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the utmost allowance he can expect is to be also the author seldom quits the footsteps of tolerated by men of taste.”
| kis predecessor, and his deviations are seldom Volume II. comiences with the third and successful. Notwithstanding, this book may last part of the Lectures on Belles Lettres, lafely be put into the hands of those enwhich embraces written Language. Here trusted with the education of youth.
2. THE CODE OF HEALTH AND LONGEVITY.
ARTICLEII. - The Code of Health and Longevity; or, A Concise l'iew of the Principles calculated
for the Preservation of Health, and the attainment of a long Life. By Sir John Sinclair, Bart. Four Volumes. Bvo. Cadell and Davies. 1307.
Tuis admirable work is an attempt to l! “ 2. Circumstances connected with the mind prove the practicability of condensing into a of the individual, whether relating, 1. To the narrow compass the most material informa- [[faculties of the mind; or, 2, To its passions. tion hitherto accumulated, concerning the “ 3. Circumstances connected with the place different arts and sciences, or any particular
arll where any individual resides, wh: ther, 1. In a
hot, a cold, or a temperate climate; 2. Whether branch thereof, by which health may be pre
in a bigh or in a low situation ; 3. Whether to a served, a weakly constitution invigorated and
southera or other exposure ; 4. Whether on the regenerated, and longevity and the comfort
sea-shore, on the banks of a fake or river, or at of humay life preserved. This task could
a distance from water; 5. Whether in the not have fallen upon an abler man than the
neighbourhood of woods or otherwise; 6. Whepresent author : his industry is commensu-ther in a dry, a ciayey, or a marshy soil; 7. rate with his abilities, and his rank aud re- Whether with an abundance, or a scarcity of putation in the world naturally attracted to fuel; 8. Whether in a wet or dry atmosphere; hun inforination from the experienced in 9. Whether on a continent, in a large island, avery quarter of the globe,
Hor in a small one; and, 10. Whether in a town, Sir Jobn Sinclair thus explains the plan of a village, or in the country. his work; it is divided into three parts: “ 4. Adventitious or miscellaneous circums
| stances; as, 1. Rank in life ; 2. Education ; PART I.
3. Occupation; 4. Connubial connexion ; and, " Circumstances which necessarily tend to promote 5. Exemption from accidents. · Health and Longevity, independent of india il “ Where a favourable condition of all, or
ridual Attention, or the Observance of particular the greater part of these circumstances oceurs, · Rules.
there health and longevity may be expected, “ It will hardly be disputed, that while in
« PART II. . dividuals differ so much from each other with « Rules for preserving Health and promoting Lon. regard to a variety of important particulars, as
gevity, the climate in which they reside, the manner « It is evident, that if men lived uniformly in which they are formed, &c. that there must in a healthy climate, were possessed of strong necessarily be a material difference with respect and vigorous frames, were descended from to their health, and the duration of their lives.
res. healthy parents, were educated in a hardy and It is essential, therefore, in the first place, to active manner, were possessed of excellent nas ascertain what these particulars are. It seems tural dispositions, were placed in comfortable to me, that they may be all comprehended situations in life, were engaged only in healthy under the following general heads:
Toccupations, were happily connected in mar, " 1. Circumstances connected with the person riage, &c. &c. there would be little occasion of the individual, as, 1. Parentage; 2. Perfect for medical rules. But it is univer-ally known, birth; 3. Gradual growth; 4. Natural consti- that some individuals enjoy a part of these adtution; 5. Form; 6. Sex; and, 7. Where Navantages, whilst others possess hardly any of ture makes an effort to renew the distinctions them complete; hence arises the necessity of of youth,
attending to those rules, which observation unch experience have pointed out, as being the most / tion ought to be laid of their future health and likely to counteract the disadvantages arising strength; to suffer public institutions to befroin so material a want, as of any of the na come the seminaries of disease; to disregard tural or incidental advantages above enume the safety of those who are trained for the rated. These rules relate,
public defence ; to sanciion the sale of noxious “). To objects essential for man in every or doubtful medicines; and, above all, to per. situation, and without which he cannot cxist, mit the least risk of contagious disorders being even in a state of nature; as, 1. Air; 9. Li- || adınitted into a country, by which its whole quid food ; 3. Solid food; 4. Digestion; 5. La | population may be afle, ted? buur, or exercise; and, 6. Sleep.
