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them, “ for we shall not make much ceremony were you ten times as bandsome, this weapon with you neither."

shall cleave your skull, the inoitunt we observe “ Nevertheless I hope you may, if you but the least disposition to escape or lo betray us." grant me a hearing. Know then, that I am, to “ Then ii will be safe enough; and were this vre sure, the wife of the richest gentleman in this the only condition of my death, I should ontcountry; but the wife of the meanest beggar live you all, and even the wandering Jew himcannot be more unhapøy than I am. My husband self.” The Baroness smiled as she pronounced is one of the most jealous and niggardly wretches these words, hastily snatched up the nearest on the face of the earth. I hate him as I hate | light, as though she had been as anxious as any the devil, and it has long been the most fervent of them to collect the plunder and be gone; wish of my heart to get out of his clutches and conducted the whole company through every at the same time to pay him off all old scores. Il apartment; opened unasked, every door, every should have left him many a time, had I been || drawer and every chest; assisted emptying them able to contrive how to escape. All my servants and packing up the valuables; joked with the were his spies; that flow, whose business you utnost vivacity; jumped with indifference over have done so completely, was the worst of them the mangled bodies; spoke with the familiarity all. I ain scarcely twenty-two, and as I flatter of an old acquaintance to each of the horrid myself at least not ugly, if any of you chose to troop, and willingly aided with her delicate hands, take me along with him, I should have no ob- || in the most laborious occupations. jection; I would accompany him, no matter Plate, money, jewels, cio:hes and other valu. whether to the woods or to the village alehouse. ables were now coilected together, and the capNor shall any of you b've reason to repent sparing!tain of the banditti was already g'ving the order my life. You are in a well-stored mansion, but for their marchi, when bis destined bride suddenly it is impossible you should be acqiiainted wiili caught himn by the arin.

“ Did I not tell you," all its secret corners.

These I will shew you, said she, “that you should not repent making a and if I do not make you richer by six thousand friend of me and sparing my life.

You may in. dollars, then serve me as you have done my deed have your fling in places that you find open ; chamber-maid,”

but ’is a pity that you cannot so easily come at Robbers of this kind are certainly villains, but

treasures that are somewhat more concealed." nevertheless they are still men. The wholly un

“ Concealed! - What?-Where is something expecte:l tendency of the Baroness's address, the more concealed ?" unaffected tone with which she spoke, the more What, do you suppose, that among coffers than ordinary. beauty of a young half-naked so full of the most valuable effects, there are no feinale, altogether produced a powerful effect on secret places? Look here, and then you will be men wliose hands were yet reeking with the blood convinced of the contrary." they had sherl. They all stepped aside and con She pointed to a secret spring in the Baron's sulted together in a low tone for some minutes. ) writing desk. They pressed upon it, and out The Baroness was left quite alone, but she be fell six rouleaus, each containing two hundred trayed not the least wish lo escape. She lieard dollars. two or three thus express themselves: “Let's " Zounds!" cried the leader of the robbers, dispatch her, and the game will be up." She, “Now indeed I see that you are an incomparable however, scarcely changed colour, for the opposi

I will keep you for this like a little tion of the others did not cscape her acute ear. Duchess." One, who was probably the captain of these “And perhaps better still,” rejoined she, laugh. bun litri, now advanced towards her.

ing, “ when I tell you one thing more. Tam He asked twice or thrice whether they might | well aware that you must have had spies who in. absolutely rely on the truth of what she had said ; formed you of the absence of my tyrant: but whether she actually wished to be released from did they not tell you of the four thousand guilders the tyranny of her husband and go with them; which he received the day before yesterday ?” and whether she was ready to resign her person “ Not a syllable; where are they?" to one of them, tu bimself for instance, during (, safe enough! under a half a dozen of the few peaceful nighıs they could enjoy? Having locks and bolis. You would certainly not have replied in the affirmative to all these questions, found them and the iron ches!, in which they are having not only suffered the warm embrace of the deposited, had it not been for me.-Come along, robber, but even returned it-for, what will not comrades; we have finished above ground, and necessity excuse? He at length said: “ Come now we'll see what is to be done under it. Come along then and lead us round. The devil trust along with me, I say, into the cellar !" you ladies of rank, but we'll however venture The robbers followed, but not without prefor once. But let me tell you beforehand, that, caution. At the entrance of the cellar, pro.

woman.

