order imaginable. But what renders posed for the piano forte by great masters, who them particularly valuable, is, that they are cal are perfectly acquainted with that instrument, culated to prepare a person for a good player, are in general beiter for learners, than works or because they employ the left hand in a similar pieces that have been composed as quartettos, manner as the right; and that they are through. || symphonies, and concertos for other instruinents, out pleasing and expressive, and contain nothing and are only arranged for the piano-forte. For of that disgusting dryness, which is too often pieces of this kind are in music, what transla. found ia methodical works of this kind.

tions are in a language; and though both may The said twelve lessons any attentive person

be useful for entertainment, the former are bo of cominon capacity may learn to play well and belter for learning good playing, than the latter r gularly by notes in three months : and any are for acquiring the purity and true idiom of a discorniog person will allow that they are far from languag. And nearly the same it is with songs, being trifling But to prevent the learner`s being ballets, and dances. For, as very seldom any of confused by los many explanations at once, they there have been set for the purpose of serving as are all written in the natural key of C major; and lessons for the piano-forte, they are only calcu. the pracrice of other keys is the object of the lated for the amusement of those who can play rest of the work. This begins with an introduc- ! already, and not for improvement in playing. tory page, containing the signatures of every The modern authors, whose works are most major and minor key in the harmonical circle, y useful for the practice of the piano-forte, and No. XIII, Vol. II.


most generally admired in this country, are, 1 hit list a judicious teacher will know to add those Beethoven, Clementi, Cramer, Dussek, Haydn, works of other authors, which, though not se Kozeluch, Mozart, Pleyel, Heibelt, Herkel, and generally known as the above, may also be found Woelt; and among the ancient ones, Sebastian, classical and improving. But all that cannot Bach, Handel, and Scarlatti, rank foremost. improve the taste, as well as the execution of a From the numerous works of those authors, it performer, should be carefully withheld from will not be difficult to select pieces, adapted to him. the progressive capacity of the learner, as well as

(To be concluded in our next.) to his particular taste and disposition. And to


“The cultivation of the arts gives a new into the arms of Morpheus : the other admires spirit to commerce; opens new sources of wealth, each beauty of the sylvan scene, brightened by and, concurring with morals, softens the man the meridian splendor, or explores the charming ners of a people, and renders them more sub. contrast of the grateful shade. On him, the de. servient to the laws that govern them."* But scending orb of light beams with superior lustre; among the number of arts and sciences, the his admiring eye-his eye, in a fine “phrenzy above, in niy opinion, is one of the most elegant rolling," gazes with rapture on the glorious sight. accomplishments of the gentleman. Drawing | To them both the same objects are presented; is the art of justly representing the appearance but to the one, there is “no light but darkness of objects upon a plain surface, by means of || visible :” to the other, lines, shades, and shadows, formed with certain

“ Sweet is the breath of morn; her rising sweet, colouring materials. It is a most useful acquire

“ With charm of earliest birds; pleasant the sun, inent in various professions and occupations of

“ When first on this delightful land he spreads life: and an early propensity to the art should

“ His orient beams, on herb, tree, fruit, and ever be encouraged and cultivated, with a portion

flower, of extraordinary attention in both sexes; it will

“ Glistering with dew; fragrant the fertile earth, hereafter afford them some of ihe most innocent

“ After soft showers; and sweet the coming on and delightful pleasures of which the human

“ Of grateful evening mild; then still night, mind is capable. On its utility, which is uni “ With this her solemu bird, and this fair moon, versally admitted, it is unnecessary to enlarge “ And these, the gems of heav'n, her s'arry train.” The satisfaction to be derived from it, the enter

Milt. Par, Last. taininent it will constantly afford, should be im

The consideration of the immense difference pressed on the youthful mind, whose first pursuit is pleasure; they may be truly and emphatically

between the perceptions and pleasures of two told, that this delightful art will furnish them persons, equally intelligent, will induce the in. with new sources; will enable them to see every

genious to attain that knowledge which unfolds thing more distinctly, in truer shapes, and more

10 the mind such beautiful views of all the od. beautiful colours.

jects of sight; that taste which ever distinguishes How different the feelings of two travellers,

the enlightened from the ignorant. set'ing out on the same road; the one painfully