“ The Police of Public Health, therefore, is “ 2. To articles not so essential, but which a most important branch of the proposed in. are highly desirable, more especially for men inquiry; and the events which have recently hapa state of civilization and refinement; these pened in Spain and at Gibraltar hare given it are, 1. Clothing; 2. Habitation; 3. Amuse-l add tional interest. It may be treated of under meuts; and, 4. Medicine.
the following general beads: And, 3. To articles of a miscellaneous nature; || 1. Police of Climate. as, 1. Temper; 2. Habits; 3. Cleanliness; 4. 2. Police of Phys cal Education. Bathing; 5. Relief from accidents; and, 6. 3. Police of Diet. Travelling, or change of residence.
4. Police of Public Amusements, It is proper to observe, that many of these || 5. Police of Habits and Customs. sules are not applicable to all situations, but 6. Police of Public Institutions. mu t vary according to climate, constitution, 7. Police for the Health of Sailors and Solo the pro:ress of life, &c.; and that the object of diers. this pib.ication is merely to give information, 8. Police to prevent contagious Disorders, regarding the general system that may be pursued,
And, leaving it to each individual to apply the rules 9. Police of Medicine, and the Means of therein recomme rded, acco: ding to times und cir promoting its Improvement. cumstances.
“ But though it may be proper to give a « PART III.
general view of these important subjects, it is “ Regulations for the health of the Comerunily.
not intended to enter much into detail, as tbe " It is in vain, however, that either Nature
Police of Public Health, to do it ample justice,
would require a separate and very extended has formed an individual for long life, or that
discussion, he observes all those rules which are necessary
“ CONCLUSION. for the preservation of health, unless attention be paid by the government of a country to the
« Such is the plan of the intended work, happiness and safety of its subjects. This is a
which others inight doubtless have executed point which has seldom heen attended to in the
with more ability, but none with a more anxious manner in which its importance deserves,
wish, that it may prove substantially serviceable While the attention of lawgivers is unceasingly
to the interests of human nature; or, at any directed to a variety of less important objects,
rate, useful to those who may apply their tathose regulations on which the safety of the
lents and industry to render the investigation people at large depend are unfortunately ney
therein carried on still more complete." lected: yet what can be more peinicious, than |
It would be difficult to determine, in this to suffer the cliniate of a country, for instance, most valuable and entertaining volume, from to con' inne noxious to the health of its inha what part to make our extract, The first bitants, merely for want of drainage, cultiva- ll chapter, in part the first, of vol. i. is pertion, and improvement, when thousands of in- | haps the most entertaining and the best exestances might be adduced of the advantages | cuted; we shall therefore give it entire, which have resulted from the adoption of an opposite system? What can be more impolitic
“ PART I. CHAP. I. than to perinit unwholesome provisions and “ Circumstances connected irith the Person of the other articles to lie sold, without punishing Inulividual, favourable or adverse to Health and those who thus attempt to injure the health, ll Longevity: perhaps to destroy the existence, of their fel l! “ The circumstances connected with the pere low-creatures! W5zt more dangerous than to l son of the individual, having a material tenpermit public a nusements of a pernicious na 1 dency to promote health and longevity, and ture; to authorise improper customs; to ner. | which, at the same time, are almost totally lect the education of youth, when the founda- independent of apy care or exertion on his part,
are, 1. Parentage.-2. Perfect Birth.-3. Gra- will produce a tret, or plant, of the same sort, dual Growth. - 4. Natural Constitution. - 5. || and possessed of equal beauty and duration), Form.-6. Sex; and, 7. The Efforts of Nature provided two points be attended to.--1. That to renew the Distinctions of Youth.
the seed be sound and wholesome.-And, 2. “ Each of these particulars it will be pro- That it be deposited in a proper soil. per separately to consider.