vided with a strong irou trap-door, a man was she at a distance. She was now within about posted as a centinel. The Baroness did not take three steps of the centinel placed at the entrance the least notice of this. She conducted the of the cellar; when she made a spring at the whole troop to a vault at the very farthest extre- wretch, who as little expected the dissolution of mity of the cellar. She unlocked it, and in all the world as such an attack. A single push with corner of this recess stood the chest she had all her strength tumbled him down the stairs described. “Here,” said she, giving the captain from top to bottom. In a twinkling she closed the bunch of keys, “ here, unlock it, and take the trap dour, bolted it, and thus had the whole what you find, as a wedding gift, if you can ob- || company secure in the cellar. tain the consent of your companions as readily All this was the work of a single moment. In as you have gained mine."

the next she flew across the cour-yard, and with The robber tried one key after another, but the candle, set fire to a detached pig stye. It none would fit. He grew impatient, and the || blazed like a heap of straw. The watchman in Baroness appeared still more so.

the neighbouring village perceiving the Mame, « Lend me then,” said she, “ I hope I shall || instantly gave the alarm. In a few minutes all find the way sooner. Indend, if we do’nt make the inhabitants were out of their beds, and a haste, morning might overtake.—Ha! only think, | crowd of farmers and their servants hastened to the reason neither of us could unlock it is clear the mansion. The Baroness waited for them at enough. As welcome as your visit is to me, yet the gate of the court-yard. “A few of you," I have no scruple to confess that the unexpected said she, “ will be sufficient to put out this fire, arrival of so great a pleasure has flurried me a | or to prevent it from spreading. But now pro. little. I have brought the wrong bunch of keys. I vide yourselves with arms, which you will find in A moment's patience, and I'll soon set that to abundance in my husband's armoury; post your rights."

selves at all the avenues of the cellar, and suffer She ran up stairs, and presently they heard her not one of the murderers and robbers shut up in coming down again ; but she went more slowly, | it to escape.” as if out of breath with the haste she had marle. Her directions were obeyed, and not one of " I've found them! I've found them!' cried | them escaped the punishment due to their erinies,

FAMILIAR LECTURES ON USEFUL SCIENCES.

HYDROSTATICS.
[Continued from Page 265.]

OF THE WEIGHT AND PRESSURE OF FLUIDS. The annexed figure is
The tendency of fluids to exert a pressure

a representation of what equal to their perpendicular height, gives rise to

is called the Hydrostatic what is called the hydrostatical paradox, namely, || Bellows; it resembles a that any quantity, however small, of the same pair of common bellows, fluid may be made to balance any quantity how

with this difference, that ever great. Thus, if a tube of very

it has no valves. The small bore be inserted into the side of

brass pipe, A B, com. another tube which is a foot, a yard,

in unicates with the inside or twenty yards in diameter, water,

of the bellows, the boards when poured into the larger tube, will

of which are not very rise in the smaller one vill it is level in

smooth, su that water can both. It is therefore apparent, that readily insinuate itself the small quantity of water in the

between them. Before lesser tube balances the superior quantity con-making the experiment, tained in the larger one; were ít otherwise the a large weight is placed inferior quantity of Auid would be forced up on the bellows, by which its interior sides are wards out of the unouth of the tube that contains brought nearly in contact. Now if water bę it.

poured into the tube it will gradually raise the

weight to the extent of the leather that connects vessel was filled with water up to the top, there the two surfaces of the bellows; for the column of would be a pressure ag inst the whole side equal water in the tube would press as much against to 144 pounds, 144 being the square of 12. the inner surface of the bellows as if it were a The knowledge of this principle is of the ntcylinder of water of the same height as the column most importance in the construction of canals, of water in the tube, and of equal circumference since, if the sides were not made to increase in with the bellows.

strength and solidity in proportion to the increase Thus it is evident, that the pressure of fluids of pressure, they would be borne down by it. encreases as does this perpendicular height, and The pressure of any fluid upon the bottom of that by diminishing the bore of a pipe, and en a vessel, is always proportional to the area of the creasing its length, a very small quantity of any base multiplied into the perpendicular height at Auid may be made to raise the largest weights. | which the fluid stands, without any regard to the The knowledge of this principle has been ap. | form of the vessel,or the quantity of Auid it con. plied by a very ingenious mechanic to the con tains. In a vessel of which the sides are perpenstruction of a powerful machine for the compres dicular to the bottom, and the bottom parallel to sion of hay, clothes, &c. Those persons who the horizon, as in the last figure, the pressure and cannot procure an hydrostatic bellows, may make the weigho will be equid; and the pressure upon the preceding experiinent by inserting a tin pipe any one side of such vessel will be equal to half irìto the mouth of a bladder, and then putting the pressure upon the bottom. Therefore the the bladder into a box with a moveable lid, and pressure upon the four sides and the bottom will laying weights, upon this last.