Youths should be left to the free scope of their toils up the high and misty mountain's side, blind ingenuity; if they show an early inclination for to the beauties of all around; his only object is drawing, their first endeavour should be encouto attain the end of his journey, before it be well

raged, not controuled; the constraint of regular begun. The other, at the dawn of day, mounis,

precept, the irksomeness of performing a task, with alacrity, the russed steep hill, rejoicing to

what should be made a delightful amusement, behold the orient sun emerging from the bed of | might for ever suppress the rising fame. An Thetis, unveiling, by degrees, the varied scene,

aversion for any art, in youth, is the natural conin various tints of colouring. Descending, at

sequence of exacting laborious attention, and inoon, into the sequestered vale, the one, after a

making its attainment difficult. Youth should necessary refreshment, perhaps, resigns himself

be suffered to amuse themselves with the pencil,

as they please, till they become fond of using it, The energetic and enlighiened words of an When they find, as they soon will, that their able writer, on the re-election of Mr.West to the little performances a:e imperfect, and will not presidency of the R. A. in Bell's Ifeekly Mes satisfy or please themselves, then give them in. serger,


The juvenile part of both sexes are ever in. knowledge of each particular object; 10 define quisitive: nor should ih; propensity be checked the limits of this art, v hich, like every other but with great caution: it is the “inlet to kuow-human effort, hath boundaries prescribed by imrledge”hey are desirous to know; not only the perious necessity, and to add examples werthy purpose for which a thing is designer, but the

of imitation : holling up with this view, only inanaer in which it is constructed, how every the most excellent productions, and shewing operation of arı or nature is performed. The || with candour where excellence itself has somagratifying of this natural curiosity, this “ ori.

times failed. ginal appetite of the soul,” is the source of ex

It has hardly been disputed, that of all inven. tensive knowlerlge, and infinite delight; this tions the imitativear's most eminently mark the principle begins at an early period to unfold, and excellency of human genius, since no other can may soon be directed, with facility, to useful and produce such astonishing effects by means appanoble objecis.

rently so inadequate, that a plain surf.ce, a sheet When curiosity has thus led to consider at

of paper for instance, should, by the inere additentively, and to inquire into the objects of na tion of two colours, be capable of representing ture and of art, the principle of imitation, the various forms and distances of objects, would strongly rooed in the human breast, induces be as incomprehensible and equally incredible, them to copy what they see; unable, of them to the man who had never seen a picture, as to selves, to produce an adequate resemblance, they one blind from his infancy. To be convinced of will eag rly apply for information, and to be this, let us for a moment reflect upon a well. shewn hew that is done, which, of themselves, l known fact, the case of a person born blind, they cannot discover. Then will they easily be and suddenly restored to sight by couching : convinced that it is necessary they should attain such persoil, at first, conceives that all he bethe rules of the art, that these are essential to holds touches his eye; the sense of feeling alone their improvement, that they will diminish their can discover to him that all objects are not equitrouble, and facilitate their work, cannot be too distant. This sense soon enables him to judge s:rongly inculcated; their own unassisted efforts of distance in a considerable degree, and to learn may be brought to enforce this truth.

to know the real by the apparent form and diIt has been very justly remarked, that rules mensions of the object. To this person, in a will not make an artist, any more than they will proper light and situation, present a picture for produce a poet :-“ Poeta nascitur non fit.Il the first time. Suppose it a fruit-piece, he will is undoubtedly true, that some of the most ad attempt to grasp the apple, or take up the plate, mirable productions of the poet and the painter, and he touches a smooth surface. He immedihave been produced by those who were unac ately exclaims, “ does my new sense again dequainted with any rule-even before any ruleceive me? and long will it be before he can was discovered; nay, it is certain that “the comprehend by what power, less than magic, rales laid down by the critic to guide the pen such deception could be produced Again, let a and the pencil, have been founded on those | miniature be put into his hand, amazement folo works which were executed before the invention lows; enchanıment seems to himn 10 be at work ; of the critic art. Longinus and Bossu drew their there is the exact countenance of his friend : principles from Homer and Virgil. Fresny and or let it be the precise figure of a building he de Piles from Michael Angelo and Raphael."* has lately seen, of St. Paul's for example, equally