" 1. The seed must be sound and wholesome.
| Hence, in animal life, the advantage of being "1. PARENTAGE.
| descended from ancestors, who have no taint in “ There is no circumstance which seems
their constitution like y to affect the health of more to indicate nealth and probable longevity
I their progeny. By some authors, the existence to any individual, than his being descended ||
ll of heredišary discases is totally disbelieved ; from healthy and long-lived ancestors. It is
1 though they acknowledge, that there exists a well known, that children have a predisposition
1 predisposition to that effect : bu' daily expe. to suffer from the maladies of their parents;
frience must satisfy every man of common obe and, on the same principle, they are well en
servation, that there are many maladies, a distitled to enjoy the perfectious of those to whom
position to which children will inherit from they ove their birth. Indeed, in the course of
their parents, even where endeavours have not all the numerous inquiries which we have made
been wanting to check that tendency. There regarding this branch of the subject, it fre
are suine instances indeet, where, by great quently appears, though the rule is far from
Icare, the gout, to which the father has been a being universal, that wherever any individual
martyr, has not affected the son ; but unless was distinguished for longevity, his progenitors,
tors; tbe saine care has been continued, the grandson either on the paternal or maternal side, enjoyed
suffers froin the discase. a similar duration or length of life.
" It is also to be observed, that the parent “ Let it not be supposed, however, that
must be afilicted with the disease before the having aged parents is an infallible criterion of
child was born, or at least, that there must long life: we see every day how much, in this
have been a previous taint iu bis constitution; respect, persons even in the saine family differ
"otherwise, no predisposition, or hereditary tenfrom each other; and how often the brothers Idency, takes place, there being, in this case, and sisters of those, who have lived beyond a
no retrospect. For instance: if no gouty taint century, have died, some in infancy, some at
had existed in a family, and if the parent were manhood, and some at the other periods of
not affected by it, till he had reached forty years life.
of age, all his children born previous to that « Indeed, the result of the most extensive period would be exempted from it; whilst all and particular inquiry that has hitherto been
those born afterwards could hardly escape a. made regarding old people, nanely, the reports i disposition to that malady. transmitted to the author from Greenwich and
“ 2. The seed must not only be wholesome, Kilmainham hospitals, and from the workhouses but deposited in a good soil. And here it may in London and the neighbourhood, proves to live observed. how much in regard to animal what extent the rule may be justly carried.
life, depends upon the healthy state of the The number of individuals beyond 80, con
mother. Indeed, it is confirmed by experience, tained in these reports, amount to no less a that the state of the child's health, and the number than 598; of these, 303 affirmed that
greater or less strength of its constii ution, detbey were descended from long-lived ancestors ; || pends much more on the condition of the moLut the remaining 293 either could not give any ither than that of the father. By a weakly faaccount of that important circumstance at all, ther, a robust child may often be produced, or declared, that there was nothing remarkable provided the mother has a sound and vigorous in regard to the longevity of their ancestors. | body. On the other hand, the strongest man Though having aged parents, therefore, may I will rarely obtain a lively, healthy child, from give a predisposition to a lengthened duration | a mother who is weak and sickly. of life, yet a variety of other circumstances, " There is reason to believe that the outward more especially those which are afterwards shape, at least of the male, depends more upor enumerated, -as perfect birth, gradual growth, the father than the mother'; but that the ta&c. must contribute tbereto.