be equal to three times the weight of the fluid. The pressure of Auids against the side of any The weight of a cylindrical vessel of any fluid, vessel, encreases as the square of the depth en may be found, by multiplying the area of the creases : that is, if the pressure at the depth of base by the perpendicular height of the cylinder, one inch or foot, be equal to an ounce or a and dividing the produce by 1728. The quopound, at the depth of two inches or feet, it will tient will be the contents of the cylinder, in be equal to four ounces or pounds, at the depth cubic feet and inches, and each foot will be of three inches or feet, to nine ounces or pounds, equivalent to a 1000 ounces of water. and so on, according to the laws by which falling The weight of a conical vessel of any fluid, is bodies are governed.

A

found by multiplying the area of the base by Suppose A D to be

one third of the perpendicular, and thus pursuing a cubical vessel, of

the same process to bring it into ounces. which the front and side A are of glass,

HYDRAULICS. made water tight, a

ІВ The velocity with which water spouts out at thin board B hangs P

an orifice in the side or bottom of a vessel, is as by two hinges c d,

the square root of the depth of the fluid at the and is held close to

orifice. Thus, if through ay orifice at the depth of the glass sides by

one inch, water flows with one degree of velocity means of the pully

in a second of time, at the depth of four inches it P, and a weight,

D

will How with two degrees of velocity in a second, which, if water be

and at the depth of nine inches with three degrees poured into the ves

of velocity, in the same time; that is, provided sel, will balance its pressure against the board B | the vessel is kept constantly full of water, and till the fluid rises to the line 1. We will suppose that the bore of each orifice be the same. this weight to be a pound, and that the remain The depth of the orifices being the same, and ing lines divide the vessel into so many parts, ex- their bore equal, tlie velocity of the fluid flowing actly equal to the part 1 a 2; now if the pound through them will be the same, whatever the weight be exchanged for one of four pounds, species of Auid may be, or whatever its density'. then water may be poured into the vessel till it For though the pressure of the denser Quid is rise to 2 x c, when the moveable side B will give greatest, yet the mass it had to move is more way, and let such a portion of the water out as .considerable, and when the powers are propormakes the difference between the pressure and tioned to the masses which they put in motion, the weight, when the latter will'again draw the side the velocities are always equal. close to the glass panes; when the water has risen The velocity with which water flows through to the line 3, a weight of nine pounds, suspended orifices of equal bore, in a vessel allowed to empty from the pully, will be required to keep the side itself, is continually decreasing according to the

B close to the glass' sides. Hence it is apparent odd numbers, 1, 3, 5, 7, &c. taken backwards; that the increase of pressure is as the increase of that is, is through a hole at the bottom of a the square of the depth, and therefore if the il vessel, water flows with such velocity that its

surface descends seven inches in the first ininute, the purpose of raising liquors from the cellar to it will but descend through five inches the second the bar. minute, through three the third minute, and

IB through one the next.

The greatest distance to which water spouts from different holes in a vessel kept constantly full, is from that pipe which is exactly in the centre of the top and bottom of the fluid.

When the velocities of spouting Auids are the same, the elevation of that which ascends the whole way through a pipe, will be greater than the elevation of that which ascends through the air; С because the latter meets with a degree of resistance from the atmosphere, which checks its ascent.

A The different play of fountains, or jets d'eau, is The vessel A, after being made air tight, is occasioned by the different heights of their re- sunk about half its depth into the floor of the servoirs. The velocity of a spouting fluid being cellar. This vessel, which is called the receiver, as the square root of the fluid's depth, the water is then filled to a certain height from the butt D, of that fountain will necessarily rise the highest, when all communication between the vessels is whose reservoirs is the fullest and the highest. It stopped. B represents a forcing piston and pipe, is on this principle that houses are supplied with which extends to or near the bar, and by means water ; but as friction opposes the rise of fluids of which a quantity of air is condensed in the upthrough pipes, as well as through air, the surface per part of the receiver. This air, by its compresof the reservoir is always considerably more ele- sion on the surface of the liquor, constrains it to

vated than the point to which the fluid is intend- | ascend through the pipe PC, to the extremity of .ed to rise.

which a cock is attached, by which the liquor in The subjoined inachine, which has now found the receiver is drawn off. When the Auid ceases its way into every tavern, will illustrate how fluids | to run or runs slowly, a few strokes of the piston are made to rise above their level. It is used for I will restore its velocity.