These observations may render apparently fu- I will he be unable to conceive how his .friend, or rile the attempt to teach what can only be at how so immense an edifice, could exist in so tained by genius: what genius will attain with small a compass in his hand ! out books, preeepts, or example. But, though But painting can deceive not only lie unskilled, it is certain that the most excellent instructions In many ins'anges it can as completely impose on will not make any proficient where inclination the most acute and well informed An eminent and capacity are wanting, nor an artist without writer on perspective bears singular testim iny 10 the meus divinior; yet let it be considered how the strong deception painting can produce:many difficulties unaided genius hath to surmount; “ His two sons (whom he had instructed in this how many obstacles lie in the road to merit; art) were with him in the garden of a place of how few persons, with every advantage, soar public resort near the metropolis, at the far end of above mediocrity ; and we shall be anxious to which there appeared the representation of some give every possible assistance. Weshall develope || steps; the boys both ran up to them in expecto them with pleasure the plan pursued by those tation that they were real; and I own, says he, who have attained pre-eminence. We shall en. that I was also deceived." t Yet I do not ima. dearour to point out the shortest path to the M. Litteraire des Scarans,

+ M. Litteraire des Scavans.

gine that the painter of those steps is in danger vention of written characters. The Mexicans, of being immortalized, or his name so much as when first visited by the Spaniards, sent intellispoken of by posterity, unless he has performed gence of the invasion to Montezuma their king, woiks more extraordinary. In fact, such im- with representations of their invaders. The In. position on the sight, although a most surprising dians of North America still perpetuate any expower, is not the principal aim of painting-istraordinary transaction, or uncommon event, by not that excellence which 'ranks it among the a kind of hieroglyphics ; and the inhabitants of liberal arts, whose progress and advancement Otaheite, and many of the newly discovered park the improvement of civilization, and the islands, give proofs how far ingenuity will proimprovement of society.

ceed even among the most unenlightened ; they But although their perfection proclaim the delineate, in an uncouth but expressive manner, highest state of that improvement and refine- what they wish to represent, or what they in. ment, yet some traits are to be found among the tend for embellishment. Indeed saragss of al. most uncivilized of mankind; and therefore the most every climate shew some talents for delineaorigin of design may be traced back to the re- tion; witness the various figures with which they motest antiquity, and among the most distant paint themselves, either for ornament, or to nations.

render themselves terrible, that is frighiful to “ To raise or convey ideas of objects by some their enemies.' rude or simple sketch, being by no means diffi

(To be continued.) cult, this was probably done long before the in.




(Continued from Vol. I. Page 604.]


I will mention those I admire most: are standing at the fect of Christ. Mary Magde. 1st. Jesus in the midst of the Doctors.--Jesus | lene is kissing his arm. Oiher figures are seen Christ is represented as a handsome, sensible look behind Joseph. I could not cease to admire the ing child; he is standing before a table, on expression of grief in the heads of Mary Magdewhich are seen some papers and the holy scrip- lene and Joseph, and the care with which Mary

The Doctors surround him, his un- takes off the crown ; one would think that she covered head is shaded with flaxen hair; and he still feared it should hurt him. is dressed in a grey coloured coat, over it is a 3.1. The Shepherds worshipping Christ. - The purple mantle which falls to his knees. Every principal light falls on the Infant Jesus. body gazes on him, and he draws the atten 4th. Sarah presenting Agar to Abraham.tion of all: the principal light falls on his This picture was painted in the year 1699. It head.

is impossible to credit that so much luxury The expression of the heads, the colouring, | reigned in the apartinents of the ancient pathe well studied architecture, and particularly tiarchs. But we pardon the historical painter the choice and extention of the draperies, cannut lhis defect, when we look at the fine execution fail to attract the admirarion. This picture which of his imaginary luxury. was painted in 1705, is two feet eight inches long, 5th. Abraham sending away Agar and Ismael. by one foot ten inches wide; it has been engrav. —This picture, painted in 1701, reconciles us :o ed by Green.

the defects of historical knowledge, which we 2d. Jesus placed in the Sepulchre is another observed in his preceding. Its author seems of his pictures which I admire much, as well for here to have studied and felt the simplicity of the the correctness of the design as the expression of partriarchal life. the leads. The body of Jesus Christ is lying on All these pictures are nearly of the same size as a rock; Joseph of Arimathea, magnificently the first. dressed, is on the summit, the Virgin Mary is 6th. „Jesus brought before the People by Pontius by his side; she is taking the crown of thorus Pilate-1 picture of four feet three inches long, froin the head of our Saviour; the three Marys by three feet eight inches wide, painted on cloth

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