lents and the structure of the mind are de" That long-lived parents should, to a con- rived from the mother. The first point is assiderable extent, have children likely to live certained in this manner : If any person will long, is not to be wondered at; the same cir- | compare a father of 60 and a son of 50, he cumstance takes place in vegetable as well as in may possibly see very little resemblance; but suinal lite: the seed of every tree, or plant, if he will retain in his mind the image of the
father at 60, and compare it with the appear. || dern experience has proved that the idea is ill ance of the son when he approaches to that founded. It is now perfectly ascertained, that, age, the similarity will become most striking, with one exception, the longer the fætus te. in regard to looks, voice, habits, &c.; conse mains in utero after the seventh month, the quently the original frames must have been, stronger and healtbier it proves; so that a child from the beginning, extremely similar. As to born at the end of the eighth month, has a the second point, a clever woman has seldom better chance of living than one born before children remarkable for deficiency of parts; that time. It is incredible, at the same time, Day, the abilities of many families may be what variety, in degree of vitality, is observed traced to one distinguished female, who intro ll in the fætus. In some, the slightest circumduced talents into it, or, according to a com stance destroys life; whereas, in others, the mon expression, mother-wit, which have de vital principle is with the utmost difficulty ex. scended not only to her children, but have be tinguished. come hereditary in her posterity.
“ In regard to the question, whether a fætus “ In considering how much the healthiness of l of seven months old inay become a person disthe children depends upon the condition of the tinguished for health and longevity, there is a parents, it has been suggested, that diseased living witness that such a circum:tance may persons should be prohibited to marry, as likely take place; for James Donald, an old man reto produce nothing but disease, deformity, and siding near Dunbarton in Scotland, aged about political mischief. This, however, would be 100 years, was born, it is said, in the seventh going much too far: yet nothing surely can be
month. better founded, than strongly to recommend
“ As there ought properly to be but one to those, who are likely to inherit any family child at a birth in thc human rare, anong the disease, to be peculiarly circumspect in their cases of imperfect birth, ought to be enumemanner of living, and to guard against its at
rate those instances, where more infants than
one have at once been produced. For, as Ba. tacks, at least at an early period of their lives, by an attention to air, to exercise, and to diet.
con has well remarked, the first breeding of It is certain, that family diseases have often,
creatures is ever most material; consequently, by proper care, been kept off for one genera a lesser coinpression, and a more liberal nourish. tion; and there is some reason to believe, that,
ment of the young one in the womb, tends by persisting in the same course, and forming
much to long life. This happens, either when judicious connubial connexions, such discases
young ones are brought forth successively, as might at length be wholly eradicated; and that in birds, or when there are single births. In a family constitution may be found as capable
regard to the human race, when there are only of improvement as a family estate.
twins, it does not seem to make any material
difference; and an example has been trans“ 2. Perfect Birti.
mitted to the author, from Montrose in Scot« It is well known, that nine calendar months land, of twin brothers of the name of Watt, are the proper period, during which the fætus both still living, who have passed the 30th year ought to remain in the womb of the mother ; | of their age. This is, however, the only inand such is the beautiful arrangement which stance of such a circumstance that has reached Nature has made for its protection and nourish- our knowledge; and it is believed, that no exmeut, that should it be sooner expelled, in ample can be produced of any case, where a consequence of any accidental circumstance, greater number than twins have been distinno possible care or attention, after birth, can guished for long life. well compensate for the advantages of which it has thus been deprived; thougb great care,
“ 3. GRADUAL GROWTH. or the circumstance of having healthy parents, " Lord Bacon seems to have been the first, will go far in remedying even this heavy mis who, hy a careful and minute inquiry into the fortune.
duration of the lives, both of man and a num« There was formerly an idea, that children i ber of different animals, established this ime of eight months growth seldom, if ever, throve; portant principle, that creatures in general lived whilst those of seven months might.
in proportion to the slowness with which they “ It is certainly of importance to the health of reached maturity; and, indeed, this is the case the child, and the future strength of the indi- || in regard to the vegetable as well as the animal vidual, that the fetus should complete nine kingdom. It is a sign, he observes, that Namonths in the mother's womb. As to the alle- lure finishes her periods in larger circles. » gation, that children of eight months will not " It is owing to this circumstance, that people thrive. when those of seven months will, mo- | in cold countries, and whose growth is not ae
celerated by enriching food, or early de- || mals, in general, should live eight times the bauchery, live much longer than the natives of number of years which is requisite to the atwarm countries, who are reared in a manner in tainment of their perfect growth; and, on the 4 hot-bed, and who are full-grown men and idea that man attains to full maturity at 20° women at 12 years of age.