THE HUMMING-BIRD SPHINX, OR HAWK-MOTH.

[graphic][graphic]

During the summer months, especially It is the moth called by Linnæus sphin.r stelin July and August, may be seen flying with latarum, from the plant on which it feeds whilst the utmost velocity in fair days, from morning in the caterpillar state, aparine lævis stellata, till dusk, among flowers, particularly geraniums, goose-grass, or clivers; it also lives on gallium, an insect which is the most singular and elegant bedstraw ; but in those countries which produce of all those which are bred in England.

the rubia tinctorum, madder, the caterpillar in

habits and feeds on that plant in preference to forcep gauze net, and can be preserved alive some any other.

hours in a large glass vessel such as gold-fish are Ray styles this insect papilio velocissima; Harris kept in, where their flight may be inspected. the colibri, or humming-bird moth, by which The caterpillar is without hair, shagreened, name it is described likewise in Donovan's British sixteen legged, and carries on its tail a blue horn, Insects.

tipt with red. This slight account is only intended to inform The body of the moth is thick, brown, and the curious what insect it is that they may see hairy like a bee, the first wings dark brown, the Aying in the gardens a few miles round London, second orange-brown, with black streaks; the with a swiftness equal to that of humming birds, breast white; and large shining eyes. which they likewise resemble in hovering over Their description and history may be found at a flower and thrusting their long double trunk, large in the Dutch work of Sepp, which contains or sucker (which they usually keep rolled up a coloured print, with the egg, the same maga spirally), into its nectarium without settling, nified, six of the caterpillars of different ages and whilst the motion of their wings is so rapid that sizes, the chrysalis, and two of the moths, or their shape cannot be distinguished.

sphinxes. In the hottest weather great numbers are seen, These insects abound in all the southern parts and may easily be caught whilst they remain for of Europe. a few seconds stationary in the air, with a small

ON MUSIC.

An Essay on Earl Stanhope's Principles of the Science of Tuning Instruments with fired Tones." By A. F. C. Kollmann, Organist of his Mujesty's German Chapel at St. James's.

THOUGH persons of rank and fashion contain that complete diatonic scale, according (amongst whom La Belle Assemblee is parti. to which all modern compositions are written cularly circulated), cannot be expected to apply and explained, the proper tuning of their notes themselves to the tuning of their piano-fortes i produces what may be called a standard scale of and organs, they may be desirous to know modern music. whether their instruments are in tune, and ac But that mode of tuning cannot be perfectly cording 10 what principles they can be tuned; explained or understood, before a standard idea is and in this they are encouraged by the publica- fixed concerning the nature and requisites of our tion of Earl Stanhope, on which I presume to modern scale; and this I Hatter niyself to have write the present Essay.

done in my New Theory, chap. ii. where I shew But before I proceed, I think it proper to ob- || that the twelve notes of our chromatic octave, serve, that the reason why I take up this subject || with their octaves, are to be considered as a comis my having, prior to Lord Stanhope, treatert of pound of twelve modern diatonic and chromatic musical temperament in two of my theoretical scales, each of which must be calculated for the works, viz. in my Essay on Musical Harmony, same use in harmony and melody as all the p. 2, and in my New Theory of Musical Har- others. mony, p. 8, on account of which several dis Our modern scale therefore cannot contain tinguished possessors of those works have re that strict perfection of every interval which it quested of me an explanation concerning the might have as a simple scale of one key note ; difference between his Lordship's system and the and its compound state requires that some of its doctrines advanced by myself; and that as my

inter vals lose a little of their individual perfectime would not permit me to answer each of tion, for the purpose of producing a greater perthem as fully as they could wish, I have endea fection and agreement in the whole. This disvoured to satisfy them, and the public in general, tribution, by which some intervals are rendered by the following remarks, which I hope will be a little sharper, and others a litile flatter, tian intelligible to musical amateurs, as well as to strictly perfect, is called the temperament of our professional musicians,

scale; and its different sorts can be brought By instruments with fixed tones, Lord Stan under the iwo general heads of an equal, or some hope seems to understand keyed instruments unequal temperament. alone, being those which contain fixed notes, or By an equal tenperament, is understood that noles that can be rendered sharper or Aarter i distribution which renders the distances between by the performer. And as keyed instruments the twelve notes of our scale so much alike that No. XVIII, Vol. II.

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