|| years, a strong presumption thence arises, that 6 Nay, the gradual expansion of the men- the age of man might be extended to 160 years. tal faculties is almost as important as the “ But Buffon justly remarks, that persons of growth of the person. It rarely happens that either sex, who are long before they arrive at premature genius lasts long. Such prodigies their full growth, should outlive those who adseldom survive the fiftieth year of their life, vance more rapidly to that point, because, in and in general they perish at a much earlier the latter case, the bones, cartilages, and fibres, period.
are later in arriving at that degree of rigidity “ Perhaps one principal cause why the du- \ which is necessary to their destruction. ration of human life is, on the whole, lessened
" 4. NATURAL CONSTITUTION. in periods of civilization and industry, is this, that all descriptions of men are brought for
Il « It is hardly to be credited, how much in. ward too rapidly. The children of the poor are
dividuals, even those who resemble each other compelled to work before their strength is at
in several respeeta, vary in constitution or temall matured, which injures their growth, and
perament; and still more, such as differ in lays the foundation of future discases. The
form, looks, size, complexions, 8cc. You will childern of the opulent, on the other hand,
see one affected by the least cold, and another have their education unnecessarily hastened,
that can brave all the elements. One bears and they enter into the world before they are
pain with ease and fortitude, whilst the least fit to guard against its snares. It is certainly
bodily trouble affects the other most severely. necessary that a foundation be laid, in early
With some constitutions all distempers are mild youth, for the most essential branches of edu
| and gentle, whilst with others they are violent, cation, as grammar, writing, and aritlimetic,
|| and cured with difficulty. One person, you and some knowledge acquired of the learned
will find, liable to catch any contagious dislanguages, and of the most important languages
order, whilst another may visit, without hazard, of modern times. If a good foundation, how- l houses the most infected with the plague, or ever, be laid, and if there be any tuin or dis- | other similar malady. One is inclined to get position for the acquisition of learning, it is | fat and unwieldy, even at an early age, whilst astonishing how soon a youth of genius will others remain light and active, even to the acquire all the knowledge essential for the close of life. In some there seems to be a generality of the situations of life, without certain bodily and mental disposition to lonbeing too much hurried on: but if he be gevity ; in consequence of which many indi. brought forward too early, he gets into com- || viduals, frequently under the most unfavourable pany beyond his years, he must, to a certain circumstances, and in the most unwholesome extent, follow their example; he gets habits of climates, have attained tú a great and happy dissipation, the growth both of his body and age; whilst in others, the most salubrious mind is unfortunately accelerated, and he lays a country air, a district abounding with aged infoundation either for a sickly and miserable old habitants, a strict adherence to the best rules age, or perlaps for a premature dissolution of diet, a regular course of recreation and exe
" Though it is generally acknowledged, thatlercise, and, when necessary, the aid of the the duration of lite may be reckoned from the most skilful physicians, even all these advan. period required in growing to maturity, yet tages combined, are not sufficient to insure a authors differ regarding the manner in which long and healthy life. the result ought to be calculated. Buston “ It would certainly be desirable to knoiv, contends, that though man finishes his longi- why the buman body, being equally organized, tudinal growth, or arrives at his highest sta- | as far as anatomical observations shew, do not ture, when he reaches the 16th or 18th year of the same general causes produce the same efhis age, yet that his body is not completely fects upon all? What is the real difference beunfolded, in regard to thickness, before he has stween one constitution, or temperament, and attained 30. A man, therefore, who grows till another? Is it founded upon any difference in 30, ought to live till 90 or 100, or three times organization, hereditary or otherwise? Or is it the period of his growth.
only the consequence of a certain continued “ Lord Bacon, on the other hand, con- manner of life and habit? It is said, that such siders it to be a rule of nature, that ani- questions are inexplicable by the laws of animal